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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 70 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES The National Academy Press was created by the National Academy of Sciences to publish the reports issued by the Academy and by the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council, all operating under the charter granted to the National Academy of Sciences by the Congress of the United States.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 70 Biographical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 70 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 70 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1996

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 70 The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-05541-5 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER 0077-2933 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 70 CONTENTS     PREFACE   vii     WILLIAM L. BROWN BY DONALD N. DUVICK   3     KENNETH STEWART COLE BY SIR ANDREW HUXLEY   25     HENRY EYRING BY WALTER KAUZMANN   47     ALFRED GILMAN BY MURDOCH RITCHIE   59     HENRY GILMAN BY C. EABORN   83     MORRIS HOWARD HANSEN BY JOSEPH WAKSBERG AND EDWIN D. GOLDFIELD   117     ROBERT PAUL HANSON BY THOMAS M. YUILL, AND B. C. EASTERDAY   139     ROBERT FLEMING HEIZER BY THOMAS R. HESTER   157

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 70     FREDERICK SEYMOUR HULSE BY EUGENE GILES   175     LEON ORRIS JACOBSON BY EUGENE GOLDWASSER   191     WARREN KENDALL LEWIS BY HOYT C. HOTTEL   205     CHOH HAO LI BY R. DAVID COLE   221     BERND THEODOR MATTHIAS BY T. H. GEBALLE AND J. K. HULM   241     EGON OROWAN BY F. R. N. NABARRO AND A. S. ARGON   261     EFRAIM RACKER BY GOTTFRIED SCHATZ   321     HERSCHEL L. ROMAN BY MICHAEL S. ESPOSITO   349     HARRY LIONEL SHAPIRO BY FRANK SPENCER   369     FRANK LUDVIG SPITZER BY PHILIP H. ABELSON   389     MERLE ANTONY TUVE BY PHILIP H. ABELSON   407     JOHN WEST WELLS BY WILLIAM R. BRICE   425

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 70 PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sciences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scientists, elected for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advise the federal government. As an institution the Academy's goal is to work toward increasing scientific knowledge and to further the use of that knowledge for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories and selected bibliographies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subject's work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sciences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in America—an important part of our nation's contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. PETER H. RAVEN Home Secretary

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 70 This page in the original is blank.