industry, and questions about the appropriateness of that support, have a long history in the United States dating back to the origins of the Republic. Alexander Hamilton's 1791 Report on Manufacturers had stressed the importance of developing new forms of manufacturing and the government's positive role. As a strong proponent of government support for new industries, Hamilton had affirmed that "there is no purpose to which public money can be more beneficially applied than to the acquisition of a new and useful branch of industry, no consideration more valuable than a permanent addition to the stock of productive labor."

With this early federalist observation in mind, Dr. Wessner thanked the participants for bringing their expertise and experience to this initial review of the Advanced Technology Program. He added that the Board expected this symposium to contribute both to our understanding of the ATP and importantly, to the Board's overall review of government-industry partnerships. It is anticipated that, in cooperation with NIST, additional analysis of the ATP will be carried out under the auspices of the Government-Industry Partnerships project. In this second phase, we will draw both on the ATP's well-developed program of assessment and outside researchers, as well as the experiences of award recipients, to identify program strengths and potential improvements. Once this additional analysis is completed, the project steering committee expects to develop specific findings and recommendations for the Advanced Technology Program. These will be reported separately and will also be an important contribution to the Academies' broader review of government-industry partnerships.

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