Index

A

Achromotrichia

mice, 94, 95

rats, 47, 49

Acyl ceramide, 19

Acyl glucosyl ceramide, 19

Adenosine triphosphate, rats, 51

Aflatoxin B1, 51

Age-related differences

nutrient requirements, 3

rat

protein requirements, 23

vitamin K deficiency, 44

vitamin requirements, 39, 40-42

Aging research, rats in, 27

Alanine

ascorbic acid-deficient guinea pigs, 117

vitamin B6 metabolism and, rats, 45-46

Alcohol research, 7

Aldehyde oxidase, rats, 33

Alkaline phosphatase, guinea pigs, 117

Alopecia

gerbils, 141, 142

guinea pigs, 110, 118

mice, 85, 91, 94, 95

rats, 27, 36, 47, 49, 50

Amino acids

in common feed formulations, 152

crystalline, 103, 111-112

genetic differences in requirements, 3

gerbil requirements, 141

guinea pig requirements, 107-112

hamster requirements, 131-132

isomeric forms, 6

mouse requirements, 85-88

rat

requirements, 23-26

vitamin B6 metabolism and, 45-46

vole requirements, 146

See also specific amino acid

Anemia

guinea pigs, 113, 117, 118, 119

mice, 90, 95

rats, 26, 31, 32, 36, 45, 48

Anorexia

guinea pigs, 119

mice, 91

rats, 31, 36, 52

Antibiotics

myo-inositol in mouse diet and, 97

pantothenic acid deficiency and, 49

Antioxidants

storage of feedstuffs, 8

vitamin E as, 41

Arachidonic acid

gerbil metabolism, 141

rat tissue concentration, 18-19

Arginine

guinea pig requirements, 103, 108-109, 111

mouse requirements, 87

in rat diet, 25, 27, 53

Ariboflavinosis, mice, 95-96

Armenian hamster, 125

Arsenic in guinea pig diet, 119-120

Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, 51

Ascorbic acid

in guinea pig diet

requirements, 117-118

vitamin D metabolism and, 116

in hamster diet, 136

L-gulonolactone oxidase in synthesis of, 3

in mouse diet, 96-97

in rat diet, 57

mineral interactions, 31

vole requirement, 147

Asparagine, in rat diet, 25, 26

Aspartate aminotransferase, 45-46

Ataxia

guinea pigs, 114

mice, 96

rats, 27, 33

Autoclave sterilization of diets, 8



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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 Index A Achromotrichia mice, 94, 95 rats, 47, 49 Acyl ceramide, 19 Acyl glucosyl ceramide, 19 Adenosine triphosphate, rats, 51 Aflatoxin B1, 51 Age-related differences nutrient requirements, 3 rat protein requirements, 23 vitamin K deficiency, 44 vitamin requirements, 39, 40-42 Aging research, rats in, 27 Alanine ascorbic acid-deficient guinea pigs, 117 vitamin B6 metabolism and, rats, 45-46 Alcohol research, 7 Aldehyde oxidase, rats, 33 Alkaline phosphatase, guinea pigs, 117 Alopecia gerbils, 141, 142 guinea pigs, 110, 118 mice, 85, 91, 94, 95 rats, 27, 36, 47, 49, 50 Amino acids in common feed formulations, 152 crystalline, 103, 111-112 genetic differences in requirements, 3 gerbil requirements, 141 guinea pig requirements, 107-112 hamster requirements, 131-132 isomeric forms, 6 mouse requirements, 85-88 rat requirements, 23-26 vitamin B6 metabolism and, 45-46 vole requirements, 146 See also specific amino acid Anemia guinea pigs, 113, 117, 118, 119 mice, 90, 95 rats, 26, 31, 32, 36, 45, 48 Anorexia guinea pigs, 119 mice, 91 rats, 31, 36, 52 Antibiotics myo-inositol in mouse diet and, 97 pantothenic acid deficiency and, 49 Antioxidants storage of feedstuffs, 8 vitamin E as, 41 Arachidonic acid gerbil metabolism, 141 rat tissue concentration, 18-19 Arginine guinea pig requirements, 103, 108-109, 111 mouse requirements, 87 in rat diet, 25, 27, 53 Ariboflavinosis, mice, 95-96 Armenian hamster, 125 Arsenic in guinea pig diet, 119-120 Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, 51 Ascorbic acid in guinea pig diet requirements, 117-118 vitamin D metabolism and, 116 in hamster diet, 136 L-gulonolactone oxidase in synthesis of, 3 in mouse diet, 96-97 in rat diet, 57 mineral interactions, 31 vole requirement, 147 Asparagine, in rat diet, 25, 26 Aspartate aminotransferase, 45-46 Ataxia guinea pigs, 114 mice, 96 rats, 27, 33 Autoclave sterilization of diets, 8

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 B Bacterial contaminants, 9 Binders, in pelleted diets, 6 Bioavailability chemically defined diets, 6 natural-ingredient diets, 5 Biotin dietary role, 47 guinea pig requirements, 118 hamster requirements, 134 mouse requirements, 94 rat requirements, 47 Blood abnormalities guinea pigs, 117, 118, 119 hamsters, 134 mice, 90 rats, 29, 30, 31, 36, 42, 43-44, 46, 51, 52, 55 Blood pressure, rat chloride deficiency and, 29 potassium concentrations and, 30 sodium toxicity and, 30 Bone abnormalities guinea pigs, 112-113, 115, 116, 118 mice, 89 rats, 27, 28, 30, 31, 33, 39, 40, 41, 42 Boron, in guinea pig diet, 119-120 C Cadmium in guinea pig diet, 119-120 in rat diet, 31, 36 Calcium gerbil requirements, 141 guinea pig requirements, 112-113 hamster requirements, 132-133 mouse requirements, 88-89 rat mineral interactions, 27-29, 33 nephrocalcinosis and, 37 requirements, 27-28 vitamin metabolism, 40, 41 vole requirements, 147 Caloric intake rat, 15 growth energy, 16-17 maintenance energy, 16 protein deficiency, 26 restrictions, 9 Cancer, vitamin A and, mice, 92 Cancer research hamsters in, 125 rats in, 27 Carbohydrates guinea pig requirements, 108 hamster requirements, 129-131 mouse requirements, 85 in purified diets, 5 rat requirements, 20-22 Carboxylase enzymes, 47 Cardiovascular abnormalities guinea pigs, 114, 116 mice, 90, 94 rats, 29, 31, 32, 48, 52 Carnitine ascorbic acid-deficient guinea pigs, 117 riboflavin metabolism and, rats, 51 Carnosine, mouse requirements, 87 Carotenoids guinea pig utilization, 115 in rat diet, 20, 38-40 Casein in guinea pig diet, 108-109 in hamster diet, 127, 135 in mouse diet, 86, 91 in purified diets, 6 in rat diet, 23, 26, 37, 43, 47, 48 trace minerals in, 6 in vole diet, 146 Cataract formation guinea pigs, 110 rats, 22, 27, 35, 50 Catecholamine metabolism, mice, 90 Cavia porcellus. See Guinea pig Cellulose in guinea pig diet, 107, 119 in mouse diet, 96 in rat diet, 15, 45, 53 Cerebrospinal fluid pressure, vitamin A-deficient rats, 39 Chemically defined diets, 6-7 Chinese hamsters, 125-126 Chloride gerbil requirements, 142 guinea pig requirements, 113 hamster requirements, 132 mouse requirements, 89 rat requirements, 28-29, 38 vole requirements, 147 Cholesterol research, gerbils in, 141 Choline dietary role, 47 dietary sources, 47 gerbil requirements, 142 guinea pig requirements, 118 hamster requirements, 134 mouse requirements, 94 rat niacin toxicity vs. deficiency in, 49 requirements, 47-48 vitamin B12 metabolism and, 46 Chromium in guinea pig diet, 119-120 protein-source deficiency, 6 in rat diet, 54-55 Cobalt in guinea pig diet, 119-120 in hamster vitamin B12 metabolism, 135

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 mouse requirements, 91 protein-source deficiency, 6 Cod liver oil, in guinea pig diet, 116 Collagen synthesis ascorbic acid-deficient guinea pigs, 118 guinea pig as model for, 103 Columbinate, linoleate mobilization and, rats, 19 Contaminants, diet maximum allowances, 9 pathogenic, 9 types of, 8-9 Convulsions gerbils, 141 guinea pigs, 113 mice, 89, 96 rats, 29, 45 Copper gerbil requirements, 142 in guinea pig diet ascorbic acid deficiency and, 118 requirements, 114 mouse requirements, 90 protein-source deficiency, 6 in rat diet ascorbic acid and, 57 mineral interactions, 31, 34, 36 requirements, 30-31 toxic concentrations, 9 in water lines, 4 Coprophagy, 4 guinea pig folate requirement, 118 nutrition, 103 vitamin requirements, 120 hamster vitamin metabolism and, 134 mouse vitamin requirements and, 93, 94 rats biotin metabolism, 47 essential fatty acid deficiency, 19 thiamin deficiency, 52 vitamin B6 metabolism, 45 vitamin K activity, 43 vole nutrition, 146 Corneal abnormalities guinea pigs, 115, 119 mice, 96 rats, 27, 30, 39, 50 Cornstarch, in hamster diet, 129, 131, 135 Creatinine, rat, 46 Cricetulus barabensis, 125 Cricetus cricetus, 125 Crocetulus migratorius, 125 Crumbled diets, 7 Cyanosis, potassium-deficient rats and, 30 Cysteine, mouse requirements, 87 Cystine in guinea pig diet, 108, 110 in rat diet, 24, 26 Cytogenetic research, hamsters in, 125 D Death gerbils, 141 guinea pigs ascorbic acid deficiency, 117 pantothenic acid deficiency, 119 potassium intake, 113 thiamin deficiency, 119 rats manganese toxicity, 33 newborn, 19 potassium deficiency, 30 protein deficiency, 26 sodium deficiency, 30 vitamin deficiency, 49-50 zinc toxicity, 36 Deficiencies ascorbic acid, guinea pigs, 117-118 biotin guinea pigs, 118 hamsters, 134 mice, 94 rats, 47 calcium/phosphorus guinea pigs, 112-113 hamsters, 132 mice, 89 rats, 28 carbohydrate guinea pigs, 108 hamsters, 129, 131 rats, 22 choline hamsters, 134 mice, 94 rats, 48 copper mice, 90 rats, 31 essential fatty acids gerbils, 141 guinea pigs, 108 hamsters, 128 mice, 85 rats, 17-18, 19 folates guinea pigs, 118 hamsters, 134 mice, 94-95 rats, 48 iodine hamsters, 133 rats, 32 iron gerbils, 142 hamsters, 133 mice, 90 rats, 32

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 lipids, hamsters, 127 magnesium gerbils, 141 guinea pigs, 113 mice, 89 rats, 29-30, 37 manganese guinea pigs, 114 mice, 91 rats, 33 molybdenum, rats, 34 niacin guinea pigs, 118-119 hamsters, 134-135 rats, 49 pantothenic acid guinea pigs, 119 hamsters, 134-135 rats, 49-50 phosphorus. See Deficiencies, calcium/phosphorus potassium guinea pigs, 114 rats, 30 protein/amino acids guinea pigs, 108-109, 110, 111, 112 hamsters, 132 mice, 87 rats, 26-27 voles, 146 pyridoxine, guinea pigs, 119 riboflavin gerbils, 142 guinea pigs, 119 hamsters, 135 mice, 95-96 rats, 50-51 selenium, rats, 35-36 sodium/chloride gerbils, 142 guinea pigs, 113 rats, 29-30 voles, 147 sulfur, guinea pigs, 113 thiamin guinea pigs, 119 hamsters, 135 mice, 96 rats, 52 vitamin A guinea pigs, 115 hamsters, 133 mice, 92 rats, 39-40 vitamin B6 hamsters, 135 mice, 95 rats, 45-46 vitamin B12 hamsters, 135 mice, 94 rats, 46-47 vitamin D guinea pigs, 116 hamsters, 132, 133 mice, 92-93 rats, 41 vitamin E guinea pigs, 116 hamsters, 133-134 mice, 93 rats, 42 vitamin K guinea pigs, 117 hamsters, 134 mice, 93 rats, 44 water, gerbils, 140-141 zinc guinea pigs, 114 mice, 91 rats, 36 Dental abnormalities guinea pigs, 113, 115, 116 hamsters, 132 protein-deficient rats, 27 Diabetes, rats, 51, 58 Diabetes research, hamsters in, 125 Diarrhea guinea pigs, 119 rats, 22, 30 Diet, 4 forms of, 6-7 crumbled, 7 liquid, 7 meal, 6-7 pelleted, 6 manufacture and storage, 7-8 nutrient concentrations, 5, 6 quality assurance and potential contaminants, 8-9 types, 4 chemically defined, 6, 7 fixed-formula, 5 natural-ingredient, 4-5, 7 nutrient concentrations, 5 open-formula, 5 purified, 5, 7 See also Formulation of diets; Manufacture of diets Digestible energy rat diet, 14, 15 vole diet, 146 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol, 40 Dopaminergic system, in rats, 45 Dwarf hamsters, 125 E Egg white dried, trace minerals in, 6

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 raw avidin in, 47 in hamster diet, 134 Energy requirements gerbil, 140 guinea pig, 107, 119 hamster, 126-127 mouse, 83-84 rat, 14-15 digestible, 14, 15, 16 gestation and lactation, 17 growth, 16-17 maintenance, 16 metabolizable, 14, 16, 17 vole, 146 Environmental conditions ascorbic acid deterioration and, 117 feed storage, 7-8 mouse maintenance energy requirements and, 83 nutrient requirements and, 4 for voles, 145 Essential fatty acids deficiencies gerbils, 141 guinea pigs, 108 hamsters, 128 mice, 85 rats, 17-18, 19 requirements gerbils, 141 guinea pigs, 108 hamsters, 128 mice, 85 rats, 17-19 storage considerations, 8 See also Lipids Ethanol exposure to, of thiamin-deficient mice, 96 in rat diet, 46 Ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase, 51 European hamster, 125 Exercise, rat riboflavin requirements and, 50 Extruded diets, 6 Eye abnormalities guinea pigs, 115 mice, 85, 92 rats, 39, 42, 47, 50 See also Cataract formation; Corneal abnormalitites F Fatty acids autooxidation, 41 in common diet formulations, 151 diet formulation to induce deficiency, 8 essential gerbils, 141 guinea pigs, 108 hamsters, 128 mice, 85 rats, 17-19 mouse energy metabolism and, 84 vitamin-deficient rats, 45-47 See also Lipids Feces. See Coprophagy Fiber in guinea pig diet, 119 sources for, 107 utilization, 107 in hamster diet, 135-136 in mouse diet, 96 in purified diets, 5 in rat diet, 53 vitamin B12 metabolism and, 46 Fixed-formula diets, 5 batch variation, 8 quality control, 9 Flavin adenine dinucleotide in rats, 50-51 Flavin mononucleotide in rats, 50-51 Fluoride/fluorine in guinea pigs, 113, 119-120 Folates dietary role, 48 guinea pig requirements, 103, 118 hamster requirements, 134 mouse requirements, 94-95 in rat diet requirements, 48 thiamin deficiency and, 52 vitamin B12 metabolism and, 46 Formiminoglutamate in folate-deficient rats, 48 Formulation of diets amino acid composition, 152 chemically defined diets, 6-7 definition, 4 fatty acid composition, 151 for gerbils, 140 for guinea pigs, 103, 106-107 for hamsters, 126 manufacturing process, 7 for mice, 83 natural-ingredient diets, 4-5 physical form of feed, 6-7 potential contaminants, 8-9 purified diets, 5-6 quality assurance in, 8 for rats, 13-14 selection of, 4 storage considerations, 7-8 for voles, 145 Fructose in hamster diet, 129 in mouse diet, 85 in rat diet, 22, 28, 31, 38, 49 G Galactose, in rat diet, 22, 58 Gamma aminobutyric acid, in rats, 45

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 Gender differences mouse maintenance energy requirements, 83-84 protein requirements, 86 rat copper deficiency, 31 fatty acid requirements, 17, 19 growth patterns, 11 vitamin K deficiency, 43 Gerbil amino acid/protein requirements, 141 diet formulation, 140 energy requirements, 140 growth, 140 lipid requirements, 141 mineral requirements, 141-142 natural history, 140 reproductive patterns, 140 vitamin requirements, 142 water intake, 140-141 Germ-free environments diet formulation, 4, 6, 8 guinea pigs in, 105 mice in, 81-82, 93, 97 Gestation guinea pig diet for, 107 patterns, 105 selenium requirement, 115 hamster patterns, 126 mouse amino acid requirements, 88 copper requirement, 90 energy requirements, 84 managanese requirement, 91 pantothenic acid requirement, 95 protein requirements, 86 vitamin B6 requirement, 95 vitamin B12 requirement, 93 zinc requirement, 91 rat carbohydrate diet, 22 copper requirement, 31 energy requirements, 17 fatty acid requirements, 18 magnesium requirement, 29 manganese requirement, 32 protein requirements, 26 selenium requirement, 35 sodium requirement, 30 thiamin requirement, 52 vitamin requirements, 39, 42, 45, 49 zinc requirement, 36 See also Reproduction Giardiasis, rats, 46 Glucose metabolism hamster, 129, 131, 135 rat, 20-22, 54-55, 56 Glutamic acid, rats, 25 Glutathione peroxidase guinea pigs, 114-115 rats, 34, 35, 41 Glutathione reductase, rats, 50, 51 Glycine in guinea pig diet, 108 Golden hamsters. See Hamsters Growth diet formulation, 13-14 gerbil amino acid/protein requirements, 141 patterns, 140 guinea pig, 105 amino acid requirements, 110-112 ascorbic acid requirement, 117-118 carbohydrate requirements, 108 dietary lipids, 107-108 fatty acid requirements, 108 fluoride requirement, 113 nutrient requirements, 105-106 pantothenic acid requirement, 119 protein requirements, 108-110 pyridoxine requirement, 119 vitamin A requirement, 115 vitamin D requirement, 116 hamster amino acid/protein requirements, 131-132 biotin requirement, 134 choline requirement, 134 lipid requirements, 127-128 pantothenic acid requirement, 134 patterns, 126 trace mineral requirements, 132-133 vitamin A requirement, 133 mouse amino acid requirements, 87-88 copper requirement, 90 dietary fat, 84-85 energy metabolism, 83-84 fiber intake, 96 manganese requirement, 90-91 pantothenic acid requirement, 95 patterns, 80 protein requirements, 85-86 riboflavin requirement, 96 thiamin requirement, 96 vitamin B6 requirement, 95 rat amino acid requirements, 24-26 calcium/phosphorus requirement, 27-28 carbohydrate diet in, 20-22 chloride requirement, 28-29 chromium intake and, 54 copper requirement, 31 diet formulation, 13-14 dietary lipids, 20 energy requirements, 16-17 fiber intake and, 53 iron requirement, 32 lithium intake and, 54

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 magnesium requirement, 29 manganese requirement, 32-33 niacin metabolism, 49 nutrient requirements, 12 patterns, 11 protein requirements, 23-24 silicon intake and, 56 sodium requirement, 30 sulfur intake and, 56 thiamin requirement, 51-52 vitamin requirements, 38-40, 47, 49-50 vole patterns, 144 protein requirements, 146 Guar gum in mouse diet, 96 in rat diet, 46, 53 Guinea pig amino acid requirements, 111-112 ascorbic acid requirements, 117-118 biotin requirements, 118 calcium requirements, 112-113 carbohydrate requirements, 108 chloride requirements, 113 choline requirements, 118 data sources, 105 dietary fiber, 107, 119 diets for, 106-107 digestive anatomy, 103, 107 energy requirements, 107, 119 essential fatty acid requirements, 108 estimation of nutrient requirements, 105-106, 111 folate requirements, 118 gestation, 112, 115 growth patterns, 105 L-gulonolactone oxidase, 3 laboratory diet vs. natural diet, 103 lactation, 112, 115 lipid requirements, 107-108 magnesium requirements, 112-113 mineral interactions, 112-113 myo-inositol in diet of, 120 niacin requirements, 118-119 pantothenic acid requirements, 119 phosphorus requirements, 112-113 potassium requirements, 113-114 protein requirements, 108-110, 112 pyridoxine requirement, 119 reproductive patterns, 105 as research subject, 103 riboflavin requirements, 119 sodium requirements, 113 sulfur requirements, 113 thiamin requirement, 119 trace minerals in diet of, 119-120 vanadium in glucose metabolism of, 56 vitamin A requirements, 115-116 vitamin B12 in diet of, 120 vitamin C requirements, 103 vitamin D requirements, 116 vitamin E requirements, 116 vitamin K requirements, 117 Warfarin, 117 water intake, 103 Gum arabic, in guinea pig diet, 119 H Hair abnormalities guinea pigs, 108, 113, 118, 119 hamsters, 128, 133, 134-135 mice, 85, 91, 94, 95 rats, 27, 30, 32, 35, 36, 42, 47, 49, 50 Hamster amino acid/protein requirements, 131-132 ascorbic acid in diet of, 136 biotin requirements, 134 carbohydrate requirements, 129-131 choline requirements, 134 diet formulation, 126 digestive anatomy, 125 energy requirements, 126-127 essential fatty acid requirements, 128 examples of diets for, 126 fiber in diet of, 135-136 folate requirements, 134 lipid requirements, 127-128 mineral requirements, 132 myo-inositol requirements, 134 natural history, 126 niacin requirements, 134-135 pantothenic acid requirements, 135 reproductive patterns, 126 as research subjects, 125 riboflavin requirements, 135 thiamin requirements, 135 trace mineral requirements, 132-133 vitamin A requirements, 133 vitamin B6 requirements, 135 vitamin B12 requirements, 135 vitamin D requirements, 133 vitamin E requirements, 133-134 vitamin K requirements, 134 Warfarin-resistant, 134 water intake, 126 wet tail condition, 131 Hematopoietic system copper-deficient rats, 31 dietary nickel in, 55 High-energy diets, 4 Histidine guinea pig requirement, 111 mouse requirements, 87 in rat diet, 25, 26, 27 Homovanillic acid in rats, 45 Housing conditions nutrient requirements and, 4

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 rats coprophagy and, 43 zinc requirements and, 36 for voles, 145 Hyperexcitability/hyperirritability mice, 89, 95 rats, 4, 26, 29, 45 Hyperlipidemia, rats, 32, 40 Hypertension research, rats in, 27 Hypertriglyceridemia, 22 Hypoproteinemia, rats, 26 I Immune system disorders guinea pigs, 112, 118 mice, 90, 91, 92, 94-95 rats, 31, 32, 36, 47, 50 Immunological research, 5 diet contaminants and, 8-9 Iodine guinea pig requirements, 114-115 hamster requirements, 132-133 mouse requirements, 91 rat requirements, 31-32 vanadium and, 56 Ionizing radiation, 8 Iron gerbil requirements, 142 guinea pig requirements, 114 hamster requirements, 133 mouse requirements, 90 protein-source deficiency, 6 in rat diet ascorbic acid and, 57 mineral interactions, 27, 33, 36, 55 requirements, 32 riboflavin and, 51 Isoleucine guinea pig requirement, 111 mouse requirement, 87 rat requirement, 25-26 K Keratinization guinea pigs, 115 mice, 92 rats, 39 Kidney abnormalities guinea pigs, 108, 113, 115, 116 hamsters, 128 mice, 89, 94 rats, 19, 22, 27, 29, 30, 31, 36-38, 41, 48, 55 Kwashiorker syndrome, 112 Kyphoscoliosis, vitamin-deficient rats and, 42 L L-gulonolactone oxidase in ascorbic acid synthesis, 3, 57 genetic variation, 3 voles, 147 Laboratory rats. See Rat Lactalbumin in rat diet, 23, 37, 43 trace minerals in, 6 Lactation guinea pig amino acid requirements, 112 nutrient requirements, 105 selenium requirement, 115 mouse amino acid requirements, 88 copper requirement, 90 energy requirements, 84 magnesium requirement, 89 managanese requirement, 91 nutrient requirements, 81 pantothenic acid requirement, 95 protein requirements, 86 thiamin requirement, 96 vitamin B12 requirement, 93 zinc requirement, 91 rat carbohydrate diet in, 22 energy requirements, 15, 17 fatty acid requirements, 18 mineral requirements, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 35, 36 protein requirements, 26 vitamin requirements, 39, 45, 49, 52 Lactose in hamster diet, 129 mineral uptake in rats and, 28, 29 Lead ascorbic acid and, in rat diet, 57 in guinea pig diet, 119-120 Lecithin, choline in, 47 Leucine guinea pig ascorbic acid deficiency, 117 requirement, 111 mouse requirement, 87 rat requirement, 25, 26 Leucrose, in rat diet, 22 Leukopenia in folate-deficient rats, 48 Lignin in vitamin B6 metabolism in rats, 45 Linoleic acid in commercial feeds, 8 gerbil diet, 141 guinea pig diet, 108 mouse diet, 85 rat diet, 17-20, 42 α-Linolenic acid, rats, 18-19, 20 Lipids gerbil requirements, 141

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 guinea pig requirements, 107-108 hamster requirements, 127-128 mouse requirements, 84-85 myo-inositol and, 97 rat diet choline and, 47 dietary concentration, 20 digestibility, 19-20 gestation, 17 requirements, 17, 19-20 storage considerations, 8 See also Essential fatty acids; Fatty acids Lipofuscin, rats, 42 Liquid diets, 7 Lithium, rats, 55 Liver abnormalities guinea pigs, 112, 113, 114, 116, 118 hamsters, 133, 134 mice, 90, 91, 94, 96 rats, 19, 22, 27, 31, 32, 36, 40, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 58 Lysine guinea pig requirement, 111 mouse requirements, 87 rat deficiency, 27 requirement, 24-26 in vole diet, 146 M Magnesium gerbil requirements, 141 guinea pig requirements, 112, 113 mouse lactation, 81 requirements, 89 in rat diet ascorbic acid and, 57 deficiency, 29-30 nephrocalcinosis and, 37 requirements, 29 Maintenance energy definition, 16 mouse requirements, 83-84 rat requirements, 16, 17 Manganese gerbil requirements, 142 guinea pig requirements, 114 mouse requirements, 90-91 protein-source deficiency, 6 in rat diet mineral interactions, 27, 33 requirements, 32-33 Mannose in rat diet, 22 Manufacture of diets, 7 chemically defined, 7 crumbled, 7 extruded, 6 for guinea pigs, 103 meal form, 6-7 natural-ingredient, 5, 7 pelleted, 6, 7 purified, 7 quality control, 8-9 Maximum concentrations of contaminants, 9 Meal form diets, 6-7 Menadione, 43-44 guinea pig diet, 117 hamster diet, 134 Menaquinones, 43 Meriones unguiculatus. See Gerbil Mesocricetus auratus. See Hamsters Mesocricetus brandti, 125 Mesocricetus neutoni, 125 Metabolizable energy guinea pig, 107 mouse, 83, 84 rat, 14 Methionine bioavailability, 6 gerbil, 142 guinea pig, 109-110, 118 mouse, 87 rat, 24, 26 choline and, 47 deficiency, 27 vitamin B12 metabolism and, 46, 47 vole, 146 MHH:EPH hamster, 125 Micronutrient research, 5 Microtus. See Voles Minerals environmental source, 4 in fixed-formula natural-ingredient diets, 5 hamster requirements, 132 in natural-ingredient diets, 7 in rat diet nephrocalcinosis and, 36-38 potentially beneficial, 53-57 requirements, 27 vole requirements, 146-147 See also specific mineral; Trace minerals Molybdenum gerbil requirements, 142 guinea pig requirements, 114, 115 hamster requirements, 132-133 mouse requirements, 91, 92 rat requirements, 33-34 Mongolian gerbil. See Gerbil Mouse amino acid requirements, 87-88 ascorbic acid in diet of, 96-97 biotin requirements, 94 calcium requirements, 88-89 carbohydrate requirements, 85 chloride requirements, 89 choline requirements, 94 copper requirements, 90

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 data sources, 81 energy metabolism, 83-84 essential fatty acid requirements, 85 estimation of nutrient requirements, 80-83 fat sources, 84 fiber in diet of, 96 folic acid requirements, 94-95 formulation of diets, 13-14, 83 genetic diversity, 80, 83 in germ-free environments, 81, 82 gestation, 85-86, 90-91, 93, 95 growth patterns, 81 growth performance norms, 80 intestinal flora, 80, 93, 94 iodine requirements, 91 iron requirements, 90 lactation, 81, 85-86, 89-91, 93-96 magnesium requirements, 81, 89 maintenance nutrition, 81 manganese requirements, 90-91 molybedenum requirements, 91, 92 myo-inositol in diet of, 97 niacin requirements, 88, 95 pantothenic acid requirements, 95 phosphorus requirements, 88-89 potassium requirements, 89 potentially beneficial dietary constituents, 96-97 protein requirements, 85-86 reproductive performance norms, 80 as research subjects, 80 riboflavin requirements, 95-96 selenium requirements, 91-92 sodium requirements, 89 strain variation, 3 thiamin requirements, 95-96 trace mineral requirements, 89-90 vitamin A requirements, 92 vitamin B6 requirements, 95 vitamin B12 requirements, 93-94 vitamin D requirements, 92-93 vitamin E requirements, 93 vitamin K requirements, 93 zinc requirements, 91 Mus musculus. See Mouse Muscular dystrophy and vitamin E deficiency guinea pigs, 116 hamsters, 133-134 mice, 93 Myo-inositol gerbil requirements, 142 in guinea pig diet, 120 hamster requirements, 134 in mouse diet, 97 rats, 58 N NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, 51 National Institutes of Health guinea pig diets, 106 rat population, 11-12, 13 Natural-ingredient diets advantages of, 52-53 bioavailability, 5 definition, 4-5 fixed-formula, 5 for guinea pigs, 106, 107 for hamsters, 126 manufacturing process, 7 for mice, 83 nutrient concentrations, 5 for rats, 12-15, 23 for voles, 145 Nephrocalcinosis mouse, 89 rat, 13, 22, 27, 36-38 Neurological disorders guinea pig, 119 hamster, 133, 135 mouse, 93, 95 n-3 fatty acid deficiency in, 18-19 rat, 18, 42, 45-46, 47, 48, 49, 52 Neutrophil function in rats, 31 Newborn survival rate guinea pigs, 112 mice manganese intake, 91 vitamin B6 intake, 95 rats, 12 carbohydrate intake, 22 manganese intake, 33 protein metabolism, 26 vitamin intake, 39, 41, 47, 51 zinc intake, 36 Niacin dietary role, 48 guinea pig requirements, 118-119 tryptophan requirement, 110-111 hamster requirements, 134-135 mouse requirements, 95 tryptophan intake and, 88 rat requirements, 48-49 Nickel in guinea pig diet, 119-120 in rat diet, 55 theoretical dietary role, 55 Nicotinamide in rats, 49 Nitrogen metabolism guinea pig, 108, 111-112 hamster, 131 rat, 25, 53 Nitrous oxide, vitamin B12 deficiency and, rats, 46 Norway rat. See Rat Nutrient assays, 8 Nutrient requirements animal environment as variable in, 3-4

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 caloric restriction and, 9 genetic differences in, 3 microbiological status as factor in, 4 nutrient interaction effect, 4 research conditions as factor in, 4 stage-of-life factors in, 3 See also specific animal; specific nutrient O ODS rat, 57 Open-formula diets, 5 Osteoporosis rats, 27, 28 vitamin D-deficient mice, 93 Oxalates ascorbic acid-deficient guinea pigs, 117-118 in calcium uptake of rats, 28 P Pancreas abnormalities in rats, 31, 33 Pantothenic acid dietary sources, 49 guinea pig requirements, 119 hamster requirements, 135 mouse requirements, 95 rat requirements, 49-50 Pectin in guinea pig diet, 119 in rat diet, 45, 46, 53 Pelleted diets, 6, 7 Phenylalanine guinea pig requirement, 111 in hamster diet, 131 mouse requirement, 87-88 rat requirement, 24, 26 Phodopus campbelli, 125 Phodopus sungorus, 125 Phosphorus gerbil requirement, 141 guinea pig requirement, 112-113 hamster requirement, 132, 133 mouse requirements, 88-89 in rat diet mineral interactions, 29, 33, 36 nephrocalcinosis and, 37 requirements, 27-28 vitamin metabolism and, 40 Phthalysulfathiazole, in mouse diet, 97 Phylloquinone, 43, 44 in guinea pig diet, 117 in hamster diet, 134 Phytate, mineral uptake in rats and, 28-29, 36 Pigmentation abnormalities guinea pig, 118 hamster, 134 mouse, 94, 95 rat, 27, 42, 47, 49 Polyneuritis, thiamin-deficient hamsters and, 135 Potassium guinea pig requirements, 113-114 mouse requirements, 89 rat requirements, 30 vole requirements, 147 Potato, 53 Priapism, fatty acid-deficient guinea pigs and, 108 Proline in rat diet, 25 Prostaglandin formation copper-deficient rats, 31 rats, 17 Protein requirements gerbil, 141 guinea pig, 108-110, 112 hamster, 131-132 mouse, 84, 85-86 as protein:energy ratio, 23 rat, 17, 22-24, 26-27, 39 vole, 146 Protein sources amino acid isomers, 6 mouse zinc requirement and, 91 nephrocalcinosis, rats and, 37 phosphorus in, 28 in purified diets, 5, 6 in purified guinea pig diets, 107 trace mineral deficiencies in, 6 vitamin K in, 43 Prothrombin rats, 43-44 vitamin-K-deficient hamsters, 134 Purified diets definition, 5 disadvantages, 5, 6 guinea pig, 106-107 hamster, 126 manufacturing process, 7 mouse, 83 nutrient concentrations, 5, 6 rat, 13-14, 27, 36-38 vole, 145 vs. natural-ingredient diets, 52-53 Pyridoxal. See Vitamin B6 Pyridoxamine. See Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine guinea pig requirement, 119 See also Vitamin B6 Q Quality assurance, importance of, 8-9 R Rat age-related effects, 23, 39, 40-42

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 amino acid requirements, 24-26 anatomy, 11 ascorbic acid in diet of, 57 basal metabolic rate, 15 biotin requirement, 47 calcium/phosphorus requirements, 27-28 carbohydrate requirement, 20-22 chloride requirement, 28-29 choline requirement, 47-48 chromium in diet of, 54-55 copper requirement, 30-31 coprophagy in, 4 data sources, 12 diet formulation, 13-14 dietary lipid concentration, 20 dilution of diet, 15 essential fatty acid requirements, 17-19 estimation of nutrient requirements, 12 fiber in diet of, 53 folate requirement, 48 fructose/sucrose in diet of, 22 gender differences, 11, 17, 19, 43-44 general energy requirements, 14-15 gestation, 17, 18, 29, 31, 32, 35, 36, 39, 42, 45, 49, 52 growth characteristics, 11 growth energy requirements, 16-17 iodine requirement, 31-32 iron requirement, 32 L-gulonolactone oxidase in, 3 lactation, 17-18, 22, 26, 28-32, 35, 36, 39, 45, 49, 52 lipid digestibility, 19-20 lithium in diet of, 55 magnesium requirement, 29 maintenance energy requirements, 16 manganese requirement, 32-33 mineral interaction, 28 mineral requirements, 27. See also specific mineral or trace element molybdenum requirement, 33-34 myo-inositol in diet of, 58 natural-ingredient vs. purified diets for, 52-53 nephrocalcinosis, 13, 22, 27, 36-38 niacin requirement, 48-49 nickel in diet of, 55 ODS mutant, 57 pantothenic acid requirement, 49-50 potassium requirement, 30 potentially beneficial components in diet of, 53-54 protein requirements, 22-24, 26 reproductive energy requirements, 17 reproductive performance, 11-12, 22 as research subjects, 11 riboflavin requirement, 50-51 selenium requirement, 34-36 silicon in diet of, 56 sodium requirement, 30 sulfur in diet of, 56 thiamin requirement, 51-52 trace mineral requirements, 30-31 triene:tetraene ratio, 17-18 vanadium in diet of, 56-57 vitamin A requirement, 38-40 vitamin B12 metabolism, 46-47 vitamin B6 requirements, 44-46 vitamin D requirement, 40-41 vitamin E metabolism, 41-43 vitamin K requirement, 43-44 vitamin requirements, 38. See also specific vitamin Warfarin-resistant, 44 weanling, 15, 16, 26 zinc requirement, 36 Rattus norvegici. See Rat Reproduction gerbil, 140 guinea pig amino acid requirements, 112 ascorbic acid requirement, 117 glutathione peroxidase activity and, 115 nutrient requirements, 105 protein requirements, 112 hamster amino acid/protein requirements, 131-132 biotin deficiency and, 134 iron deficiency and, 133 vitamin requirements, 134 mouse biotin deficiency, 94 copper deficiency, 90 dietary fat, 84 folic acid intake, 94 patterns, 80 protein requirements, 84, 86 riboflavin requirement, 95 thiamin requirement, 96 vitamin A toxicity, 92 vitamin B6 intake, 95 vitamin E deficiency, 93 zinc deficiency, 91 rat biotin metabolism, 47 chromium deficiency, 54 iodine deficiency, 32 iron requirement, 32 lithium deficiency, 55 magnesium deficiency, 29-30 managanese requirement, 32-33 nutrient requirements, 12, 17-18 riboflavin metabolism, 50, 51 sodium requirement, 30 vitamin A deficiency, 39 vitamin deficiency and, 40, 46-47 vitamin requirements, 42 zinc requirement, 36 vole amino acid/protein requirements, 146 patterns, 144 purified diets, 145 See also Gestation; Lactation; Newborn survival rate

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 Research conditions diet formulation, 4, 8-9 guinea pig diet, 103 mouse nutrient requirements, 82 natural-ingredient diets, 5 physical form of diets, 6, 7 suitability of rat, 11 Reticulocyte count in vitamin B6-deficient mice, 95 Retinol in rat diet, 38-40 Retinyl esters, in mouse diet, 92 Retinyl function in guinea pigs, 108 Riboflavin dietary role, 50 gerbil requirement, 142 guinea pig requirement, 119 hamster requirement, 135 mouse requirement, 95-96 in rat diet requirement, 50-51 vitamin interaction, 50 Rickets hamsters, 132-133 mice, 92-93 rats, 41 Romanian hamster, 125 S Safflower oil, 18 Salmonella, in mice, 96 Scurvy, guinea pigs, 117 Selenium dietary forms, 34 gerbil requirements, 142 guinea pig requirements, 114-115 hamster requirements, 132-133 mouse requirements, 91-92 protein-source deficiency, 6 in rat diet requirement, 34-36 vitamin E and, 41 role of, 34 Sexual behavior/development fatty acid-deficient guinea pigs, 108 zinc-deficient rats, 36 Silicon in guinea pig diet, 119-120 in rat diet, 56 Skin disorders gerbils, 142 guinea pigs, 108, 114, 115, 119 hamsters, 128, 135 mice, 85, 95, 96 rats, 19, 42, 45, 47, 49, 50 vitamin-deficient rats, 47 Sodium gerbil requirements, 141-142 guinea pig requirements, 113 hamster requirements, 132 mouse requirements, 89 rat requirements, 30 vole requirements, 147 Sorbitol in rat diet, 22 Sorbose in rat diet, 22 Sphingolipids, 19 Spleen abnormalities guinea pigs, 108, 116 mice, 90 Sterilization of diets, 6, 8 vitamin A deterioration in, 92 Storage ascorbic acid in feeds, 117 feeds, 7-8 vitamin A deterioration in, 92 Strain variation hamsters, 125 mice, 80 amino acid requirements, 87 nutrient requirements, 3 rats growth patterns, 3 mineral requirements, 30 reproductive performance, 11-12 vitamin K deficiency, 44 voles, 144, 145 Stress research conditions and, 4 vitamin A and, rats, 39 Sucrose in hamster diet, 129, 131, 135 in mouse diet, 85 in rat diet, 22, 28, 31, 48-49 Sulfa drugs, 47, 134 Sulfaguanidine, in hamster diet, 134 Sulfanomide, in hamster diet, 134 Sulfite oxidase, rats, 33 Sulfur guinea pig requirements, 110, 113 rat requirements, 24, 26, 56 Symptoms of dietary deficiencies/excesses adrenalopathy guinea pigs, 118 rats, 30, 49 voles, 147 anemia guinea pigs, 113, 117, 118, 119 mice, 90, 95 rats, 26, 31, 32, 36, 45, 48, 50 arteriovenous abnormalities, rats, 19, 29, 41 ascites, rats, 30, 36 blood abnormalities guinea pigs, 117, 118, 119 hamsters, 134 mice, 90 rats, 29, 30, 31, 36, 42, 43, 44, 46, 51, 52, 55 bone abnormalities guinea pigs, 112-113, 115, 116, 118

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 mice, 89 rats, 27, 28, 30, 31, 33, 39, 40, 41, 42 cardiovascular abnormalities guinea pigs, 114, 116 mice, 90, 94 rats, 29, 31, 32, 48, 52 cataract formation guinea pigs, 110 rats, 22, 27, 35, 50 cerebrospinal fluid pressure, rats, 39 convulsions gerbils, 141 guinea pigs, 113 mice, 89, 96 rats, 29, 45 corneal abnormalities guinea pigs, 115, 119 mice, 96 rats, 27, 30, 39, 50 death gerbils, 141 guinea pigs, 113, 117, 119 hamsters, 127, 129, 135 mice, 94, 96 rats, 19, 26, 30, 33, 36 dental abnormalities guinea pigs, 113, 115, 116 hamsters, 132 rats, 27 developmental gerbils, 142 guinea pigs, 112, 113, 115, 116, 118, 119 hamsters, 133, 134-135 mice, 89, 91, 94, 95, 96 rats, 19, 21, 22, 26, 28, 29, 30, 33, 35, 36, 39-40, 41, 47, 48, 49 voles, 146 edema, rats, 36 excretory abnormalities guinea pigs, 119 hamsters, 131, 134, 135 rats, 22, 27, 28, 29, 30, 48 exploratory behaviors, rats, 18 feeding behavior guinea pigs, 114, 117, 119 hamsters, 134, 135 mice, 91 rats, 30, 31, 33, 36, 51, 52 hair abnormalities gerbils, 141, 142 guinea pigs, 108, 112, 113, 118, 119 hamsters, 128, 133, 134-135 mice, 85, 91, 94, 95 rats, 27, 30, 32, 35, 36, 42, 47, 49, 50 hemorrhage guinea pigs, 117, 118, 119 hamsters, 133 mice, 96 rats, 28, 44 hyperirritability/hyperexcitability mice, 89, 95 rats, 29, 36, 41, 45 hypoproteinemia, rats, 26 immunological dysfunction guinea pigs, 112, 118 mice, 90, 91, 92, 94-95 rats, 31, 32, 36, 42, 47, 50 keratinization guinea pigs, 115 hamsters, 133 mice, 92 rats, 39 kidney abnormalities guinea pigs, 108, 113, 115, 116 mice, 89, 94 rats, 19, 22, 27, 29, 30, 31, 36-38, 41, 48, 55 liver abnormalities guinea pigs, 112, 113, 114, 116, 118 hamsters, 133, 134 mice, 90, 91, 94, 96 rats, 19, 22, 27, 31, 32, 36, 40, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51 metabolic dysfunction guinea pigs, 114, 116, 117-118 mice, 83, 90, 91 rats, 35, 36, 46, 51, 57 muscle abnormalities guinea pigs, 114, 116, 117, 118, 119 hamsters, 133-134 mice, 91, 93, 94, 96 rats, 26, 27, 30, 42, 46, 50-51, 85 neurological abnormalities guinea pigs, 119 hamsters, 133, 135 mice, 93, 95 rats, 18, 42, 45-46, 47, 48, 49, 52 pancreas abnormalities, rats, 31, 33 pigmentation abnormalities guinea pigs, 118 hamsters, 134 mice, 94, 95 rats, 27, 42, 47, 49 reproductive performance guinea pigs, 112, 114, 115-116 hamsters, 133, 134 mice, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96 rats, 19, 22, 26, 28, 29-30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 39, 40, 41, 42, 46, 47, 51 voles, 147 retinal abnormalities mice, 85 rats, 18 rickets hamsters, 132-133 mice, 92-93 rats, 41 sensory response, rats, 18, 45 skin abnormalities gerbils, 142

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 guinea pigs, 108, 114, 115, 119 hamsters, 128, 135 mice, 85, 95, 96 rats, 19, 42, 45, 47, 49, 50 spectacle eye mice, 85 rats, 47 spleen disorders guinea pigs, 108, 116 mice, 90 tetany guinea pigs, 113 rats, 41 thyroid abnormalities hamsters, 133 mice, 91 rats, 32 vision disorder, rats, 39 xerophthalmia guinea pigs, 115 hamsters, 133 mice, 92 T Taurine in gerbil diet, 141 vitamin B6 metabolism and, rats, 46 Temperature choline metabolism and, rats, 47-48 coprophagy and, rats, 43 for diet sterilization, 8 feedstuff storage, 7-8 mouse maintenance energy requirements and, 83 nutrient requirements and, 3-4 rat energy requirements and, 15 vitamin loss in feed pelleting, 7 vole energy metabolism and, 146 Teratogenicity biotin deficiency and, mice, 94 riboflavin deficiency and, mice, 96 vitamin A toxicity guinea pig, 115-116 mouse, 92 rat, 40 vitamin D toxicity, rat, 40 Tetraethylorthosilicate, 56 Thiamin guinea pig requirements, 119 hamster requirements, 135 mouse requirements, 96 in rat diet requirement, 51-52 vitamin interactions, 57 Threonine guinea pig requirement, 111 mouse requirement, 87 rat requirement, 25, 26 Thymus abnormalities ascorbic acid-deficient guinea pigs, 118 copper-deficient mice, 90 Thyroid abnormalities and iodine deficiency hamster, 133 mouse, 91 rat, 32 Tin guinea pig diet, 119-120 mineral interactions in rats, 36 α-Tocopherol, 8, 40, 41, 42-43, 93, 116, 133 Torula yeast, 6, 54, 133 Toxicity biotin, rats, 47 choline mice, 94 rats, 48 copper mice, 90 rats, 31 diet formulation as source of, 9 iodine, in rats, 32 iron mice, 90 rats, 32 lithium, rats, 55 manganese, rats, 33 molybdenum, rats, 34 niacin, rats, 49 nickel, rats, 55 pantothenic acid, rats, 50 potassium, rats, 30 riboflavin, rats, 51 selenium, rats, 36 silicon, rats, 56 sodium, rats, 30 vanadium, rats, 57 vitamin A guinea pig, 115-116 hamsters, 133 mice, 92 rats, 40 vitamin B6, rats, 46 vitamin D guinea pig, 116 mice, 93 rats, 41 vitamin E mice, 93 rats, 42-43 vitamin K, rats, 44 zinc mice, 91 rats, 36 Toxicological research, 5 diet contaminants and, 8, 9 hamsters in, 125 Trace minerals definition, 27

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 in fixed-formula feeds, 5 gerbil requirements, 142 in guinea pig diet, 119-120 mouse requirements, 89-90 in protein sources, deficiencies in, 6 in rat diet nonessential, 53-54 requirements, 30-31 See also specific trace element Trace nutrients, 6 Triene:tetraene ratio guinea pig, 108 rat, 17-18 Triglycerides choline-deficient rats, 48 lipid digestibility and, rats, 19-20 Tryptophan guinea pig diet, 109-111, 118 hamster niacin metabolism and, 135 mouse requirement, 88, 95 rat diet, 25-26, 27, 48-49 vole diet, 146 Tumor growth, dietary fat and mice, 84-85 rats, 20 Tungsten, rats, 33 Turkish hamsters, 125 Tyrosine guinea pig requirement, 111 in mouse diet, 87-88 rat requirement, 24 V Valine mouse diet, 87 rat diet, 25-26 Vanadium guinea pig diet, 119-120 rat diet, 56-57 Vasodilation, magnesium-deficient rats, 29 Vitamin A deterioration in storage, 8 dietary role of, 38 form in feeds, 39 guinea pig requirements, 115-116 hamster requirements, 133 mouse requirements, 92 in rat diet dietary lipids and, 20 requirements, 38-40 vitamin interactions, 42, 44 toxic concentrations, 9 Vitamin B6 in gerbil diet, 141 hamster requirements, 135 mouse requirements, 95 in rat diet requirements, 44-46 riboflavin metabolism and, 50 vitamin interactions, 50 Vitamin B12 dietary role, 46 in guinea pig diet, 120 hamster requirements, 135 mouse requirements, 93-94 in rat diet, 46-47, 57 Vitamin C deterioration in storage, 8 mouse requirements, 96-97 toxic concentrations, 9 See also Ascorbic acid Vitamin D guinea pig requirement, 116 hamster requirement, 132-133 mouse requirement, 92-93 in rat diet mineral uptake and, 28-29 requirement, 40-41 Vitamin E antioxidant role, 41 guinea pig requirements, 116 hamster requirements, 133-134 mouse requirements, 93 in rat diet requirement, 41-43 vitamin interactions, 39, 42, 44, 57 Vitamin K dietary role, 43 guinea pig requirements, 117 hamster requirements, 134 mouse requirements, 93 in rat diet, 40, 43-44 Vitamins in casein in purified diets, 6 gerbil requirements, 142 interaction in rats, 39, 42, 50, 57 molecular weights, 152 in natural-ingredient diets, 5, 7 potentially beneficial, in rat diet, 57-58 rat requirements, 38 in sterilized diets, 8 unit conversion factors, 153 vole requirements, 147 See also specific vitamin Voles amino acid/protein requirements, 146 diet formulation, 145 digestive anatomy, 145-146 energy metabolism, 146 growth patterns, 144 housing for, 145 mineral requirements, 146-147 natural history, 144 reproductive patterns, 144 as research subjects, 144-145 vitamin requirements, 147

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 W Warfarin, guinea pigs, 117 resistance and vitamin K hamsters, 134 rats, 44 Wastage, diet formulation and, 6-7 Water intake fatty acid-deficient guinea pigs, 108 gerbil, 140-141 hamster patterns, 126 minerals in, 4 X Xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase, rats, 33, 46 Xerophthalmia, vitamin A deficiency and hamsters, 133 mice, 92 Xylan, vitamin B12 metabolism and, rats, 46 Xylitol, thiamin metabolism and, rats, 51 Xylose toxicity, rats, 22 Z Zinc gerbil requirements, 142 guinea pig requirements, 114 housing conditions and, 4 mouse requirements, 91 protein-source deficiency, 6 in rat diet deficiency, 30 mineral interactions, 27, 31 requirements, 36 vitamin A and, 39

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Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals: Fourth Revised Edition, 1995 Other Titles in the Series Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, Ninth Rev. Ed., 1994 0-309-04892-3 Nutrient Requirements of Fish, 1993 0-309-04891-5 Nutrient Requirements of Horses, Fifth Rev. Ed., 1989 0-309-03989-4 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Sixth Rev. Ed., Update 1989 0-309-03826-X Nutrient Requirements of Swine, Ninth Rev. Ed., 1988 0-309-03779-4 Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Rev. Ed., 1986 0-309-03682-8 Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, Sixth Rev. Ed., 1985 0-309-03596-1 Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, Rev. Ed., 1985 0-309-03496-5 Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, Sixth Rev. Ed., 1984 0-309-03447-7 Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes, Rev. Ed., 1982 0-309-03325-X Nutrient Requirements of Goats, 1981 0-309-03185-0 Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates, 1978 0-309-02786-1 Nutrient Requirements of Rabbits, Second Rev. Ed., 1977 0-309-02607-5 Related Publications   Metabolic Modifiers: Effects on the Nutrient Requirements of Food-Producing Animals, 1994 0-309-04997-0 Predicting Feed Intake of Food-Producing Animals, 1987 0-309-03695-X Vitamin Tolerance of Animals, 1987 0-309-03728-X

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