8
Toxicity of Certain Inorganic Elements

Current information on toxic dietary levels of inorganic elements for poultry is summarized in Table 8-1. A similar summary that describes the mineral tolerances of animals has been provided by the National Research Council (1980b). Toxicity, as defined here, is any adverse effect on performance. Reduced growth rate is the most common criterion used to indicate the specific level at which a particular mineral is toxic. Although most of the information in the table was obtained from experiments in which the mineral was added in the form of an inorganic compound, organic compounds served as the source of minerals in some reports. For instance, some of the information on the toxicity of selenium was obtained by feeding seleniferous wheat.

The toxicity of a mineral is influenced by the nature of the compound in which it is present (for example, methyl mercury is much more toxic than mercuric chloride). Toxicity may also be influenced markedly by the composition of the diet, particularly with respect to other minerals and chelating agents. Selenium included in the diet at 10 ppm reduces the growth rate, but when it is fed in combination with 1,000 ppm of silver, a level as high as 40 ppm does not reduce growth (Jensen, 1975a). Copper at a level of 800 ppm in a practical turkey diet is not toxic, but 50 ppm of copper in a purified diet reduces growth. The toxicity of copper is modified by the sulfur amino acid content of the diet. Vanadium is much more toxic in a purified diet than in a practical diet, and the toxicity is increased by adding lactose to the practical diet (Hafez and Kratzer, 1976). Conversely, vanadium toxicity is reduced by including cottonseed meal in the diet (Berg, 1965; Berg and Lawrence, 1971; Sell et al., 1986a). In many instances, a high dietary level of one mineral antagonizes another element, resulting in a physiological deficiency of minerals essential for the animal. Because many different factors affect the quantity of a mineral needed to produce toxicity, diverse observations have been reported on the toxic effects of any given mineral.



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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 8 Toxicity of Certain Inorganic Elements Current information on toxic dietary levels of inorganic elements for poultry is summarized in Table 8-1. A similar summary that describes the mineral tolerances of animals has been provided by the National Research Council (1980b). Toxicity, as defined here, is any adverse effect on performance. Reduced growth rate is the most common criterion used to indicate the specific level at which a particular mineral is toxic. Although most of the information in the table was obtained from experiments in which the mineral was added in the form of an inorganic compound, organic compounds served as the source of minerals in some reports. For instance, some of the information on the toxicity of selenium was obtained by feeding seleniferous wheat. The toxicity of a mineral is influenced by the nature of the compound in which it is present (for example, methyl mercury is much more toxic than mercuric chloride). Toxicity may also be influenced markedly by the composition of the diet, particularly with respect to other minerals and chelating agents. Selenium included in the diet at 10 ppm reduces the growth rate, but when it is fed in combination with 1,000 ppm of silver, a level as high as 40 ppm does not reduce growth (Jensen, 1975a). Copper at a level of 800 ppm in a practical turkey diet is not toxic, but 50 ppm of copper in a purified diet reduces growth. The toxicity of copper is modified by the sulfur amino acid content of the diet. Vanadium is much more toxic in a purified diet than in a practical diet, and the toxicity is increased by adding lactose to the practical diet (Hafez and Kratzer, 1976). Conversely, vanadium toxicity is reduced by including cottonseed meal in the diet (Berg, 1965; Berg and Lawrence, 1971; Sell et al., 1986a). In many instances, a high dietary level of one mineral antagonizes another element, resulting in a physiological deficiency of minerals essential for the animal. Because many different factors affect the quantity of a mineral needed to produce toxicity, diverse observations have been reported on the toxic effects of any given mineral.

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE 8-1 Toxic Dietary Concentrations of Inorganic Elements and Compounds for Poultry Element or Compound Species Age Chemical Form Toxic Concentration (ppm)a Toxic Effects References Aluminum Chicken Immature AlCl2 500 Reduced growth Storer and Nelson, 1968 Aluminum Chicken Immature Al2(SO4)3 1,000 Reduced growth Storer and Nelson, 1968 Aluminum Chicken Immature Al2(SO4)3 2,200 Rickets Deobold and Elvehjem, 1935 Aluminum Chicken Mature Al2(SO4)3 3,000 Reduced egg production Hussein et al., 1989 Arsenic Chicken Laying hen As2O5 100 Reduced body weight; reduced egg production Hermayer et al., 1977 Barium Chicken Immature BaCO3, BaCl2 200 Reduced growth Taucins et al., 1969 Barium Chicken Immature BaCl2 2,000 Death Taucins et al., 1969 Bromine Chicken Immature NaBr 5,000 Reduced growth Doberenz et al., 1965 Cadmium Chicken Immature CdSO4·H2O 25 Reduced growth Hill et al., 1963 Cadmium Chicken Immature CdSO4 40 Reduced growth Hill, 1974 Cadmium Turkey Immature CdCl2 20 Reduced growth Supplee, 1961 Cadmium Chicken Adult CdSO4 12 Decreased egg production Leach et al., 1979 Chlorine Chicken Immature Arginine·HCL, NaCl and KCl 15,000 Reduced growth Nesheim et al., 1964 Chromium Chicken Immature K2CrO4 300 Reduced growth Kunishisa et al., 1966 Chromium Chicken Immature Cr2(SO4)3 300 Reduced growth Kunishisa et al., 1966 Chromium Chicken Adult CrCl3·6H2O 10 Egg quality Jensen and Maurice, 1980 Cobalt Chicken Immature CoCl2·6H2O 200 Reduced growth Hill, 1974 Cobalt Chicken Immature CoCl2 100 Reduced growth Hill, 1979 Copper Chicken Immature CuO 806 Reduced growth; mortality Mehring et al., 1960 Copper Chicken Immature CuSO4·5H2O 800 Exudative diathesis; muscular dystrophy Jensen, 1975b Copper Chicken Immature CuSO4·5H2O 500 Reduced growth; gizzard erosion Poupoulis and Jensen, 1976 Copper Chicken Immature CuSO4·5H2O 250 Reduced growth; gizzard erosion Robbins and Baker, 1980a,b Copper Turkey Immature CuSO4·5H2O 676 (practical diet) Reduced growth Vohra and Kratzer, 1968 Copper Turkey Immature CuSO4·5H2O 800 (purified diet) Reduced growth Supplee, 1964 Copper Turkey Immature CuCO3 50 (purified diet) 800 (practical diet not toxic) Reduced growth Waibel et al., 1964 Fluorine Chicken Immature NaF 1,000 Reduced growth Doberenz et al., 1965 Fluorine Chicken Immature NaF 500 (similar level of F as CaF not toxic) Reduced growth Gardiner et al., 1959 Fluorine Chicken Immature NaF 500 Reduced growth Weber et al., 1969 Fluorine Chicken Immature NaF 750 Reduced growth Berg and Martinson, 1972 Fluorine Chicken Adult NaF 1,300 Reproductive characteristics Guenter and Hahn, 1986 Iodine Chicken Laying hen KI 625 Reduced egg production, egg size, and hatchability Arrington et al., 1967 Iron Chicken Immature Fe2(SO4)3 4,500 Rickets Deobold and Elvehjem, 1935 Lead Chicken Immature Pb acetate 1,000 Reduced growth Damron et al., 1969 Lead Chicken Immature Pb acetate 320 Lethargy, 50% mortality Vengris and Mare, 1974 Lead Chicken Mature Pb acetate 200 Reduced egg production Edens and Garlich, 1983 Lead Japanese quail Mature Pb acetate 10 Reduced egg production Edens and Garlich, 1983 Magnesium Chicken Immature MgO 5,700 Growth, skeletal development Atteh and Leeson, 1983 Magnesium Chicken Immature MgCO3 6,000 Reduced growth Chicco et al., 1967 Magnesium Chicken Immature MgCO3 6,400 Reduced growth; mortality Nugara and Edwards, 1963 Magnesium Chicken Adult MgSO4 19,600 Reduced egg production McWard, 1967 Magnesium Chicken Adult MgCO3 11,200 Reduced egg production Stillmak and Sunde, 1971 Manganese Chicken Immature MnCl2·4H2O 4,000 Reduced growth Southern and Baker, 1983a Manganese Turkey Immature MnSO4·H2O 4,800 Reduced growth Vohra and Kratzer, 1968 Mercury Chicken Immature HgSO4, HgCl2 400 Reduced growth Hill et al., 1964 Mercury Chicken Immature HgCl2 250b Reduced growth; mortality Parkhurst and Thaxton, 1973 Mercury Chicken Immature CH3Hg dicyanamide 33 Reduced growth; mortality Gardiner, 1972 Mercury Chicken Immature CH3HgCl 5 50% mortality Soares et al., 1973 Molybdenum Chicken Immature Na2MoO4 500 Reduced growth; mortality Davies et al., 1960 Molybdenum Chicken Immature Na2MoO4·2H2O 350 Reduced growth Berg and Martinson, 1972 Molybdenum Chicken Laying hen Na2MoO4·2H2O 500 Reduced egg production and hatchability Lepore and Miller, 1965 Molybdenum Turkey Immature NaMoO4 300 Reduced growth Kratzer, 1952 Nickel Chicken Immature NiSO4 or Ni acetate 500 Reduced growth Weber and Reid, 1968

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Element or Compound Species Age Chemical Form Toxic Concentration (ppm)a Toxic Effects References Nickel Chicken Immature NiCl 400 Reduced growth Hill, 1979 Nitrate Turkey Immature NaNO3 900b Reduced growth; mortality Adams et al., 1967 Nitrate Turkey Immature NaNO3 450(N)b No effect on meat color Mugler et al., 1970 Nitrite Chicken Immature KNO2 658(N) Decreased vitamin A in liver and thyroid enlargement Sell and Roberts, 1963 Selenium Chicken Immature Na2SeO3 + Se in wheat 10 Reduced growth Carlson and Leitis, 1957 Selenium Chicken Immature Na2SeO3 10 Reduced growth Jensen, 1975a Selenium Chicken Immature Na2SeO3 20 (+1,000 Ca) Reduced growth Jensen, 1975a Selenium Chicken Laying hen Se in wheat 10 Reduced hatchability Moxon and Wilson, 1944 Selenium Chicken Adult Na2SeO3 5 Decreased hatchability Ort and Latshaw, 1978 Silver Chicken Immature AgSO4 200 Reduced growth Hill et al., 1964 Silver Chicken Immature AgNO3 900 Exudative diathesis (prevented by Se or vitamin E) Peterson and Jensen, 1975a Silver Chicken Immature AgNO3 900 Anemia, enlarged hearts Peterson and Jensen, 1975b Silver Turkey Immature Ag acetate or nitrate 900 Anemia, enlarged hearts, and muscular dystrophy prevented by Cu + Se) Jensen et al., 1974 Sodium Chicken Immature Na glutamate 8,900c Reduced growth Nesheim et al., 1964 Sodium Chicken Laying hen Na2SO4 12,000b Reduced egg production Krista et al., 1961 Sodium chloride Chicken Immature NaCl 7,000b Reduced growth; mortality Krista et al., 1961 Sodium chloride Chicken Laying hen NaCl 10,000b Reduced egg production Krista et al., 1961 Sodium chloride Chicken Adult NaCl 40,000–60,000 Reduced egg production Damron and Kelly, 1987 Sodium chloride Turkey Immature NaCl 4,000b Reduced body weight; mortality Krista et al., 1961 Sodium chloride Turkey Immature NaCl 27,000 Lung congestion; enlarged kidneys; mortality Morrison et al., 1975 Sodium chloride Duck Immature NaCl 4,000b Reduced body weight Krista et al., 1961 Sodium chloride Turkey Mature NaCl 60,000 Reduced growth Roberts, 1957 Sodium chloride Turkey Immature NaCl 40,000 Reduced growth; pendulous crop Harper and Arscott, 1962 Strontium Chicken Immature SrCO3 6,000 Reduced growth Weber et al., 1968 Sulfate Chicken Immature K2SO4, Na2SO4, CaSO4 14,000 Reduced growth Leach et al., 1960 Sulfate Chicken Laying hen Na2SO4 8,100 Reduced egg production Krista et al., 1961 Tungsten Chicken Immature Sodium tungstate 500 Reduced growth Teekell and Watts, 1959 Vanadium Chicken Immature NH4VO3 8 Reduced growth Berg, 1963 Vanadium Chicken Immature Ca3(VO4)2 30 Reduced growth Romoser et al., 1961 Vanadium Chicken Immature Ca3(VO4)2 200 Mortality Romoser et al., 1961 Vanadium Chicken Immature NH4VO3 or VOSO4 25 Reduced growth; mortality Hathcock et al., 1964 Vanadium Chicken Immature NaVO3 5 Reduced growth Hill, 1974 Vanadium Chicken Immature NH4VO3 10 Reduced growth Summers and Moran, 1972 Vanadium Chicken Laying hen V in dicalcium phosphate 6 Depressed albumin quality Sell et al., 1982 Vanadium Chicken Laying hen NH4VO3 15 Depressed albumin quality Berg et al., 1963 Vanadium Chicken Laying hen NH4VO3 20 Depressed albumin quality; reduced body weight Berg et al., 1963 Vanadium Chicken Laying hen NH4VO3 30 Depressed egg production Berg et al., 1963 Vanadium Chicken Laying hen NH4VO3 50 Depressed hatchability Berg et al., 1963 Zinc Chicken Immature ZnSO4, ZnCO3 1,500 Reduced growth Roberson and Schaible, 1960 Zinc Chicken Immature ZnO 3,000 Reduced growth Johnson et al., 1962 Zinc Chicken Immature ZnO 800 Reduced growth; bone ash (sucrose-fish meal diet) Berg and Martinson, 1972 Zinc Chicken Immature ZnSO4 2,000 Exudative diathesis; muscular dystrophy Jensen, 1975b Zinc Chicken Immature ZnSO4 3,000 Reduced growth (0.5 ppm Se in diet) Jensen, 1975b Zinc Turkey Immature ZnO 4,000 Reduced growth Vohra and Kratzer, 1968 a Dietary concentrations of the elements unless specified otherwise. b In water. c Diet low in Cl- ion.