Appendix C
Biographical Sketches

CHRISTOPHER D. WICKENS (Chair) is currently a professor of experimental psychology, head of the Aviation Research Laboratory, and associate director of the Institute of Aviation at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He also holds an appointment in the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and the Beckman Institute of Science and Technology. He received an A.B. degree from Harvard University in 1967 and a Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1974 and served as a commissioned officer in the U.S. Navy from 1969 to 1972. He is currently involved in aviation research concerning principles of human attention, perception and cognition, and their relation to display processing, multitask performance, and navigation in complex systems. He is a member and fellow of the Human Factors Society and received the Society's Jerome H. Ely Award in 1981 for the best article in the Human Factors Journal, as well as the Paul M. Fitts Award in 1985 for outstanding contributions to the education and training of human factors specialists by the Human Factors Society. In 1993 he received the Franklin Taylor Award from Division 21 of the American Psychological Association. He has also served on the National Research Council's Committee on Human Factors.

CHARLES B. AALFS is a retired air traffic control specialist for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). He has over 30 years of experience as an air traffic controller for both the U.S. Navy and the FAA. While with the FAA, he served as an air traffic controller, air traffic automation specialist, air traffic facility officer, air traffic facility manager, air traffic regional office automation specialist and branch manager, and division manager of resource management.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 345
Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control Appendix C Biographical Sketches CHRISTOPHER D. WICKENS (Chair) is currently a professor of experimental psychology, head of the Aviation Research Laboratory, and associate director of the Institute of Aviation at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He also holds an appointment in the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and the Beckman Institute of Science and Technology. He received an A.B. degree from Harvard University in 1967 and a Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1974 and served as a commissioned officer in the U.S. Navy from 1969 to 1972. He is currently involved in aviation research concerning principles of human attention, perception and cognition, and their relation to display processing, multitask performance, and navigation in complex systems. He is a member and fellow of the Human Factors Society and received the Society's Jerome H. Ely Award in 1981 for the best article in the Human Factors Journal, as well as the Paul M. Fitts Award in 1985 for outstanding contributions to the education and training of human factors specialists by the Human Factors Society. In 1993 he received the Franklin Taylor Award from Division 21 of the American Psychological Association. He has also served on the National Research Council's Committee on Human Factors. CHARLES B. AALFS is a retired air traffic control specialist for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). He has over 30 years of experience as an air traffic controller for both the U.S. Navy and the FAA. While with the FAA, he served as an air traffic controller, air traffic automation specialist, air traffic facility officer, air traffic facility manager, air traffic regional office automation specialist and branch manager, and division manager of resource management.

OCR for page 345
Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control When he retired, he was the manager of the new Southern California TRACON in San Diego, California. As an automation specialist, he was responsible for the software maintenance of the terminal automated radar system called ARTS III and IIIA. He was also the author of many design changes to the ARTS III program, one of which was the design to allow automated handoffs from one ARTS III site to another. TORA K. BIKSON is a senior scientist in RAND Corporation's Behavioral Sciences Department. She received B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. (1969) degrees in philosophy from the University of Missouri at Columbia and M.A. and Ph.D. (1974) degrees in psychology from the University of California at Los Angeles. Since 1980, her research has investigated properties of advanced information technologies in varied user contexts. Her work emphasizes field research design, intensive case studies, and large-scale cross-sectional studies addressed to the use of computer-based tools in organizational settings. She is a member of Data for Development, a United Nations Secretariat providing scientific guidance on the use of information systems in developing companies, and a technical consultant to the United Nations Advisory Commission on the Coordination of Information Systems. She is a frequent reviewer for professional papers and has authored a number of journal articles, book chapters, and research reports on the implementation of new interactive media. She is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Association for Computing Machinery, the American Psychological Association (fellow), the Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, and the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. She recently served on a committee of the National Research Council's Computer Science and Telecommunications Board that produced Information Technology and the Service Society. MARVIN S. COHEN is founder and president of Cognitive Technologies, Inc. (CTI) in Arlington, Virginia. His professional interests include experimental research on human reasoning and decision making, elicitation and representation of expert knowledge, training cognitive skills in individuals and teams, development of decision support systems, human-computer interface design, and methods for representing and manipulating uncertainty. His current work at CTI includes experimental research on airline pilot decision-making processes, training decision-making skills under time stress in the ship-based anti-air-warfare environment, training for more effective distributed team decision making in naval air strike warfare, design of interfaces to enhance human performance with automatic target recognition devices, and modeling and training situation-assessment skills of Army battlefield commanders. He has an M.A. in philosophy from the University of Chicago and a Ph.D. in experimental psychology from Harvard University. For 11 years, he was at Decision Science Consortium, Inc., where he was vice president and director of Cognitive Science and Decision Systems. He

OCR for page 345
Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control has taught at George Washington University on the design of human-computer interfaces and has served on a committee of the National Research Council's Air Force Studies Board on tactical battle management. DIANE DAMOS is an associate professor of human factors at the University of Southern California and president of Damos Research Associates. After receiving her doctorate in aviation psychology from the University of Illinois, she became a member of the faculty of the Department of Industrial Engineering at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Prior to joining the University of Southern California, she was also a member of the faculty of the Department of Psychology at Arizona State University. Her research interests have focused on pilot selection and multiple-task performance, including workload management in advanced automation aircraft. She has authored numerous books and papers and edited Multiple Task Performance, which appeared in 1991. She is a member of the editorial board of the International Journal of Aviation Psychology. JAMES DANAHER is the chief of the Operational Factors Division of the Office of Aviation Safety at the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) in Washington, D.C. He has more than 35 years work experience in the human factors and safety fields, in both industry and government. Since joining NTSB in 1970, he has served in various supervisory and managerial positions, with special emphasis on human performance issues in flight operations and air traffic control. He has participated in the on-scene phase of numerous accident investigations, in associated public hearings, and in the development of NTSB recommendations for the prevention of future accidents. He is a former naval aviator and holds a commercial pilots' license with single-engine, multi-engine, and instrument ratings. He has an M.S. degree in experimental psychology from Ohio State University and is a graduate of the Federal Executive Institute. He has represented the NTSB at numerous safety meetings, symposia, and seminars and is the author or coauthor of numerous publications. ROBERT L. HELMREICH is professor of psychology at the University of Texas at Austin. He is also director of the NASA/University of Texas/FAA Aerospace Crew Research Project. He received B.A., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees from Yale University and served as an officer in the U.S. Navy. He studies team performance in many groups, including pilots, astronauts, and surgical teams. He has been involved with the definition and implementation of crew resource management training for nearly 20 years. He is author or editor of 3 books and more than 180 chapters, monographs, and journal articles. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society. He received the Flight Safety Foundation/Aviation Week and Space Technology Distinguished Service Award for 1994 for his contributions to the development of crew resource management.

OCR for page 345
Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control V. DAVID HOPKIN is an independent human factors consultant who is based part time at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University at Daytona Beach, Florida. He was formerly senior principal psychologist at the Royal Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine at Farnborough and human factors consultant to the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority. He has also worked for the International Civil Aviation Organization, NATO, Eurocontrol, the Federal Aviation Administration, and numerous other international and national agencies. He has over 300 publications, including the 1995 Human Factors in Air Traffic Control. He has an M.A. in psychology from the University of Aberdeen, Scotland and is a fellow of the Royal Institute of Navigation. JERRY KIDD is senior adviser for the Committee on Human Factors and its various projects. He received a Ph.D. from Northwestern University in social psychology in 1956; he then joined RAND Corporation to help on a project to simulate air defense operations. He left RAND in late 1956 to join the staff at the Laboratory of Aviation Psychology at Ohio State University. There he worked under Paul Fitts and George Briggs until 1962, when he joined the staff of AAI, Incorporated, north of Baltimore, Maryland. In 1964, he moved to the National Science Foundation as program director for special projects. He joined the faculty of the College of Library and Information Services at the University of Maryland in 1967 and retired in 1992. TODD T. LaPORTE is professor of political science and formerly associate director of the Institute of Governmental Studies at the University of California, Berkeley. He teaches and publishes in the areas of public administration, organization theory, and technology and politics, with emphasis on the decision-making dynamics of large, complex, and technologically intensive (and hazardous) organizations, and the problems of governance and political legitimacy in a technological society. He is a member of the National Academy of Public Administration, was a research fellow with the Woodrow Wilson International Center of Scholars, and has held visiting research appointments with the Science Center in Berlin and the Max Planck Institute for Social Research in Cologne, Germany. He has a Ph.D. from Stanford University. ANNE S. MAVOR is study director for the Panel on Human Factors in Air Traffic Control, the Panel on Modeling Human Behavior and Command Decision Making, and the Committee on Human Factors. Her previous work as a National Research Council senior staff officer has included a study of the scientific and technological challenges of virtual reality, a study of emerging needs and opportunities for human factors research, a study of modeling cost and performance of military enlistment, a review of federally sponsored education research activities, and a study to evaluate performance appraisal for merit pay. For the past 25 years her work has concentrated on human factors, cognitive psychology, and information

OCR for page 345
Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control system design. Prior to joining the National Research Council she worked for the Essex Corporation, a human factors research firm, and served as a consultant to the College Board. She has an M.S. in experimental psychology from Purdue University. JAMES P. McGEE is a senior research associate supporting human factors and related activities in the Division on Education, Labor, and Human Performance of the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Prior to joining the National Research Council in 1994, he held scientific, technical, and management positions in human factors psychology at IBM, RCA, General Electric, General Dynamics, and United Technologies corporations. He has also instructed courses in applied psychology and general psychology at several colleges. He is a member of the Potomac chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society and of the American Psychological Association. He has a Ph.D. in experimental psychology from Fordham University. RAJA PARASURAMAN is professor of psychology and director of the Cognitive Science Laboratory at the Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C. Currently he is also a visiting scientist at the Laboratory of Psychology at the National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Maryland. He has a B.Sc. (Hons.) in electrical engineering from Imperial College, University of London (1972) and an M.Sc. in applied psychology (1973) and Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Aston, Birmingham (1976). Since 1982 he has been at the Catholic University of America, where he has carried out research on attention, aging, automation, cognitive neuroscience, vigilance, and workload. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Psychological Association (Division 21, Engineering Psychology), the American Psychological Society, the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, and the Washington Academy of Sciences. He is also a member of the Association of Aviation Psychologists, the Psychonomics Society, the Society for Neuroscience, and the Society for Psychophysiological Research. JOSEPH O. PITTS retired from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in 1993, after more than 36 years of government service. He is currently employed by the Vitro Corporation, which supports the FAA through its surveillance technical assistance contract. Mr. Pitts supports the integrated terminal weather system (ITWS) program and the air traffic weather division. While employed by the FAA, he held positions as air traffic manager, assistant air traffic manager, branch manager, area manager, and full-performance-level air traffic controller at several air traffic control facilities. In the last 10 years of his tenure with the FAA, he had the responsibility of managing several research engineering and development programs at FAA headquarters; he was very active in both the

OCR for page 345
Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control FAA's facilities and equipment and research engineering and development budgets. THOMAS B. SHERIDAN is Ford professor of engineering and applied psychology in the Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics and Astronautics and director of the Human-Machine Systems Laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has an S.M. degree from the University of California, a Sc.D. from MIT, and an honorary doctorate from Delft University of Technology, Netherlands. He has served as president of both the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society and the IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Society and is a fellow of both organizations. He has chaired the National Research Council's Committee on Human Factors and has served on numerous other NRC committees. He is senior editor of the MIT Press Journal Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments and is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. PAUL STAGER is professor of psychology at York University, where he has taught since receiving a Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1966. A licensed pilot, his research has been concerned with system evaluation, human error, computer-human interface design, and human performance assessment in complex operational systems, most often within the context of aviation. During the past 20 years, his research has addressed several human factors issues in air traffic control, including the potential impact of bilingual communications on instrument flight operations, the precipitating conditions for operational errors, and the human engineering specifications for an advanced workstation design. Since 1989, he has advised the federal government on all human engineering associated with the development and evaluation of the Canadian automated air traffic system. He was a lecturer at the 1990 NATO Advanced Study Institute on automation and systems issues in air traffic control and, as codirector of the 1992 Advanced Study Institute on the verification and validation of complex human-machine systems, he edited (with J. Wise and D. Hopkin) Verification and Validation of Complex Systems: Human Factors Issues. RICHARD B. STONE retired from Delta Airlines after almost 35 years as a pilot. He served as a line check airman and his last assignment was flying the B 767 extended range to Europe. He has a B.S. from the University of Illinois and an M.S. from the University of New Hampshire. He received his flight training from the U.S. Air Force. During his years as an airline pilot, he also acted as an aircraft accident investigator, represented airline pilots in medical matters, and served as the president of the International Society of Air Safety Investigators. He currently acts as a safety consultant in aviation. EARL L. WIENER is a professor of management science at the University of

OCR for page 345
Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control Miami. He received a B.A. in psychology from Duke University and a Ph.D. in psychology an industrial engineering from Ohio State University. He served as a pilot in the U.S. Air Force and the U.S. Army and is rated in fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft. Since 1979 he has been active in the aeronautics and cockpit automation research of the NASA Ames Research Center. He is a fellow of the Human Factors Society and the American Psychological Association and currently serves as president of the Human Factors Society. He currently serves on the FAA's Research, Engineering, and Development Advisory Council and the National Research Council's Committee on Human Factors. He is the co-editor (with D. Nagel) of Human Factors in Aviation (1988) and Cockpit Resource Management (with B. Kanki and R. Helmreich, 1993). LAURENCE R. YOUNG is professor of aeronautics and astronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He received an A.B. in physics at Amherst College, a B.S. in electrical engineering at MIT, an M.S. in electrical engineering, and a Sc.D. in instrumentation at MIT, and a certificate de license in mathematics at the University of Paris. He is also Dryden lecturer at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. His research is in the application of control theory to man-vehicle problems, particularly orientation; flight simulators; and space laboratory experimentation on vestibular function. He has worked as an engineer at the Instrumentation Laboratory at MIT and Sperry Gyroscope Co. and as a research assistant at the School of Medicine at the University of Paris. He is a consultant to various industrial and government organizations and has served on the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board and the Air Force Studies Board of the National Research Council. He has received the Franklin V. Taylor Award in Human Factors from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. He is affiliated with the National Academy of Engineering and Institute of Medicine, is a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, the Biomedical Engineering Society, and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

OCR for page 345
Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control This page in the original is blank.