Nutrient Requirements of Poultry

Ninth Revised Edition, 1994

Subcommittee on Poultry Nutrition

Committee on Animal Nutrition

Board on Agriculture

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington , D.C.
1994



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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Nutrient Requirements of Poultry Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Subcommittee on Poultry Nutrition Committee on Animal Nutrition Board on Agriculture National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington , D.C. 1994

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, D.C. 20418NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This study was supported by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, under Agreement No. 59-32U4-5-6, and by the Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, under Cooperative Agreement No. FD-U-000006-10. Additional support was provided by the American Feed Industry Association. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Poultry Nutrition. Nutrient requirements of poultry / Subcommittee on Poultry Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture, National Research Council. — 9th rev. ed. p. cm. — (Nutrient requirements of domestic animals) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-04892-3 1. Poultry—Feeding and feeds. I. Title. II. Series: Nutrient requirements of domestic animals (Unnumbered) SF494.N37 1994 636.5' 0852—dc20 94-3084 CIP Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Printed in the United States of America First Printing, March 1994 Second Printing, April 1996

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 SUBCOMMITTEE ON POULTRY NUTRITION JERRY L. SELL, Chair, Iowa State University F. HOWARD KRATZER, University of California, Davis J. DAVID LATSHAW, The Ohio State University STEVEN L. LEESON, University of Guelph EDWIN T. MORAN, Auburn University CARL M. PARSONS, University of Illinois PARK W. WALDROUP, University of Arkansas COMMITTEE ON ANIMAL NUTRITION HAROLD F. HINTZ, Chair, Cornell University DONALD C. BEITZ, Iowa State University GARY L. CROMWELL, University of Kentucky DANNY G. FOX, Cornell University ROGER W. HEMKEN, University of Kentucky LAURIE M. LAWRENCE, University of Kentucky LARRY P. MILLIGAN, University of Guelph, Canada OLAV T. OFTEDAL, National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C. JERRY L. SELL, Iowa State University ROBERT P. WILSON, Mississippi State University Staff MARY I. POOS, Project Director DENNIS BLACKWELL, Senior Project Assistant

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 BOARD ON AGRICULTURE THEODORE L. HULLAR, Chair, University of California, Davis PHILIP H. ABELSON, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C. JOHN M. ANTLE, Montana State University DALE E. BAUMAN, Cornell University WILLIAM B. DELAUDER, Delaware State University SUSAN K. HARLANDER, Land O'Lakes, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota PAUL W. JOHNSON, Natural Resources Consultant, Decorah, Iowa T. KENT KIRK, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Madison, Wisconsin JAMES R. MOSELEY, Jim Moseley Farms, Inc., Clark Hills, Indiana, and Purdue University DONALD R. NIELSEN, University of California, Davis NORMAN R. SCOTT, Cornell University GEORGE E. SEIDEL, JR., Colorado State University PATRICIA B. SWAN, Iowa State University JOHN R. WELSER, The Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan FREDERIC WINTHROP, JR., The Trustees of Reservations, Beverly, Massachusetts Staff SUSAN OFFUTT, Executive Director JAMES E. TAVARES, Associate Executive Director CARLA CARLSON, Director of Communications

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Preface Formulation of balanced diets is fundamental to economical poultry production, and this process depends on a knowledge of nutrient requirements of poultry and the nutritional attributes of nutrient sources. Thus, a compilation of information on nutrient requirements and sources that can be used by feed formulators as a guideline is an important resource. This ninth revised edition of the Nutrient Requirements of Poultry contains a reassessment of data used in the previous edition and incorporates new information. The committee conducted an extensive review of the literature, and documentation of most of this literature is included in this ninth edition. Note, however, that the review of literature was completed and the nutrient requirements data compiled by the committee in September 1991. The committee found that scientifically based knowledge about many nutrient requirements was incomplete. Consequently, calculations and interpolations were necessary to derive estimated requirements for some nutrients. These estimated requirements are identified in the requirements tables. In some instances, the committee decided that estimation of the requirements was inappropriate and a question mark was used in the tables to indicate the absence of data. Nutrient requirements given herein were derived, in most instances, from empirical observations of responses of poultry to changes in dietary concentrations or intakes of specific nutrients. In some instances, nutritional models were used to estimate amino acid requirements. Criteria used in establishing nutrient requirements included growth, reproduction, and feed efficiency and, where possible, poultry health and quality of poultry products. This report, as compared with previous editions, contains additional information on feedstuffs, including a description of procedures used to determine metabolizable energy values and methods to estimate amino acid contents of feed ingredients. A detailed discussion of dietary fat sources has been added, and the data presented on the nutrient composition of feedstuffs have been expanded to include true metabolizable energy values and coefficients of true amino acid digestibility. This ninth edition was prepared by the Subcommittee on Poultry Nutrition, which was appointed in 1989 under the guidance of the Board on Agriculture's Committee on Animal Nutrition. The Committee on Animal Nutrition, the Board on Agriculture, and several other experts reviewed the report. The subcommittee is grateful to these individuals for their efforts. The subcommittee also thanks Roseanne Price for her editorial assistance and Mary Cochran and Ann Shuey of Iowa State University for their secretarial assistance in preparing many drafts of the report. JERRY L. SELL, Chair Subcommittee on Poultry Nutrition

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Contents     OVERVIEW   1 1.   COMPONENTS OF POULTRY DIETS   3     Energy   3     Carbohydrates   8     Protein and Amino Acids   9     Fats   11     Minerals   13     Vitamins   15     Water   15     Xanthophylls   17     Unidentified Growth Factors   18     Antimicrobials   18 2.   NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF CHICKENS   19     Leghorn-Type Chickens   19     Meat-Type Chickens   26 3.   NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF TURKEYS   35     Starting and Growing Turkeys   35     Turkey Breeders   39 4.   NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF GEESE   40 5.   NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF DUCKS   42 6.   NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF RING-NECKED PHEASANTS, JAPANESE QUAIL, AND BOBWHITE QUAIL   44     Ring-Necked Pheasants   44     Japanese Quail   44     Bobwhite Quail   45

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 7.   SIGNS OF NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES IN CHICKENS AND TURKEYS   46     Protein and Amino Acid Deficiencies   46     Vitamin Deficiencies   50     Mineral Deficiencies   56 8.   TOXICITY OF CERTAIN INORGANIC ELEMENTS   58 9.   COMPOSITION OF FEEDSTUFFS USED IN POULTRY DIETS   61     Cereal Grains   61     Protein Supplements   69     Estimating the Amino Acid Composition of Feedstuffs   71     Characteristics of Dietary Fats   75     Macromineral Supplements   75     Mycotoxins   78 10.   STANDARD REFERENCE DIETS FOR CHICKS   80     APPENDIXES   83     A Documentation of Nutrient Requirements   85     B Estimating the Energy Value of Feed Ingredients   113     C Conversion Factors   114     REFERENCES   115     AUTHORS   143     INDEX   145

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Tables and Figure   TABLES 1-1   Water Consumption by Chickens and Turkeys of Different Ages   16 1-2   Guidelines for Poultry for the Suitability of Water with Different Concentrations of Total Dissolved Solids   17 1-3   Xanthophyll and Lutein Content of Selected Ingredients   17 2-1   Nutrient Requirements of Immature Leghorn-Type Chickens as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet   20 2-2   Body Weight and Feed and Water Consumption of Immature Leghorn-Type Chickens   21 2-3   Nutrient Requirements of Leghorn-Type Laying Hens as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet   23 2-4   Estimates of Metabolizable Energy Required per Hen per Day by Chickens in Relation to Body Weight and Egg Production   24 2-5   Typical Body Weights, Feed Requirements, and Energy Consumption of Broilers   26 2-6   Nutrient Requirements of Broilers as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet   27 2-7   Nutrient Requirements of Meat-Type Hens for Breeding Purposes as Units per Hen per Day   32 2-8   Nutrient Requirements of Meat-Type Males for Breeding Purposes as Percentages or Units per Rooster per Day   34 3-1   Nutrient Requirements of Turkeys as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet   36 3-2   Growth Rate and Feed and Energy Consumption of Large-Type Turkeys   37 3-3   Body Weights and Feed Consumption of Large-Type Turkeys during the Holding and Breeding Periods   39 4-1   Nutrient Requirements of Geese as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet   40 4-2   Approximate Body Weights and Feed Consumption of Commercially Reared Male and Female Geese to 10 Weeks of Age   41

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 5-1   Nutrient Requirements of White Pekin Ducks as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet   42 5-2   Approximate Body Weights and Feed Consumption of White Pekin Ducks to 8 Weeks of Age   43 6-1   Nutrient Requirements of Ring-Necked Pheasants as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet   44 6-2   Nutrient Requirements of Japanese Quail (Coturnix) as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet   45 6-3   Nutrient Requirements of Bobwhite Quail as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet   45 7-1   Biochemical and Physiological Measurements for Diagnosis of Nutrient Deficiencies in Chickens and Turkeys   47 7-2   Signs of Deficiency in the Embryo   48 7-3   Nutrients Associated with Various Signs of Deficiency in Growing Birds   49 8-1   Toxic Dietary Concentrations of Inorganic Elements and Compounds for Poultry   59 9-1   Composition (Excluding Amino Acids) of Some Feeds Commonly Used for Poultry (data on as-fed basis)   62 9-2   Amino Acid Composition of Some Feeds Commonly Used for Poultry (data on as-fed basis)   66 9-3   Ranges in Weights per Unit of Volume for Selected Feedstuffs at Standard Moisture   68 9-4   Estimation of Amino Acids from Protein Content of Feed Ingredients   71 9-5   Estimation of Amino Acid Composition of Feed Ingredients from Proximate Components   72 9-6   True Digestibility Coefficients (percent) for Selected Amino Acids in Poultry Feedstuffs   74 9-7   Nitrogen Concentration, Crude Protein Equivalents, and Nitrogen-Corrected Metabolizable Energy Values for Amino Acids   75 9-8   Average Fatty Acid Composition of Some Feeds Commonly Used for Poultry (data on as-fed basis)   75 9-9   Characteristics and Metabolizable Energy of Various Sources of Fats and Selected Carbohydrates Occurring in Feed   76 9-10   Element Concentrations in Common Mineral Sources (data on as-fed basis)   78 10-1   Formulas for Reference Diets for Chicks   81

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 FIGURE 1-1 Disposition of dietary energy ingested by a laying hen, 4 APPENDIX TABLES A-1  Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Starting and Growing Leghorn-Type Chickens,  85 A-2  Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Leghorn-Type Chickens in Egg Production,  88 A-3  Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Starting and Growing Market Broilers,  90 A-4  Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Broiler Breeder Pullets and Hens,  97 A-5  Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Broiler Breeder Males,  98 A-6  Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Turkeys,  99 A-7  Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Turkey Breeders,  105 A-8  Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Geese,  106 A-9  Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Ducks,  107 A-10  Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Pheasants,  109 A-11  Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Japanese Quail,  110 A-12  Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Bobwhite Quail,  112 B-1  Estimating the Energy Value of Feed Ingredients from Proximate Composition,  113 C-1  Conversion Factors—Weights and Measures,  114

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Nutrient Requirements of Poultry Ninth Revised Edition, 1994

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