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DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF THE VA National Formulary References Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP). Where We Stand . Alexandria, VA: AMCP; 1997. Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy. Common practices in formulary management system. Acad. Managed Care Pharm. Newsl . In press. Achusim LE. Therapeutic interchange as a cost-containment measure. Pharmaco-Economics . 1992; 2(5):347–351. Aetna US Health Care. Members and Consumers. 2000 Precertification List [on line] . Available at: http://www.aetnaushc.com/products/rx/precert_00.html. American Association of Health Plans (AAHP). Formularies . Washington, DC: AAHP; 1998. American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP). ACCP position statement guidelines for therapeutic interchange. Pharmacotherapy . 1993; 13(3):252–256. American College of Physicians (ACP). Therapeutic substitution and formulary systems. Ann. Intern. Med. 1990; 113(2):160–163. American Hospital Association (AHA). Statement of Guiding Principles on the Operation of the Hospital Formulary System . Chicago: AHA; 1974. American Hospital Association. Operation of the Hospital Formulary System . Chicago: AHA; 1975. American Hospital Association. American Hospital Association Statement on National Patient Safety Partnership Press Conference Attribute to Jack Lord, M.D., Chief Operating Officer, AHA. Chicago: AHA; 1999. American Medical Association (AMA). AMA policy on drug formularies and therapeutic interchange in inpatient and ambulatory patient care settings. Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 1994; 51:1808–1810.
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DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF THE VA National Formulary American Medical Association. Pharmaceutical Benefits Management Companies , Report of the Board of Trustees . Chicago: AMA; 1997. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP). Best Practices for Health-System Pharmacy . Bethesda, MD: ASHP; 1998. American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. ASHP guidelines for the scientific and therapeutic evaluation of drugs for hospital formularies. Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 1981; 38:1043–1044. American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. Therapeutic Interchange . Bethesda, MD: ASHP; 1982. American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. ASHP statement on the formulary system. Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 1983; 40:1384–1385. American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. ASHP technical assistance bulletin on the evaluation of drugs for formularies. Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 1988; 45:386–387. American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. Am J. Hosp. Pharm. 1991. American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. ASHP statement on the pharmacy and therapeutics committee. Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 1992; 49:2008–2009. American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. 1996 American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, APA, AHA, AMA. Statement of guiding principles on the operation of the hospital formulary system. Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 1964; 21:40–41. Anonymous. An interview with John Ogden. Am. Pharm. 1988; NS28:8:22–23. Ascione FJ, Bagozzi RP, Mannebach MA, et al.. Analysis of the Internal and External Factors Related to Performance of Pharmacy and Therapeutic Committees . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan; 1998. Avorn J, Chen M, Hartley R. Scientific versus commercial sources of influence on the prescribing behavior of physicians. Am. J. Med. 1982; 73:4–8. Avorn J, Soumerai SB. Improving drug-therapy decisions through educational out-reach—A randomized controlled trial of academically based “detailing.” N. Engl. J. Med. 1983; 308(24):1457–1463. Baciewicz AM, Cowan RI, Michaels PE, Kyllonen KS. Quality and productivity assessment of clinical pharmacy interventions . Hosp. Formul 1994; 29:773–779. Bajpai SK, Pathak DS. Predicting formulary decisions in health maintenance organizations involving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. J. Res. Pharmaceut. Econ. 1998; 9(1):57–70. Bakke OM. How many drugs do we need? World Health Forum . 1986; 7:252–255. Barents Group LLC. Analysis of Benefits Offered by Medicare HMOs, 1999: Complexities and Implications . Menlo Park, CA: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation; 1999a. Barents Group LLC. Factors Affecting the Growth of Prescription Drug Expenditures . Washington, DC: National Institute for Health Care Management Research and Educational Foundation; 1999b. Barksdale Air Force Base. Dihydropyridine switch program deemed not cost effective. Formulary . 1998; 33:12. Bartlett S, Marshall JA, Prochazka A, et al. A Study of the Short-Term Clinical and Economic Outcomes of Converting Hypertensive Patients from Long-Acting Nifedipine to Short-Acting Nifedipine . Denver: Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center(unpublished) ; 1996.
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DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF THE VA National Formulary Basskin L. Pharmacoeconomics and the formulary decision-making process. Formulary . 1998; 33:460. Baugh D, Pine P, Blackwell S. Trends in prescription drug utilization and payments. Health Care Financing Rev. 1999; 20:3 :79–105. Berkowitz HS. Formulary designation of cimetidine as the primary intravenous histamine H2-receptor antagonist. Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 1992; 49:134–135. Black J, Griffin TN, Beisel WBMD. Implementation of an outpatient prescription drug formulary in a managed-care system. Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 1988; 45:561–565. Bloom BS, Jacobs J. Cost effects of restricting cost-effective therapy. Med. Care . 1985; 23(7):872–880. Bodenbender, R. Henry. PVA, personal communication , 1999. Bootman JL, Milne RJ. Costs, innovation and efficacy in anti-infective therapy. PharmacoEconomics . 1996; 9(Suppl. 1):31–39. Boston D, Collins C. Safety, efficacy, and lipid profile of doxazosin at a VA medical center. Hosp. Formul. 1995; 30:233–236. Briscoe TA, Dearing CJ. Clinical and economic effects of replacing enalapril with benazepril in hypertensive Patients. Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm. 1996; 53:2191–2193 . Brook RH et al.. Does free care improve adults' health? Results from a randomized trial. N. Engl. J. Med. 1983; 309(23) :1426–1434 . Brown GR, Clarke AM. Therapeutic interchange of cefazolin with metronidazole for cefoxitin . Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 1992; 49:1946–1950 . Brown JS. Review of State Medicaid Formularies. Unpublished manuscript ; 1999. Brown JS, Bienz-Tadnor B, Lasagna L. Availability of anticancer drugs in the United States, Europe, and Japan from 1960 through 1991. Clin. Pharmacol. Therapeut. 1995; 58:(3):243–256. Brunsting J, Johnson M. Paper presented at the Western States Residents Conference , Pacific Grove, CA ; . Buchanan R, Smith S. Medicaid policies for HIV-related prescription drugs. Health Care Financing Rev. 1994; 15:(3):43–61. Bull S, Shoheiber O, Bailey M, et al. Utilization of pharmacy claims data to evaluate therapeutic interchange programs. J. Managed Care Pharm. 1999 : 331–334. Calvo MV, Fruns I, Domínguez-Gil A. Decision analysis applied to selection of histamine H2-receptor antagonists for the formulary. Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 1990; 47:2002–2006 . Cantrell W, Kimber G, Morrill G. Evaluation of blood pressure and adverse effects in patients converted from lisinopril to benazepril. J. Managed Care Phar. 1999; 5:52–54. Carroll NV. Formularies and therapeutic interchange: The health care setting makes a difference. Am. J. Health-System Pharm. 1999; 56:467–471 . Cascio M, Williams J. Impact of non-formulary drug notification form. Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 1982; 39:1039–1041 . Centeon. Reimbursement alert. The debate over drug formularies. October December 1999 [on line]. Available at: www.adventisbehring.com/na/med/reimbursementrc/x_8med_99_4.asp. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). 1998. CDER 1998 Report to the Nation: Improving Public Health Through Human Drugs [on line]. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/cder/reports/rptntn98.pdf.
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DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF THE VA National Formulary Center for Health Policy Research. Negotiating the New Health System: A Nationwide Study of Medicaid Managed Care Contracts . Washington, DC: George Washington University; 1998. Chassin M.R., Galvin RW. The urgent need to improve health care quality. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1998; 280(11):1000–1005. Chinburapa V, Larson LN. The availability of new drugs in health maintenance organizations . J. Res. Pharmaceut. Econ. 1991; 3(1):91–110. Chon HS, Suzuki NT. Evaluation of omeprazole to lansoprazole conversion in a VA medical center. ASGO Midyear Clin. Meet . 1998; P-122E. Chren M-M, Landefield S. In reply letter. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1994; 272:(5):355. Congressional Budget Office (CBO). How the Medicaid Rebate on Prescription Drugs Affects Pricing to the Pharmaceutical Industry . Washington, DC: CBO; 1996. Congressional Budget Office. How Increased Competition from Generic Drugs Has Affected Prices and Returns in the Pharmaceutical Industry . Washington, DC: CBO; 1998. Cook A, Kornfield T, Gold M. The Role of PBMs in Managing Drug Costs: Implications for a Medicare Drug Benefit . Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.; 2000. Covington TR, Thornton JL. The Formulary System: A Cornerstone of Drug Benefit Management . Alexandria, VA: Foundation for Managed Care Pharmacy; 1995. Crawford SY, Santell JP. ASHP national survey of pharmaceutical services in federal hospitals —1993. Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 1994; 51:2377–2393. Cromwell DM, Bass EB, Steinberg EP, et al. Can restrictions on reimbursement for anti-ulcer drugs decrease Medicaid pharmacy costs without increasing hospitalizations? Health Serviees Res. 1999; 33(6):1593–1610. Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration. Pharmacy Benefits Management: A Valuable Product Line . Washington, DC: Department of Veterans Affairs; 1989. Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration. ADE Report . Washington, DC: Department of Veterans Affairs; 1999a. Department of Veterans Affairs, Pharmacy Benefits Management Strategic Health Group. Criteria for Use of Selected Drugs [on line]. Available at: http://www.dppm.med.va.gov/newsite/criteriadrop.html. Department of Veterans Affairs, Pharmacy Benefits Management Strategic Health Group. Drug Class Reviews [on line]. Available at: http://www.dppm.med.va.gov/newsite/reviews.html. Department of Veterans Affairs, Pharmacy Benefits Management Strategic Health Group. Treatment Guidelines [on line]. Available at: http://www.dppm.med.va.gov/newsite/treatment1.htm. Department of Veterans Affairs, Pharmacy Benefits Management Strategic Health Group. Pharmacologic Management of Congestive Heart Failure [on line]. Available at: http://www.dppm.med.va.gov/newsite/DSMCHF.htm Department of Veterans Affairs, Pharmacy Benefits Management Strategic Health Group [on line]. Available at: http://www.dppm.med.va.gov. Desai N, Vigil JM, Wood MJ. Effects on lipids and liver function tests when patients are converted from lovastatin to fluvastatin. Paper presented at the Western States Residency Conference , Monterey, CA ; 1997.
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DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF THE VA National Formulary DeTorres OH, White RE. Effect of aminoglycoside-use restrictions on drug cost. Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 1984; 41:1137–1139 . Dillon M. Drug Formulary Management. In: Navarro RP , ed. Managed Care Pharmacy Practice . Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers, Inc.; 1999. DiMasi JA, Brown JS, Lasagna L. An analysis of regulatory review times of supplemental indications for already-approved drugs: 1989–1994. Drug Inform. J. 1966; 30:(2):315–337. Doering PL, Russell WL, McCormick WC, Klapp DL. Therapeutic substitution in the health maintenance organization outpatient environment. Drug Intell. Clin. Pharm. 1988; 22(2):125–130. Donabedian A.Explorations in Quality Assessment and Monitoring , Vol 1: The Definition of Quality and Approaches to Its Assessment . Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press; 1980. Dranove D. Medicaid drug formulary restrictions. J. Law Econ. 1989; 32(1):143–162. Dunagan WC, Medoff G. Formulary control of antimicrobial usage: What price freedom? Diag. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 1993; 16:265–274. Dzierba S, Reilly RT, Caselnova DAI. Cost savings achieved through cephalosporin use review and restriction . Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 1986; 43:2194–2197. Edwards DE, Triplett JW, Izquierdo-San Juan AB. Conversion from pravastatin or fluvastatin to simvastatin through a protocol: Outcome study. ASHP Midyear Clin Meet . 1998; P-9R. Edwards JG, Anderson I. Systematic review and guide to selection of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Drugs . 1999; 57(4):507–533. Farrow, H.M. ; Personal communication , VISN 16 . 1999. Fink JL, Vivian JC, Reid KK, et al. Facts and Comparisons . St Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Co.; 1998. Fonseca ML, Smith ME, Klein RE, Sheldon G. The Department of Veterans Affairs medical care system and the people it serves. Med. Care . 1996; 34(3 Suppl.):MS9–MS20. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA seeks help in evaluating consequences of therapeutic interchange . Am. J. Health-System Pharm. 1997; 54:(10):1149. Food and Drug Administration. Letter to Health Practitioners on Therapeutic Equivalence of Generic Drugs . Washington, DC: FDA; 1998a. Food and Drug Administration. TalkPaper . Washington, DC: FDA; 1998b. Food and Drug Administration. Electronic Orange Book: Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations . Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service; 1999a. Food and Drug Administration. TalkPaper . Washington, DC: FDA; 1999b. Food and Drug Administration. Manual of Policies and Procedures [on line]. Available at: www.fda.gov/MAPP. Frank, G., et al. Prescription Drug Policy Issues in California , 1999. Francke DE. The formulary system: Product of the teaching hospital. J. Am. Hosp. Assoc. 1967; 41:110–116. Friedmann YM, Hanchak NA. Pharmacy Program Performance Measurement. In: Navarro RP , ed. Managed Care Pharmacy Practice . Gaithersburg, MD : Aspen Publishers, Inc.; 1999.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: