research. AIDS funding at NIAAA increased from $2.4 million in FY 1987 (when the institute began its AIDS program) to $8 million in FY 1993, while total NIAAA funding (AIDS and non-AIDS) grew from $43 million to $176 million in the same period (Figure S.1).
Since NIAAA initiated its AIDS program, it has devoted much of its extramural and intramural research efforts to biomedical issues. NIAAA's broad research goal in this area is to elucidate how alcohol alters the immune system in ways that may compromise host defense against HIV. By 1990, NIAAA's research portfolio shifted so that half of the research grants had a biomedical component, half had a psychosocial component, and approximately one-fourth had an epidemiological component. None of the NIAAA research grants included a social-structural component until 1992.
Although NIDA has had an AIDS coordinator since the mid-1980s, the institute only formally established an Office of AIDS