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About the Authors JOHN F. AHEARNE is vice-president and senior fellow at Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. He was a commissioner on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission from 1978 to 1983 and chairman from December 1979 to March 1981. Dr. Ahearne received bachelor's and master's degrees in engineering physics from Cornell University and a doctorate in physics from Princeton University. He served as deputy assistant secretary of energy for power applications, in the White House Energy Policy and Planning Office as assistant to the secretary of energy, and as principal deputy and acting assistant secretary of defense for manpower and reserve affairs. RONALD BAYER is associate for policy studies at the Hastings Center, Hastings-on-Hudson, New York. He has published widely in the area of the politics of scientific controversies. Homosexuality and American Psychia- try: The Politics of Diagnosis (Basic Books, 1981? and "Reproductive Haz- ards in the Workplace: Bearing the Burden of Fetal Risk," (Milbank Quar- terly, 1982) are two studies focusing on this theme. Dr. Bayer holds a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Chicago. Eu~A BINGHAM is vice-president and university dean for graduate studies and research at the University of Cincinnati. She served as assistant secre- tary for occupational safety and health, U.S. Department of Labor, from 1977 to 1981. Dr. gingham received her Ph.D. degree in zoology from the University of Cincinnati, where she has served as a professor of environ- mental health since 1961. Dr. gingham has participated in numerous 221

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222 ABOUT THE AUTHORS national advisory committees, including those ofthe Food and Drug Admin- istration, Environmental Protection Agency, and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. She served on the Department of Labor Standards Advisory Committee on Carcinogens and chaired the Advisory Committee on Coke Oven Emissions before her appointment to federal service. Dr. gingham is currently vice-chairman of the National Research Council Committee on Methods for the In Vivo Toxicity Testing of Com- plex Mixtures from the Environment. VICTOR P. BOND is associate director for biology, medicine, environment, and safety at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Dr. Bond received his M.D. degree from the University of California, San Francisco, and a Ph.D. degree in medical physics from the University of California, Berkeley. He is a member of numerous scientific and advisory committees on the biological effects of radiation, including committees of the National Council on Radia- tion Protection and Measurements, International Commission on Radiologi- cal Protection, and National Research Council. Dr. Bond was deputy direc- tor of the medical team that cared for the Marshallese after their exposure to fallout radiation in 1954 and is a former member of the board of directors of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima. He is the author or coauthor of more than 300 articles in the fields of radiation biology, hematol- ogy, cell kinetics, radiation risks, and experimental radiotherapy. DANIEL S. HOFFMAN is a senior partner in the Denver-based law firm of Holme Roberts & Owen and serves as one of the managers of its litigation department. He is a trial counsel for Shell Oil Company in the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Superfund case. He chaired the citizen oversight commit- tee that reviewed and critiqued the U. S. Department of Energy study of the long-range use options for the Rocky Flats Plant, which manufactures pluto- nium components for the U.S. nuclear weapons arsenal. Mr. Hoffman served as dean of the University of Denver College of Law from 1978 to 1984. He has also served as president ofthe Colorado Bar Association and as Manager of Safety for the City and County of Denver. He is a fellow of the International Society of Barristers and a former member of the board of directors of the American Judicature Society. PETER W. HUBER, an associate of Science Concepts, Inc., Washington, D.C., is a lawyer and an engineer. He has a doctorate in mechanical engi- neering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and served as an assistant and later associate professor at M.I.T. for six years. His law degree is from the Harvard Law School. He clerked on the D.C. Circuit Court of

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ABOUT THE AUTHORS 223 Appeals for Judge Ruth Bader Ginsburg, and then on the U.S. Supreme Court for Justice Sandra Day O'Connor. Dr. Huber's professional expertise is health, safety, and environmental regulation in federal administrative agencies and in the courts. He is the author of numerous papers and law review articles in this area. ROGER E. KASPERSON is a member of the Hazard Assessment Group at Clark University's Center for Technology, Environment, and Development. He is coauthor of Participation, Decentralization and Advocacy Planning (Asso- ciation of American Geographers, 1974) and coeditor of Equity Issues in Radioactive Waste Management (Oelgeschlager, 19834. Dr. Kasperson holds a doctorate degree from the University of Chicago. From 1977 to 1983, he served as a member of the National Research Council's Board on Radioactive Waste Management and chaired its panel on Social and Eco- nomic Issues in Siting Nuclear Waste Repositories. He is on the editorial boards of Environment and Risk Analysis and is a member of the advisory committee for the Energy Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For the past seven years he has directed a series of research projects dealing with technological risk management, industrial management of hazards, and ethical and policy issues involved in occupational safety and health manage- ment. ROBERT W. KATES is university professor and director of the Alan Shawn Feinstein World Hunger Program at Brown University, where he currently holds a MacArthur Fellowship. He is author of Risk Assessment of Environ- mental Hazard (Wiley-Interscience, 1981) and coeditor of Perilous Progress: Managing the Hazards of Technology (Westview, 1985~. His current research is on the management of technological hazards, the impacts of climate variation and change, the sustainable development of the bio- sphere, and theories ofthe human environment. Dr. Kates is a member ofthe National Academy of Sciences. He received his Ph. D. degree in geography from the University of Chicago. JOHN A. K~AcsMANN is executive vice-president of Clean Sites Inc., Alex- andria, Virginia. He was vice-president-international of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company until 1981 when he retired from a 34-year career with Du Pont. He held both supervisor and research positions in Du Pont's Fabrics and Finishes Department and was vice-president and general man- ager of the department from 1973 until 1975, when he joined the Interna- tional Department. Dr. Klacsmann received B. S., M. S., and Ph.D. degrees in chemistry from Yale University.

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224 ABOUT THE AUTHORS HOWARD C. KUNREUTHER is professor of decision sciences and public management and director of the Wharton Risk and Decision Processes Center at the University of Pennsylvania. During 1980-1982 he was task leader of the Risk Group at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. His current research is concerned with the role of insurance com- pensation, incentive mechanisms, and regulation as policy tools for dealing with technological and natural hazards. He is author and coauthor of numer- ous scientific publications concerned with risk and policy analysis, decision processes, and protection against low-probability/high-consequence events, including Risk Analysis and Decision Processes: The Siting of LNG Facilities in Four Countries (Springer-Verlag, 1983~. Dr. Kunreuther hold; an A.B. degree from Bates College and a Ph.D. degree in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL is secretary of the Florida Department of Environ- mental Regulation, a position she has held since February 1981. Since the creation ofthe agency in 1975, Ms. Tschinkel has served in various manage- ment positions, including assistant secretary. She has served on numerous state and national advisory boards and committees, including the U.S. Department of Energy Advisory Board, the National Research Council's Space Applications Board, the Environmental Protection Agency's Toxic Substances Advisory Committee, and the Florida House Speaker's Water Task Force. She was elected to the National Academy of Public Administra- tion in 1984. Ms. Tschinkel is a zoology graduate of the University of California, Berkeley. Her career has been spent in environmental work, including positions in teaching and research before joining Florida's state government in 1974. A~v~N M. WEINBERG is a distinguished fellow of the Institute for Energy Analysis, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Dr. Weinberg was director of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory from 1955 to 1973; director of the Office of Energy Research and Development, Federal Energy Office, in 1974; and director of the Institute for Energy Analysis from 1975 to 1985. He is the author of The Physical Theory of Neutron Chain Reactors (wish Eugene P. Wigner, University of Chicago Press, 1958) and of Reflections on Big Science (MIT Press, 19671. Dr. Weinberg is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Sciences. He has received numerous awards for his contribu- tions to the design, development, and safety of nuclear reactors and the formulation of science policy.

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ABOUT THE AUTHORS 225 CHRIS G. WHIPPLE is technical manager, Energy Study Center, for the Electric Power Research Institute in Palo Alto, California. Dr. Whipple joined the Institute in 1974 as a member of the technical staff of the Planning Division and, before moving to his present position in 1978, was manager of Special Studies, Planning Division. In 1982-1983, Dr. Whipple was presi- dent of the Society for Risk Analysis. He chaired the International Atomic Energy Research Coordination Meeting on Risk Criteria for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and has served as a member of the Committee on Health and Ecological Effects of Synfuel Industries and the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council. Dr. Whipple received a B.S. degree in engineering science from Purdue University in 1970. He received M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in the same field from the California Institute of Technology in 1971 and 1974.