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OCR for page 131
--> Appendix I Screening Instruments for Substance Abuse CAGE Have you tried to cut down on your drinking or use? Do you get annoyed by others' comments about your drinking or use? Do you ever feel guilty about your drinking or use? Do you ever take an eye opener in the morning to get going? Brief MAST Do you feel you are a normal drinker? Do friends or relatives think you are a normal drinker? Have you ever attended a meeting of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)? Have you ever lost friends or girlfriends/boyfriends because of drinking? Have you ever neglected your obligations, your family, or work for 2 or more days in a row because you were drinking? Have you ever had delirium tremens (DTs), severe shaking, or seen things that weren't there after heavy drinking? Have you ever gone to anyone for help about your drinking? Have you ever been in a hospital because of drinking? Have you ever been arrested for drunk driving or driving after drinking? (Pokotny et al., 1972)
OCR for page 131
--> T-ACE T TOLERANCE: How many drinks does it take to make you feel high? A Have people ANNOYED you by criticizing your drinking? C Have you ever felt you ought to CUT down on your drinking? E EYE OPENER: Have you ever had a drink first thing in the morning? Two or more positive responses indicate that the woman is likely to have an alcohol problem (Sokol et al., 1989). TWEAK T TOLERANCE: How many drinks can you hold? W Have close friends or relatives WORRIED or complained about your drinking in the past year? E EYE OPENER: Do you sometimes take a drink in the morning when you first get up? A AMNESIA: Has a friend or family member ever told you about things you said or did while you were drinking that you could not remember? K (C) Do you sometimes feel the need to CUT down on your drinking? A 7-point scale is used to score the test. The tolerance question scores 2 points if the woman reports she can hold more than five drinks without falling asleep or passing out. A positive response to the WORRIED question scores 2 points, and a positive response to the last three questions scores 1 point each. A total score of 2 or more points indicates that the woman is likely to have an alcohol problem (Russel et al., 1993). AUDIT How often do you have a drink containing alcohol? How many drinks containing alcohol do you have on a typical day when you are drinking?
OCR for page 131
--> How often during the last year have you found that you were unable to stop drinking once you started? How often during the last year have you failed to do what was normally expected from you because of drinking? How often during the last year have you needed a first drink in the morning to get yourself going after a heavy drinking session? How often during the last year have you had a feeling of guilt or remorse after drinking? How often during the last year have you been unable to remember what happened the night before because you had been drinking? Have you or someone else been injured as the result of your drinking? Has a relative, friend, doctor, or other health worker been concerned about your drinking or suggested you cut down?