Protecting Buildings From Bomb Damage

Transfer of Blast-Effects Mitigation Technologies from Military to Civilian Applications

Committee on Feasibility of Applying Blast-Mitigating
Technologies and Design Methodologies
from Military Facilities to Civilian Buildings

Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment
Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems
National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C. 1995



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Protecting Buildings From Bomb Damage Transfer of Blast-Effects Mitigation Technologies from Military to Civilian Applications Committee on Feasibility of Applying Blast-Mitigating Technologies and Design Methodologies from Military Facilities to Civilian Buildings Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995

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Page ii NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964. under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Funding for the project was provided through an agreement between the National Academy of Sciences, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Defense Nuclear Agency, Contract No. DNA001-92-C-0083. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 95-71478 International Standard Book Number: 0-309-05375-7 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20055 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan area) Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Page iii COMMITTEE ON FEASIBILITY OF APPLYING BLAST-MITIGATING TECHNOLOGIES AND DESIGN METHODOLOGIES FROM MILITARY FACILITIES TO CIVILIAN BUILDINGS EUGENE SEVIN, Chair, Lyndhurst, Ohio STUART L. KNOOP, Vice Chair, Oudens and Knoop, Architects, P.C., Chevy Chase, Maryland TED BELYTSCHKO, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois GARY G. BRIGGS, Consolidated Engineering Services, Inc., Arlington, Virginia WILLIAM J. HALL, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign BRUCE HOFFMAN, St. Andrews University, St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland THEODOR KRAUTHAMMER, Pennsylvania State University, University Park WALTER P. MOORE Jr., Walter P. Moore & Associates, Inc., Houston, Texas BARBARA A. MYERCHIN, Strategic Science & Technology Planners, Arlington, Virginia LESLIE E. ROBERTSON, Leslie E. Robertson Associates, Consulting Structural Engineers, New York Staff RICHARD G. LITTLE, Study Director DENNIS CHAMOT, Acting Study Director (until 1/31/95) GEORGE LALOS, Project Officer SUSAN K. COPPINGER, Administrative Assistant AMELIA MATHIS, Project Assistant (until 12/24/94)

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Page iv BOARD ON INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chair, Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, New York CATHERINE BROWN, Design Center for American Urban Landscape, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis NANCY RUTLEDGE CONNERY, Public Works Infrastructure, Woolwich, Maine LLOYD A. DUSCHA, Reston, Virginia ALBERT A. GRANT, Potomac, Maryland SUSAN E. HANSON, School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts E.R. (VALD) HEIBERG, III, Heiberg Associates, Inc., Mason Neck, Virginia RONALD W. JENSEN, City of Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona JAMES K. MITCHELL, Charles E. Via Professor of Civil Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg GARY T. MOORE, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee HAROLD J. PARMELEE, Turner Construction Company, New York STANLEY W. SMITH, McLean, Virginia RAYMOND L. STERLING, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston Staff RICHARD G. LITTLE, Director DENNIS CHAMOT, Acting Director (until 1/31/95) HENRY BORGER, Executive Secretary, Federal Facilities Council (until 2/28/95) LYNDA STANLEY, Director, Federal Facilities Council GEORGE LALOS, Senior Program Officer SUSAN K. COPPINGER, Administrative Assistant LENA B. GRAYSON, Program Assistant AMELIA MATHIS, Project Assistant (until 12/24/94)

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Page v Contents Executive Summary 1 Introduction 4 Scope of the Study 5 Organization of the Report 6 Terrorism: Its Motives, Methods, and Immediate Results 7 Motives for Terrorist Attacks 8 Patterns of Terrorist Attacks 9 Bomb Damage to Buildings and Occupants 14 References 24 Review of Existing Knowledge for Blast-Effects Mitigation and Protective Design Technologies 26 Introduction 26 Experimental and Simple Analytical Approaches 31 Technical Design Manuals 32 Computational Techniques 35 Computer Programs for Blast and Shock Effects 39 Code Validation 41 Applications of Computational Methods to Terrorist Threats 43 Summary Observations 44 References 45

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Page vi Blast-Effects Mitigation Potential for Commercial Buildings 49 Assessing Threats to Civilian Buildings 49 Architectural Planning Process 50 Special Considerations for Hardening Existing Buildings 55 Vulnerabilities of Civilian Structures 58 Vulnerabilities of Nonstructural Building Systems 59 Below-Grade Vulnerabilities in Civilian Buildings 62 Protecting Nonstructural Systems 64 Stack Effect in High-Rise Buildings 65 Economic Considerations 66 Agents for Technology Transfer 68 References 70 Findings and Recommendations 71 Findings 71 Recommendations 75 Appendix A: Financial Performance of a Commercial Office Building 83 Appendix B: Computer Code Abstracts Provided by Code Developers 87 Appendix C: Committee Briefings 97 Appendix D: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 99

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Page vii List of Figures and Tables Figures   2-1 The Jewish Community Center, Buenos Aires, showing vulnerability of brick masonry construction 16 2-2 St. Mary Axe, London, showing general damage to multistory office building of the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development 17 2-3 St. Mary Axe, London, showing potentially lethal glass shards 18 2-4 Staples Corner, North London, showing damage to a single-story steel-framed warehouse 19 2-5 World Trade Center, New York, showing the aftermath of the explosion within the parking garage 20 2-6 Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, Oklahoma City, showing catastrophic effects on the building's north face 22 2-7 Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, Oklahoma City, showing detail of the reinforced concrete column and slab construction 22 3-1 Comparison of predicted and observed deformation of a buried structure in clay and sand backfills 43 Tables   2-1 Analysis of Bombing Incidents in the United States by Target, 1989–1993 11 3-1 Representative Computer Programs Used to Simulate Blast Effects and Structural Response 40 A-1 Conventional Building Income and Expense Analysis 84 A-2 Return on Investment Analysis 85

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Page ix Terms Used in This Report Designing structures to withstand the effects of a deliberately placed explosive device can entail many types of protective measures. Some will increase the difficulty of placing a bomb close enough to a structure to damage it; others will physically strengthen all or parts of the structure while still others will aim to ensure the survival and rescue of the occupants in the event of a bomb explosion. Throughout this report, a number of terms are used to describe these measures. To facilitate the reader's understanding, an explanation of the most commonly used terms is provided below. Technical terms that are considered outside the normal usage of the lay reader are defined as they appear. Blast-hardening of a structure refers to all measures that are taken, either in the design phase or in subsequent (retrofit) actions, to reduce or eliminate the effects of an explosion. This process is sometimes simply referred to as building "hardening." In the broad sense, it includes site selection and physical space planning (i.e., organization of spaces to minimize the effects of a blast on people and property). Blast resistance is an effect of blast-hardening and refers to the ability of a structure to withstand an explosive event with minimum loss of life or property. Blast-effects mitigation refers to the reduction in the severity of the effects of an explosion on a structure resulting from having taken specified blast-hardening measures.

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Page x Protective design technologies refer collectively to the techniques and methodologies that have evolved for addressing blast-hardening of buildings and other structures. This body of knowledge is the product of experimental studies, theoretical analyses, and advanced numerical simulation approaches developed primarily by the military for predicting blast loads and the responses of structural systems.