Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff

KENJI HAKUTA (Chair) is professor of education at Stanford University, where he teaches in the Program of Language, Literacy and Culture and the Program of Psychological Studies in Education. An experimental psychologist by training, his current research is on the linguistic development of bilingual children. His publications include Mirror of Language: The Debate on Bilingualism (Basic Books, 1986) and In Other Words: The Science and Psychology of Second Language Acquisition (Basic Books, 1994). He serves as cochair of the National Educational Policy and Priorities Board for the U.S. Department of Education. Dr. Hakuta has a Ph.D. in experimental psychology from Harvard University.

DIANE AUGUST is a senior program officer at the National Research Council and study director for the Committee on Developing a Research Agenda on the Education of Limited English Proficient and Bilingual Students. Previously, she was a public school teacher and school administrator in California, a legislative assistant in the area of education for a U.S. Congressman from California, a grants officer for the Carnegie Corporation of New York, and director of education for the Children's Defense Fund. Dr. August has also worked as an educational consultant in evaluation and testing, program improvement, and federal and state education policy. She has a Ph.D. in education from Stanford University.

JAMES A. BANKS is professor of education and director of the Center



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Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff KENJI HAKUTA (Chair) is professor of education at Stanford University, where he teaches in the Program of Language, Literacy and Culture and the Program of Psychological Studies in Education. An experimental psychologist by training, his current research is on the linguistic development of bilingual children. His publications include Mirror of Language: The Debate on Bilingualism (Basic Books, 1986) and In Other Words: The Science and Psychology of Second Language Acquisition (Basic Books, 1994). He serves as cochair of the National Educational Policy and Priorities Board for the U.S. Department of Education. Dr. Hakuta has a Ph.D. in experimental psychology from Harvard University. DIANE AUGUST is a senior program officer at the National Research Council and study director for the Committee on Developing a Research Agenda on the Education of Limited English Proficient and Bilingual Students. Previously, she was a public school teacher and school administrator in California, a legislative assistant in the area of education for a U.S. Congressman from California, a grants officer for the Carnegie Corporation of New York, and director of education for the Children's Defense Fund. Dr. August has also worked as an educational consultant in evaluation and testing, program improvement, and federal and state education policy. She has a Ph.D. in education from Stanford University. JAMES A. BANKS is professor of education and director of the Center

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for Multicultural Education at the University of Washington, Seattle. He is president-elect of the American Educational Research Association and is a past president of the National Council for the Social Studies. Professor Banks has written or edited 16 books in multicultural education and in social studies education, including Teaching Strategies for Ethnic Studies; Multiethnic Education: Theory and Practice; and Multicultural Education, Transformative Knowledge, and Action. He is the editor of the Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education, the first published research handbook in this field. Professor Banks has received four research awards from the American Educational Research Association and an honorary doctorate of humane letters (L.H.D.) from the Bank Street College of Education. He has a Ph.D. in social studies education from Michigan State University. DONNA CHRISTIAN is president of the Center for Applied Linguistics in Washington, D.C., where she is active in research, program development and evaluation, and teacher education. She has also taught at the university level, including two years as a Fulbright senior lecturer in Poland. Her work has focused on the role of language in education, including second language education, dialect diversity, and policy issues. Dr. Christian has consulted and written extensively on these topics, including recent publications on issues of language and culture in school reform, the integration of language and content for immigrant students, and two-way bilingual education. She has an M.S. in applied linguistics and a Ph.D. in sociolinguistics from Georgetown University. RICHARD DURÁN is professor in the Graduate School of Education at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Previously, he served as a research scientist at Educational Testing Service in Princeton. His fields of expertise include assessment and instruction of language minority students, and design and evaluation of interventions assisting language minority students. He is a member of the Technical Design Committee of New Standards and a member of various national technical panels that advise the National Center for Education Statistics on the conduct of surveys, including those on language-minority children. Professor Durán has a Ph.D. in psychology from the University of California at Berkeley, specializing in quantitative and cognitive psychology. CARL F. KAESTLE is university professor of education, history, and public policy at Brown University. He is also senior fellow at the Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University. Previously,

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he was a professor of education at the University of Chicago, and prior to that, a professor in the Departments of Educational Policy Studies and History at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, as well as chair of the Department of Educational Policy Studies and director of the Wisconsin Center for Educational Research. He has also been a high school teacher and a principal. He has written extensively on the history of education, the role of the federal government in education, and adult literacy. He has been a visiting fellow at the Charles Warren Center for Studies in American History at Harvard, the Shelby Cullom Davis Center for Historical Studies at Princeton and the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. His current research interests combine history and policy—the area of reading, assessment, and adult literacy and the role of the federal government in elementary and secondary education. Dr. Kaestle is the current president of the National Academy of Education and has served on the advisory committee of the National Adult Literacy Survey. He is currently a member of the Board on Testing and Assessment of the National Research Council. He holds a Ph.D. in education from Harvard University. DAVID KENNY is professor of psychology at the University of Connecticut. Previously, he taught at Harvard, was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, and a visiting professor at Arizona State and Oxford University. His initial research area was in the analysis of non-experimental data and more recently, he has investigated person perception in naturalistic contexts. He has published 4 books and over 50 articles and chapters. Dr. Kenny served as first quantitative associate editor of Psychological Bulletin and is currently editor of the Guilford series Methodology for the Social Sciences. He has a Ph.D. in social psychology from Northwestern University. GAEA LEINHARDT is senior scientist at the Learning Research and Development Center and professor of education at the University of Pittsburgh, where she directs the Instructional Explanations Project and chairs the Cognitive Studies in Education Program. Dr. Leinhardt began her career teaching in inner-city schools. Her research interests have focused on a combination of ethnographic and cognitive approaches to the finegrained analysis of classroom phenomena and the analysis of cognitive aspects of teaching and learning in specific subject matter areas, such as mathematics, history, and geography. Currently, Dr. Leinhardt is developing a model of the cognitive structure of instructional explanations across subject matters, and developing portraits of teachers and students

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who are involved with educational restructuring programs. She has also been intensely involved in state and national efforts to improve teacher assessment. Dr. Leinhardt's work has won awards from the American Educational Research Association and the National Council for Geographic Education. She has a Ph.D. in educational research from the University of Pittsburgh. ALBA ORTIZ is Ruben E. Hinojosa Regents professor in education, associate dean for academic affairs and research in the College of Education at the University of Texas at Austin, professor and director of bilingual special education in the Department of Special Education, and director of the Office of Bilingual Education in the College of Education. Previously, she served as a speech, hearing, and language therapist in the San Antonio school district and as an instructional consultant and materials specialist for special education and migrant education in San Antonio. Prior to that, she was assistant professor of Special Education and Director of the Bilingual/Bicultural Education at San Jose State University and assistant professor and director of Bilingual Chicano Studies at Southern Methodist University. She is past president of the International Council for Exceptional Children. Dr. Ortiz is a frequent presenter and invited speaker at local, state, and national meetings and conferences on topics related to special education and bilingual education and has published extensively on these topics. She has a Ph.D. in special education administration from the University of Texas at Austin. LUCINDA PEASE-ALVAREZ is associate professor of education at the University of California, Santa Cruz. She has a varied background working with language-minority students as a teacher and researcher and has taught in bilingual and ESL (English-as-a-second-language) programs at both the primary and secondary level. As a teacher educator, she teaches courses on literacy development, bilingualism, and first- and second-language acquisition. Dr. Pease-Alvarez's research interests include children's uses of oral and written language in home, school, and community settings. She is currently involved in a multifaceted longitudinal study of native-language maintenance and shift toward English in bilingual children of Mexican descent. She is coauthor of Pushing Boundaries: Language Learning and Socialization in a Mexicano Community, which focuses on the language practices and perspectives of children and adults living in a Mexican immigrant community. She has a Ph.D. in education from Stanford.

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CATHERINE SNOW is Henry Lee Shattuck professor of education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. She is also codirector of the Home-School Study on Language and Literacy Development, a longitudinal study of literacy development. She has served as acting dean of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and is currently chair of the Department of Human Development and Psychology. Dr. Snow's early research focused on the features of children's social and linguistic environments that facilitated language development, on cross-cultural differences in mother-child interaction, and on factors affecting second language acquisition. She has done research on the factors affecting the acquisition of literacy and on relations between aspects of oral language development and later literacy achievement in both monolingual and bilingual children. Dr. Snow edits Applied Psycholinguistics , serves on the editorial staff of numerous journals, and has consulted and written extensively on a range of language development issues. She has a Ph.D. in psychology from McGill University. DEBORAH STIPEK is professor in the Department of Education at the University of California, Los Angeles, and director of the UCLA laboratory school (Seeds, University Elementary School), and of the UCLA Urban Education Studies Center. She is also a member of the MacArthur Foundation Network on Successful Pathways in Middle Childhood. Dr. Stipek's research interests focus on the effect of classroom contexts and instruction on children's motivation and learning. She has done many studies on cognitions and emotions associated with motivation in academic settings, and her recent work has concentrated on early childhood education and the transition into school. She has a Ph.D. in developmental psychology from Yale.