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Nutrient Requirements of Sheep Sixth Revised Edition, 1985 Subcommittee on Sheep Nutrition Committee on Animal Nutrition Board on Agriculture National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1985
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Page ii National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. This study was supported by the Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, by Agriculture Canada, and by the American Feed Industry Association. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Main entry under title: Nutrient requirements of sheep. (Nutrient requirements of domestic animals) Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. SheepFeeding and feeds. 2. SheepFeed utilization efficiency. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Sheep Nutrition. II. Series. SF376.N85 1985 636.3'0852 85-21562 ISBN 0-309-03596-1 First Printing, October 1985 Second Printing, January 1992 Third Printing, November 1992 Copyright © 1985 by the National Academy of Sciences No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, phonographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the United States Government. Printed in the United States of America
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Page iii Preface This report is one in a series of reports entitled Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals, issued under the guidance of the Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture, National Research Council. It was prepared by the Subcommittee on Sheep Nutrition and updates the 1975 edition of Nutrient Requirements of Sheep. The revisions made include the following: • The values presented reflect new information available on sheep nutrition and are interpreted by the committee into useful form. • The concentrations of nutrients in the diet for a specific stage of production are similar for all weights of sheep and include the ratio of concentrate to forage that would conventionally be fed. • Specific diets and nutrient requirements are presented for ewe lambs during various stages of production. • The energy requirements and energy concentration of the diet of ewes in the last 4 to 6 weeks of gestation with an expected lambing rate of 130 to 150 percent are reduced somewhat from the values reported in the 1975 edition of this report. • The nutrient requirements and nutrient concentrations of the diet during the last 4 to 6 weeks of gestation for ewes with an expected lambing rate of 180 to 225 percent are a new addition and are distinctly different from requirements for ewes with lower lambing rates. • The expected growth rate of light-weight finishing lambs was substantially increased, and dietary energy concentrations were increased for all weight lambs to accommodate these higher weight gains within the constraints of limited capacity to consume dry matter. • Feed composition data are expressed on a dry matter basis. • Feeds are named in accordance with nomenclature adopted by the Committee on Animal Nutrition (United States) and the National Committee on Animal Nutrition (Canada). • Values for nutrient requirements are given in both the metric and English systems to broaden the application of the information. • More husbandry information is included than in previous editions to better serve sheep producers who rely on this information source in managing their flocks. • Formulas and tables have been developed to estimate energy requirements for maintenance and growth by animals of varying mature weight genotypes (see Table 3). Tables 1 and 2 were not developed from these formulas; thus, there may be some discordance between these estimates of average energy requirements. The subcommittee wishes to express appreciation to the Committee on Animal Nutrition and most especially to Richard D. Goodrich, George E. Mitchell, Jr., and Duane E. Ullrey, whose support, encouragement, and scientific expertise contributed significantly to the completion of this report. Appreciation is also extended to Douglas E. Hogue, who served on the subcommittee during the early stages of preparing this report, and Arthur L. Pope and John E. Butcher, who reviewed an early draft and prepared comments for the subcommittee's consideration. The subcommittee is also indebted to John A. Pino, who served as board reviewer; Margaret Benson, who provided data for consideration; and Selma P. Baron and Philip Ross, of the Board on Agriculture, for their assistance in the production of the report. SUBCOMMITTEE ON SHEEP NUTRITION
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Page iv Subcommittee On Sheep Nutrition ROBERT M. JORDAN, Chairman University of Minnesota MILLARD C. CALHOUN Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, San Angelo DONALD G. ELY University of Kentucky DAVID P. HEANEY Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa FRANK C. HINDS University of Wyoming DONALD E. JOHNSON Colorado State University Committee On Animal Nutrition DUANE E. ULLREY, Chairman, Michigan State University FRANK AHERNE, University of Alberta RICHARD E. AUSTIC, Cornell University JIMMY H. CLARK, University of Illinois RICHARD D. GOODRICH, University of Minnesota GEORGE E. MITCHELL, JR., University of Kentucky JAMES G. MORRIS, University of California, Davis ROBERT R. SMITH, USDI, Fish and Wildlife Service DALE R. WALDO, USDA, Agricultural Research Service SELMA P. BARON, Staff Officer Board On Agriculture WILLIAM L. BROWN, Chairman, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. JOHN A. PINO, Vice Chairman, Inter-American Development Bank PERRY L. ADKISSON, Texas A&M University C. EUGENE ALLEN, University of Minnesota LAWRENCE BOGORAD, Harvard University ERIC L. ELLWOOD, North Carolina State University JOSEPH P. FONTENOT, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University RALPH W. F. HARDY, Cornell University and Bio Technica International, Inc. ROGER L. MITCHELL, University of Missouri CHARLES C. MUSCOPLAT, Molecular Genetics, Inc. ELDOR A. PAUL, University of California, Berkeley VERNON W. RUTTAN, University of Minnesota JAMES G. TEER, Welder Wildlife Foundation JAN VAN SCHILFGAARDE, USDA, Agricultural Research Service VIRGINIA WALBOT, Stanford University CHARLES M. BENBROOK, Executive Director
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Page v Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. Nutrient requirements and Signs of Deficiency 2 Energy 2 Terminology for Discussing Energy Values of Feedstuffs 2 Signs of Deficiency and Toxicity 3 Maintenance 4 Growth 4 Pregnancy 5 Lactation 5 NE Value of Feedstuffs 6 Gut Fill Variation 6 Environment 6 Management Considerations 7 Protein 8 Microbial Nitrogen Requirements 9 Nonprotein Nitrogen 9 Ruminal Degradation and/or Bypass of Dietary Protein 10 Amino Acids 10 Protein Deficiency and Toxicity 10 Minerals 11 Sodium and Chlorine (Salt) 11 Calcium and Phosphorus 11 Magnesium 13 Potassium 14 Sulfur 15 Iodine 15 Iron 16 Molybdenum 16 Copper 17 Cobalt 18 Manganese 19 Zinc 19 Selenium 20 Fluorine 22
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Page vi Vitamins 22 Vitamin A 22 Vitamin D 23 Vitamin E 24 Vitamin B Complex 25 Vitamins K1 and K2 25 3. Water 26 4. Nutrition Disorders 27 Enterotoxemia 27 Polioencephalomalacia 27 Pregnancy Disease 28 Urinary Calculi 28 5. Other Aspects of Sheep Nutrition 29 Pastures 29 Range Sheep 29 Flushing 30 Creep Feeding 32 Early Weaning 32 Artificial Rearing 33 Feed Additives 34 Poisonous Plants 34 Ration Alternatives 34 6. Formulating Diets for Sheep 36 7. Composition of Feeds 40 Tables 43 References 79 Index 93
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Page vii Figures and Tables Figures 1. Relationship between the energy density of empty body weight gain (NEg) and genotypic mature weight (W) as estimated by yearling ram weight 5 2. Energy density of live weight gains of large, medium, and small genotypes compared with ARC data (1980) 6 3. Daily and cumulative weight changes of a 60-kg ewe during maintenance, gestation, and lactation 7 4. Approximate daily digestible energy (DE) requirements of 65- to 70-kg breeding ewes at various production stages 8 5. The regional distribution of forages and grain, containing low, variable, or adequate levels of selenium, in the USA and Canada 21 Tables 1. Daily Nutrient Requirements of Sheep 45 2. Nutrient Concentration in Diets for Sheep 48 3. Net Energy Requirements for Lambs of Small, Medium, and Large Mature Weight Genotypes 49 4. NEpreg (NEy) Requirements of Ewes Carrying Different Numbers of Fetuses at Various Stages of Gestation 49 5. Crude Protein Requirements for Lambs of Small, Medium, and Large Mature Weight Genotypes 50 6. Macromineral Requirements of Sheep 50 7. Micromineral Requirements of Sheep and Maximum Tolerable Levels 50 8. Composition of Ewe's Milk 51 9. Vitamin E Requirements of Growing-Finishing Lambs and Suggested Levels of Feed Fortification to Provide 100 Percent of Requirements 51 10. Relative Ranking of Pasture Forages for Sheep 52 11. Range Supplements for Sheep 52 12. Suggested Creep Diets 53 13. Composition of Some Sheep Feeds 54 14. Composition of Mineral Supplements 74 15. Stage-of-Maturity Terms Used in Table 13 76 16. Weight-Unit Conversion Factors 77 17. Weight Equivalents 77
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Nutrient Requirements of Sheep Sixth Revised Edition, 1985
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