Bioavailability of carotenoids from food, concentrated extracts, or synthetic products is quite variable (Figure 8-3) because a complex set of factors affects carotenoid bioavailability. Erdman et al. (1993) and Castenmiller and West (1998) described the events necessary for adequate absorption of carotenoids from the diet: (1) digestion of the food matrix, (2) formation of lipid micelles in the gastrointes

FIGURE 8-3 Effect of food matrix and processing on bioavailability of carotenoids.

SOURCE: Adapted from Boileau et al (1999).

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