shelf, the cycling and transport of organic carbon and nutrients across the shelf, the influence of western boundary currents (e.g., the Gulf Stream) on shelf physics and biological productivity, particle transport processes, and particle burial in basins along the continental margin.
DOE is one of the few agencies to support long-term research in coastal oceanography. Long time series are useful to determine whether the coastal ocean is changing because of anthropogenic influences and to separate directional changes from natural variations. Earlier programs supported the development of in situ instruments to measure optical properties, particle concentration and flux, chlorophyll, and nutrients, allowing important scientific advances. DOE's support of the successful Food Chain Research Group at Scripps Institution of Oceanography is an example of the value of its early academic partnerships.
Somewhat more than a decade ago, Congress assigned DOE the responsibility to collect information and maintain a major data base on carbon dioxide. Interest in carbon dioxide was growing because of the increasing body of theory suggesting a relationship between the greenhouse effect and energy production and supply. As part of the interagency focus on global change research, several programs initiated within DOE in the past few years capitalize on its experience and interests. Two major programs have emerged: the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program and the Computer Hardware, Advanced Modeling and Model Physics (CHAMMP) program. The ARM program is designed to make complete and detailed measurements at strategically chosen sites to enhance our understanding of clouds and solar radiation. The primary focus of CHAMMP is climate modeling. One of its major goals is to advance the speed of climate models by using highly parallel new computer hardware systems, other software techniques, and new algorithms. Many of the major ocean-atmosphere models from around the world are now being compared. In addition, DOE is requesting an increase in the fiscal year 1993 budget for its open ocean research thrust to fulfill its mission to understand the carbon dioxide balance and the ocean's role in this balance.
DOE funds both extramural research and research carried out at its national laboratories. DOE's national laboratory system employs approximately 50,000 people and has a budget of $6 billion to $8 billion. Marine research is a small part of the overall DOE research effort; Brookhaven National Laboratory is the primary site for marine research. As the oceanographic community