cific criterion of adequacy is selected, based on a careful review of the literature. When selecting the criterion, reduction of disease risk is considered along with many other health parameters.

Box S-1 Dietary Reference Intakes

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): the dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group.

Adequate Intake (AI): a recommended intake value based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of healthy people that are assumed to be adequate—used when an RDA cannot be determined.

Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): the highest level of nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects for almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the risk of adverse effects increases.

Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): a nutrient intake value that is estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a life stage and gender group.

If the standard deviation (SD) of the EAR is available and the requirement for the nutrient is symmetrically distributed, the RDA is set at 2 SDs above the EAR:

RDA = EAR + 2 SD EAR.

If data about variability in requirements are insufficient to calculate an SD, a coefficient of variation (CV) for the EAR of 10 percent is ordinarily assumed, unless available data indicate a greater variation is probable.

If 10 percent is assumed to be the CV, then twice that amount added to the EAR is defined as equal to the RDA. The resulting equation for the RDA is then

RDA = 1.2 × EAR.

If the distribution of the nutrient requirement is known to be skewed for a population, other approaches are used to find the ninety-seventh to ninety-eighth percentile to set the RDA. The RDA for a nutrient is a value to be used as a goal for dietary intake for the healthy individual. As discussed in Chapter 9 of this report, the



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