For this study, the Ocean Studies Board (OSB) sent questionnaires to 52 oceanographic institutions, research laboratories, and academic members of the Council on Ocean Affairs, and to 8 federal agencies to assess the supply and demand within the academic and federal sectors. Responses were received from 40 academic institutions, including all the large academic programs and research institutions, and from 7 federal agencies (Appendixes VI and VII). Of the 40 institutions employing oceanographers in 1990, only 29 had employed oceanographers in 1970.

Replies to the OSB questionnaire indicated that the number of academic oceanographers increased from 540 in 1970 to 1,674 in 1990 (Figure 4-7). These include both teaching faculty and research faculty. It should be noted that some of the growth in the 1980–1990 period for academic oceanographers was due to the inclusion of 378 faculty members from two newly created units, at the University of Hawaii (UH) and the University of Washington (UW), that had not been included in the totals before 1990. At the same time, the number of Ph.D. oceanographers in federal agencies rose from 148 to 516. The annual rates of increase (percent) were






2.6 (without UW and UH)



5.2 (with UW and UH)




FIGURE 4-7 Ph.D.-level federal and academic oceanographers (OSB survey).

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