force, or group that is established to provide recommendations or advice on policies or other issues related to the missions of the NIH institutes. There are four distinct types of committees: scientific and technical peer review committees for research grant, cooperative agreement, and contract proposals; boards of scientific counselors to review the intramural research programs; program advisory committees to advise on specific research programs and future needs; and national advisory councils to offer advice on policies and programs and to conduct the second level of peer review. Membership on NIH advisory committees is based on demonstrated leadership and excellence in behavioral and biomedical research. Public members are chosen for an active interest in the particular mission of the committee.

NIAAA, NIDA, and NIMH each has its own National Advisory Council, Extramural Science Advisory Board, and Board of Scientific Counselors. Each institute also has several review committees (IRGs), including at least one separate review committee for AIDS research. These AIDS-specific review committees were primarily established in response to the mandatory expedited six-month review for AIDS applications (as opposed to the standard nine-month review).

NIAAA uses two scientific review committees for all applications: Alcohol Psychosocial Research Review Committee and Alcohol Biomedical Research Review Committee. All AIDS applications are reviewed by a subcommittee of the Biomedical Review Committee, called the Immunology and AIDS Subcommittee, which has twelve committee members with scientific expertise in medicine, microbiology/immunology, pathology, sociology, psychology, public health, behavioral science, cellular biology, and psychoimmunology.

NIDA has five research review committees, one of which is the Drug Abuse AIDS Research Review Committee. This committee has two subcommittees: the Biomedical and Clinical Subcommittee (DAAR-1) and the Sociobehavioral Subcommittee (DAAR-2). The twelve members of DAAR-1 represent pediatrics, pharmacology, epidemiology, anthropology, psychiatry, neurology, neuropsychology, and psychology. The thirteen members of DAAR-2 represent the fields of epidemiology, sociology, psychology, psychiatry, other social and behavioral sciences, and addiction medicine.

NIMH has more than twenty separate review committees. The Mental Health, AIDS, and Immunology Committee has two subcommittees for reviewing AIDS applications: the Behavioral, Clinical, and Psychosocial Subcommittee and the Psychobiological, Biological,

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