References

CHAPTER 1
OVERVIEW

Christian, D., and A. Whitcher 1995 Directory of Two-Way Bilingual Programs in the United States. Revised. Santa Cruz, CA, and Washington, DC: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning.


Education Week 1996 Enrollment crunch stretches the bounds of the possible. Education Week (September 11):1.

Fleischman, H.L., and P.J. Hopstock 1993 Descriptive Study of Services to Limited English Proficient Students, Volume 1. Summary of Findings and Conclusions. Arlington, VA: Development Associates.


Hopstock, P.J., and B.J. Bucaro 1993 A Review and Analysis of Estimates of the LEP Student Population . Arlington, VA: Development Associates, Special Issues Analysis Center.


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Moss, M., and M. Puma 1995 Prospects: The Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity. Cambridge, MA: Abt.



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References CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW Christian, D., and A. Whitcher 1995 Directory of Two-Way Bilingual Programs in the United States. Revised. Santa Cruz, CA, and Washington, DC: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning. Education Week 1996 Enrollment crunch stretches the bounds of the possible. Education Week (September 11):1. Fleischman, H.L., and P.J. Hopstock 1993 Descriptive Study of Services to Limited English Proficient Students, Volume 1. Summary of Findings and Conclusions. Arlington, VA: Development Associates. Hopstock, P.J., and B.J. Bucaro 1993 A Review and Analysis of Estimates of the LEP Student Population . Arlington, VA: Development Associates, Special Issues Analysis Center. McArthur, E.K. 1993 Language Characteristics and Schooling in the United States, A Changing Picture: 1979 and 1989. National Center for Education Statistics, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Document number NCES 93-699. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Moss, M., and M. Puma 1995 Prospects: The Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity. Cambridge, MA: Abt.

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Ramirez, D.J., S.D. Yuen, D.R. Ramey, and D.J. Pasta 1991 Final Report: National Longitudinal Study of Structured-English Immersion Strategy, Early-Exit and Late-Exit Transitional Bilingual Education Programs for Language-Minority Children. Volumes I and II. San Mateo, CA: Aguirre International. Rivera, C. 1994 Is it real for all kids? Harvard Educational Review 64(1):55-75. Sheppard, K. 1995 Content-ESL Across the USA: A Technical Report. Final report submitted to the Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. Chapter 2— BILINGUALISM AND SECOND-LANGUAGE LEARNING Baetens-Beardsmore, H. 1986 Bilingualism: Basic Principles. 2nd ed. Clevedon, England: Tieto. Bialystok, E., and K. Hakuta 1994 In Other Words. New York: Basic Books. Bruck, M. 1982 Language-disabled children performance in additive bilingual education programs. Applied Psycholinguistics 3:45-60. 1984 Feasibility of an additive bilingual program for the language impaired child. In Y. LeBrun and M. Paradis, eds., Early Bilingualism and Child Development. Amsterdam: Swets and Zeitlinger. Campos, S.J. 1995 The Carpinteria Preschool Program: A long-term effects study. In E. Garcia and B. McLaughlin, eds., Meeting the Challenge of Linguistic and Cultural Diversity in Early Childhood Education. New York: Teacher's College. Carnegie Corporation 1996 Years of Promise. A Comprehensive Learning Strategy for America's Children. New York: Carnegie Corporation. Carroll, J.B. 1986 Second language. Pp. 83-125 in R.F. Dillon and R.J. Sternbery, eds., Cognition and Instruction. Orlando, FL: Academic Press. Collier, V.P. 1987 Age and rate acquisition of second language for academic purposes. TESOL Quarterly 21(4):617-641. Cummins, J. 1984 Bilingualism and Special Education. San Diego, CA: College Hill Press. Duncan, S., and E. DeAvila 1979 Bilingualism and cognition: Some recent findings. NABE Journal 4:15-50. Ellis, R. 1984 Communication strategies and the evaluation of communicative performance. ELT Journal 38(1):39-44.

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Enright, B.E. 1982 Criterion-referenced Tests: A Guide to Separate Useful from Useless. Paper presented at the Annual International Convention of the Council for Exceptional Children, Houston, TX, April 11-16; Session T-27. University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Epstein, S.D., D. Flynn, and G. Martohardjono 1996 Second language acquisition: Theoretical and experimental issues in contemporary research. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19(4):677-758. Fishman, J.A. 1978 Advances in the Study of Societal Multilingualism. The Hauge, The Netherlands, and New York: Mouton. Fishman, J.A., V. Nahirny, J. Hofman, and R. Hayden 1966 Language Loyalty in the United States: The Maintenance and Perpetuation of Non-English Mother Tongues by American Ethnic and Religious Groups. The Hague: Mouton. Galambos, S.J., and K. Hakuta 1988 Subject-specific and task-specific characteristics of metalinguistic awareness in bilingual children. Applied Psycholinguistics 9(2):141-162. Gardner, R.C. 1983 Learning another language: A true social psychological experiment. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 2:219-239. Genesee, F., J. Hamers, W. Lambert, L. Mononen, M. Seitz, and R. Starck 1978 Language processing in bilinguals. Brain and Language 5:1-12. Genesee, F. 1992 Second/foreign language immersion and at-risk English-speaking children. Foreign Language Annals 25:199-213. Grosjean, F. 1982 Life with Two Languages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Hakuta, K. 1986 Mirror of Language: The Debate on Bilingualism. New York: Basic Books. 1987 Degree of bilingualism and cognitive ability in mainland Puerto Rican children. Child Development 58(5):1372-1388. Hakuta, K., and D. D'Andrea 1992 Some properties of bilingual maintenance and loss in Mexican background high-school students. Applied Linguistics 13(1):72-99. Hamers, J., and M. Blanc 1989 Bilingualism and Bilinguality. Cambridge, England, and New York: Cambridge University Press. Harley, B., and W. Wang 1997 The critical period hypothesis: Where are we now? In A.M.B. de Groot and J.F. Kroll, eds., Tutorials in Bilingualism: Psycholinguistic Perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Klein, W. 1986 Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Krashen, S. 1982 Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon.

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Krashen, S., R. Scarcella, and M. Long, eds. 1982 Child-Adult Differences in Second Language Acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Lambert, W.E. 1975 Culture and language as factors in learning and education. Pp. 55-83 in A. Wolfgang, ed., Education of Immigrant Students. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Larsen-Freeman, D., and M. Long 1990 An Introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research. London, England, and New York: Longman. Leopold, W. 1939 Speech Development of a Bilingual Child: A Linguist's Record. Vol. 1: Vocabulary Growth in the First Two Years. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University. 1947 Speech Development of a Bilingual Child: A Linguist's Record. Vol. 2: Sound Learning in the First Two Years. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University. 1949a Speech Development of a Bilingual Child: A Linguist's Record. Vol. 3: Grammar and General Problems in the First Two Years. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University. 1949b Speech Development of a Bilingual Child: A Linguist's Record. Vol. 4: Diary From Age Two. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University. Lieberson, S., G. Dalto, and M. Johnston 1975 The course of mother-tongue diversity in nations. American Journal of Sociology 81:34-61. Long, M.H. 1983 Linguistic and conversational adjustments to non-native speakers. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 5(2):177-193. 1990 The least a second language acquisition theory needs to explain. TESOL Quarterly 24(4):649-666. Lopez, D.E. 1978 Chicano language loyalty in an urban setting. Sociology and Social Research 62:267-278. McLaughlin, B. 1984 Second-language Acquisition in Childhood: Volume 1, Preschool Children. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 1985 Second-language Acquisition in Childhood: Volume 2, Schoolage Children. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Milk, R. 1990 Preparing ESL and bilingual teachers for changing roles: Immersion for teachers of LEP children. TESOL Quarterly 24(3):407-426. Odlin, T. 1989 Language Transfer: Cross-linguistic Influence in Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Oller, J.W., Jr. 1981 Language as intelligence. Language Learning 31:465-492.

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Paul, B., and C. Jarvis 1992 The effects of native language use in New York City pre-kindergarten classes. Paper presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA. ERIC Document ED351874. Peal, E., and W.E. Lambert 1962 The relation of bilingualism to intelligence. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied 76(546):1-23. Pearson, B., S. Fernández, V. Lewedeg, and D. Oller 1997 The relation of input factors to lexical learning by bilingual infants (ages 8 to 30 months). Applied Psycholinguistics 18(1):41-62. Pica, T. 1987 Second-language acquisition, social interaction, and the classroom. Applied Linguistics 8(1):3-21. Ramirez, D.J., S.D. Yuen, D.R. Ramey, and D.J. Pasta 1991 Final Report: National Longitudinal Study of Structured-English Immersion Strategy, Early-Exit and Late-Exit Transitional Bilingual Education Programs for Language-Minority Children. Volumes I and II. San Mateo, CA: Aguirre International. Reynolds, A. 1991 Bilingualism, Multiculturalism, and Second Language Learning. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Romaine, J. 1995 Bilingualism. 2nd ed. Oxford, England: Blackwell. Ronjat, J. 1913 Le développement du langage observé chez un enfant bilingue. Paris: Champion. Seliger, H., and R. Vago, eds. 1991 First Language Attrition: Structural and Theoretical Perspectives. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Shultz, N.W., Jr. 1975 On the autonomy and comparability of linguistic and ethnographic description. Lisse, Netherlands: Peter de Ridder. Snow, C.E. 1987 Relevance of the notion of a critical period to language acquisition. Pp. 183-209 in M. Bornstein, ed., Sensitive Periods in Development. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. van Lier, L. 1988 The Classroom and the Language Learner. London, England: Longman. Veltman, C. 1983 Language Shift in the United States. New York: Mouton. Weinreich, U. 1953 Languages in Contact. The Hague: Mouton.

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CHAPTER 3 COGNITIVE ASPECTS OF SCHOOL LEARNING: LITERACY DEVELOPMENT AND CONTENT LEARNING Adams, M.J. 1990 Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning about Print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Adams, M., and M. Bruck 1995 Resolving the "great debate." American Educator 19(2):10-20. Anderson, R.C., and P.D. Pearson 1984 A schema-theoretic view of basic processes in reading. Pp. 255-291 in P. D. Pearson, ed., Handbook of Reading Research. New York: Longman. Anderson, V., and M. Roit 1996 Linking reading comprehension instruction to language development for language minority students. Elementary School Journal 96(3):295-310. Barnett, M.A. 1989 More Than Meets the Eye: Foreign Language Reading. Language and Education: Theory and Practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: ERIC. Bereiter, C. 1984 The limitations of interpretation (review of writing and the writer). Curriculum Inquiry 4:211-216. Bereiter, C., and M. Bird 1985 Use of thinking aloud in identification and teaching of reading comprehension strategies. Cognition and Instruction 2:131-156. Bernhardt, E.B. 1987 Cognitive processes in L2: An examination of reading behaviors. Pp. 35-50 in J. Lantolf and A. Labarca, eds., Research in Second Language Learning: Focus on the Classroom. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Bialystok, E., and K. Hakuta 1994 In Other Words. New York: Basic Books. Brown, A. L. 1980 Metacognitive development and reading. Pp. 453-481 in R.J. Spiro, B.C. Bruce, and W.F. Brewer, eds., Theoretical Issues in Reading Comprehension. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Brown, A.L., J.D. Bransford, R.A. Ferrara, and J.C. Campione 1983 Learning, remembering, and understanding. Pp. 77-166 in J.H. Flavell and E.M. Markman, eds., Handbook of Child Psychology: Vol 3. Cognitive Development. 4th ed. New York: Wiley. Carrell, P.L. 1987 Content and formal schemata in ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly 21(3):461-481. Casanave, C.P. 1988 Comprehension monitoring in ESL reading: A neglected essential. TESOL Quarterly 22:283-302. Chall, J. S. 1967 Learning to Read: The Great Debate. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1983 Stages of Reading Development. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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Chi, M.T.H., R. Glaser, and E. Rees 1982 Expertise in problem solving. Pp. 7-75 in R.J. Sternberg, ed., Advances in the Psychology of Human Intelligence, Vol 1. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Chi, M.T.H., and R. Koeske 1983 Network representation of a child's dinosaur knowledge. Development Psychology 19:29-39. Chi, M.T.H., and S. Ceci 1987 Content knowledge: Its role, representation, and restructuring in memory development. Pp. 91-142 in H.W. Reese, ed., Advances in Child Development and Behavior, Vol. 20. New York: Academic Press. Christian, D. 1996 Language development in two-way immersion: Trends and prospects. In James E. Alatis, Carolyn A. Straehle, Maggie Ronkin, and Brent Gallenberger, eds., Georgetown University Round Table 1996. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Cohen, E.G. 1990 Teaching in multiculturally heterogeneous classrooms: Findings from a model program. McGill Journal of Education 26(1):7-23. Collier, V.P., and W.P. Thomas 1989 How quickly can immigrants become proficient in school English? Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students 5:26-38. Cummins, J. 1991 Language development and academic learning. Pp. 161-175 in L.M. Malavé and G. Duquette, eds., Language, Culture and Cognition. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters. Devine, J. 1987 General language competence and adult second language reading. Pp. 73-86 in J. Devine, P. Carrell, and D. Eskey, eds., Research in Reading English as a Second Language. Washington, DC: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Diaz, R.M. 1986 Bilingual cognitive development: Addressing three gaps in current research. Child Development 56:1376-1388. Elley, W.B. 1981 A comparison of content-interest and structuralist reading programs in Niue primary schools. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies 15(1):39-53. Feitelson, D. 1988 Facts and Fads in Beginning Reading: A Cross-Language Perspective . Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Fitzgerald, J. 1995 English-as-a-second-language learners' cognitive reading processes: A review of research in the United States. Review of Educational Research 65:145-190. Flesch, R.F. 1955 Why Johnny Can't Read. New York: Harper Row. Gersten, R. 1996 Literacy instruction for language-minority students: The transition years. The Elementary School Journal 96(3):228-244.

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Hakuta, K., and R.M. Diaz 1985 The relationship between degree of bilingualism and cognitive ability: A critical discussion and some new longitudinal data. Pp. 319-345 in K. Nelson, ed., Children's Language. 5th ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Heibert, J. 1986 Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge: The Case of Mathematics. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Johnson, P. 1981 Effects on reading comprehension of language complexity and cultural background of a text. TESOL Quarterly 15:169-181. Kintsch, W., and T.A. van Dijk 1978 Toward a model of text comprehension and production. Psychological Review 85(5):363-394. Klingner, J.K., and S. Vaughn 1996 Reciprocal teaching of reading comprehension strategies for students with learning disabilities who use English as a second language. The Elementary School Journal 96(3):275-294. Lampert, M. 1986 Knowing, doing, and teaching multiplication. Cognition and Instruction 4(4):303-342. McKeown, M., I. Beck, G.M. Sinatra, and J.A. Loxterman 1992 The contribution of prior knowledge and coherent text to comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly 27:79-93. Palincsar, A.S., and A.L. Brown 1984 Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction 1(2):117-175. Peal, E., and W.E. Lambert 1962 The relation of bilingualism to intelligence. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied 76(546):1-23. Pearson, D.P., J. Hansen, and C. Gordon 1979 The effect of background knowledge on young children's comprehension of explicit and implicit information. Journal of Reading Behavior 11(3):201-209. Purcell-Gates, V. 1996 Process teaching with explicit explanation and feedback in a university-based clinic. In E. McIntyre and M. Pressley, eds., Balanced Instruction: Strategies and Skills in Whole Language. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon. Rayner, K., and A. Pollatsek 1989 The Psychology of Reading. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Schwab, J.J. 1978 Education and the structure of the disciplines. In I. Westbury and N.J. Wilkof, eds., Science, Curriculum, and Liberal Education: Selected Essays. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Scribner, S. 1984 Studying work intelligence. Pp. 9-40 in B. Rogoff and J. Lave, eds., Everyday Cognition: Its Development in Social Context. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

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