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13. Choudhury, Seema, et al. 1997. Entertainment & Technology Strategies. Forrester Research, Cambridge, Mass., April 1.

14. Atlantis Cyberspace, VR Entertainment Centers, downloaded February 17, 1996, from http://www.vr-atlantis.com/lbe_guide/lbe_list2.html.

15. Latta, John. 1996. DOD & Entertainment: Where Is the Social Experience? 4th Wave Inc., Alexandria, Va.

16. Parisi, Paula. 1995. "The New Hollywood: Silicon Stars," Wired, December, p. 142.

17. Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, Keeping the U.S. Computer and Communications Industry Competitive, p. 31, note 7 above.

18. The two communities also have common physical space. Not only are Southern California and Central Florida focal points for both DOD and entertainment industry efforts in modeling and simulation, but the Walt Disney company also announced in August 1996 that one of its divisions would take occupancy of a 200,000-square-foot facility formerly occupied by the Skunk Works division of Lockheed Martin Corp., a high-security division that designed and engineered some of the nation's most guarded defense projects, including the U-2 spy plane. See Newman, Morris. 1996. "A Unit of Disney Finds an Ideal Space Among the Remnants of the Military-Industrial Complex," New York Times, August 28, p. D17.

19. Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, National Research Council. 1995. Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Infrastructure to Support the Nation's Information Infrastructure. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

20. Geddes, John, Silicon Valley Science and Technology Office, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, personal communication, November 20, 1996.

21. Marine Corps Modeling and Simulation Management Office, "Computer Based Wargames Catalog," available on-line at .

22. Marine Corps Modeling and Simulation Management Office, "Computer Based Wargames Catalog," p. 3, note 21 above.

23. Sikorovsky, Elizabeth. 1996. "Training Spells Doom for Marines," Federal Computer Week, July 15; available on-line at http://www.fcw.com/pubs/fcw/0715/guide.htm. See also Ackerman, Robert. 1996. "Commercial War Game Sets Spell Doom for Adversaries," Signal, July; available on-line at http://www.fcw.com/pubs/fcw/0715/guide.htm.

24. Geddes, John, Silicon Valley Science and Technology Office, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, personal communication, November 20, 1996.

25. Bray, Hiawatha. 1997. "Battle for Military Video Game Niche On," Boston Globe, April 16, p. 1.

26. DOD's experimentation with distributed interactive simulations during the late 1980s resulted in constant pressure to increase the number of participants in simulated exercises. Because there were not enough simulators or participants to populate a typical battlefield scenario (nor did the technical capability exist to efficiently network together large numbers of participants), DOD began to rely on the use of computer-generated forces.



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