10
Standard Reference Diets for Chicks

Many laboratories that use Leghorn- or meat-type chicks for studies in animal behavior, biochemistry, microbiology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, and toxicology need nutritionally complete standard reference diets. The use of standard reference diets that are well defined facilitates more valid comparison of information obtained from experiments conducted within and among laboratories. The diets shown in Table 10-1 have been used successfully in various laboratories and are presented as guides to those requiring such formulations. The isolated soybean protein, casein, and chemically defined diets contain some mineral and vitamin supplements not normally needed in practical diets.

Dextrose (glucose·H2O) rather than starch should be used in diets consisting primarily of purified intact proteins (such as isolated soy protein and casein) to obtain improved performance. Diets containing substantial quantities of dextrose and crystalline amino acids should be stored under refrigeration to minimize Maillard or Browning reactions. These chemically defined diets are intended for short-term use (1 to 3 weeks) and will not support maximum growth over an extended period of time.



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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 10 Standard Reference Diets for Chicks Many laboratories that use Leghorn- or meat-type chicks for studies in animal behavior, biochemistry, microbiology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, and toxicology need nutritionally complete standard reference diets. The use of standard reference diets that are well defined facilitates more valid comparison of information obtained from experiments conducted within and among laboratories. The diets shown in Table 10-1 have been used successfully in various laboratories and are presented as guides to those requiring such formulations. The isolated soybean protein, casein, and chemically defined diets contain some mineral and vitamin supplements not normally needed in practical diets. Dextrose (glucose·H2O) rather than starch should be used in diets consisting primarily of purified intact proteins (such as isolated soy protein and casein) to obtain improved performance. Diets containing substantial quantities of dextrose and crystalline amino acids should be stored under refrigeration to minimize Maillard or Browning reactions. These chemically defined diets are intended for short-term use (1 to 3 weeks) and will not support maximum growth over an extended period of time.

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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 TABLE 10-1 Formulas for Reference Diets for Chicks Ingredient Practical Dieta Soy Isolate Dietb Chemically Casein Dietc Chemically Defined Diet Id Defined Diet IIe Ground yellow corn (8.8% protein)(g/kg) 580 — — — — Soybean meal (48.5% protein)(g/kg) 350 — — — — Isolated soybean protein (g/kg) — 250 — — — Casein (g/kg) — — 200 — — DL-Methionine (g/kg) 2.5 6 5 — — L-Arginine (g/kg) — — 10 — — Glycine (g/kg) — 4 20 — — Crystalline amino acids (g/kg) — — — 204.8f 286g Corn oil (g/kg) 30 40 30 50–150 150 Starch (g/kg) 6.5–1 kg — — 558–1 kg 205 Dextrose (g/kg) — 6.08–1 kg 678–1 kg — — Sucrose (g/kg) — — — 154   Cellulose (g/kg) — 30 — 30 30 Sawdust (g/kg) — — — — 100 Choline chloride (100%) (g/kg) 0.75 2 2 2 1.625 Thiamin HCl (mg/kg) 1.8 15 20 20 1.6 Riboflavin (mg/kg) 3.6 15 10 10 5 Calcium pantothenate (mg/kg) 10 20 30 30 15 Niacin (mg/kg) 25 50 50 50 35 Pyridoxine HCl (mg/kg) 3 7.8 6 6 6 Folacin (mg/kg) 0.55 6 4 4 1.5 Biotin (mg/kg) 0.15 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.1 Vitamin B12 (mg/kg) 0.0 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.03 Inositol (mg/kg) — — 100 100 100 Para-aminobenzoic acid (mg/kg) — — 2 2 2 Ascorbic acid (mg/kg) — — 250 250 — Vitamin A (IU/kg) 1,500 4,500 5,200 5,200 1,880 Vitamin D3 (ICU/kg) 400 450 600 600 375 Vitamin E (IU/kg) 10 50 20 20 31.3 Vitamin K (mg/kg) 0.55 1.5 2 2 1.3 Antioxidant (mg/kg)h 125 100 — 12-5 — Iodized salt (g/kg) 5 — — — — NaCl (g/kg) — 6 8.8 8.8 2.75 CaCO3 (g/kg) 10 14.8 3 3 15 CaHPO4·2H2O (g/kg) 20 20.7 — — 30 Ca3(PO4)2 (g/kg) — — 28 28 — MgSO4·7H2O (g/kg) — 6 3.5 3.5 — MgCO3 (g/kg) — — — — 2.38 KH2 PO4 (g/kg) — 10 9 9 — K2CO3 (g/kg) — — — — 5.25 NaHCO3 (g/kg) — — — — 5 Al(OH)3 (g/kg) — — — — 5 KCl (g/kg) — 1 — — — MnSO4·H2O (mg/kg) 170 350 650 650 — MnCO3 (mg/kg) — — — — 91.5 ZnSO4·H2O (mg/kg) 110 — — — — ZnCO3 (mg/kg) — 150 100 100 — ZnO (mg/kg) — — — — 25 Fe2(SO4)3·7H2O — 500 — — 250 Ferric citrate (mg/kg) 500 — 500 500 — CuSO4·5H2O (mg/kg) 16 30 20 20 15.5 Na2SeO3 (mg/kg) 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.23 KI (mg/kg) — — 40 40 — KIO3 (mg/kg) — 2 — — 0.6 CoCl2 (mg/kg) — 1.7 — — — CoSO4·7H2O (mg/kg) — — 1 1 1 H3BO3 (mg/kg) — — 9 9 9 Na2MoO4·2H2O (mg/kg) — 8.3 9 9 2.5 NOTE: Dash indicates a zero value for the ingredient. a National Research Council (1977). b Scott et al., 1982. c Halpin and Baker, 1986. d Baker et al., 1979. The vitamin mix shown in the table differs slightly from the one in the cited reference because of modification in recent years. e Blair et al., 1977. f 11.5 g L-arginine · HCl, 4.5 g L-histidine HCl · H2O, 11.4 g L-lysine HC1, 4.5 g L-tyrosine, 1.5 g L-tryptophan, 5 g L-phenylalanine, 3.5 g DL-methionine, 3.5 g L-cystine, 6.5 g L-threonine, 10 g L-leucine, 6 g L-isoleucine, 6.9 g L-valine, 6 g glycine, 4 g L-proline, 120 g L-glutamic acid. g 16.9 g L-arginine, 14.1 g glycine, 5.6 g L-histidine, 11.3 g L-isoleucine, 19.7 g L-leucine, 17.6 g L-lysine · HCl, 7.8 g DL-methionine, 2.0 g L-cystine, 9.9 g L-phenylalanine, 9.9 g L-tyrosine, 2.8 g L-tryptophan, 9.9 g L-threonine, 12.1 g L-valine, 36.2 g L-aspartic acid, 100 g L-glutamic acid, 9.9 g L-proline. h Ethoxyquin or butylated hydroxy toluene.

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