private parties, not the public at large.25 Dr. Christopher Hill echoed this point, suggesting that the profitability of a given ATP recipient is not the right metric with which to judge the program; rather spillover benefits to the public, as difficult to measure as they may be, is the right standard. Dr. Barry Bozeman remarked that the careful scrutiny and analysis to which ATP has been subject may well be valuable, but will not, by itself, create sufficient political support to sustain the program. He urged ATP officials to continue to modify the program's administrative procedures and management in light of assessment findings.

In his closing remarks, Dr. William Spencer reminded the symposium participants that governments around the world, including the United States government, provide active support for R&D and technology development. In other countries, where the resources involved are sometimes greater, there is little debate about these types of programs; governments simply carry them out. The size and scope of the programs vary across and within countries, and for this reason, they are usually seen as experiments. Technology programs in this country, suggested Dr. Spencer, should be seen as experiments as well. The ongoing assessment of ATP, as well as efforts to improve our ability to carry out such assessment, are not only ways to improve the Advanced Technology Program, they are also an important means to improve future technology policy initiatives.



To address this and related points, the ATP assessment program has commissioned a study by Wesley M. Cohen and John Walsh, "Within and Across Industry Spillovers and Appropriability: A Survey Based Approach." Carnegie Mellon University Working Paper, Pittsburgh, 1998. The study examines the sources of the differences between social and private returns to R&D within industries, examining in particular the role of R&D spillovers.

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