more reserves with greater protections should be established. The converse argument is unlikely—that MPAs are part of the problem. However, much of the widespread degradation of the marine environment comes from inadequate regulation of land-based activities that affect the marine environment. Agricultural runoff and other nonpoint sources of pollutants to the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem are implicated in generating the large zone of hypoxic bottom water in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Goolsby, 2000). This is the type of complex management issue addressed under the Clean Water Act. Similarly, coastal hardening affects nearshore habitats and transport of sand. These issues fall, in part, under the aegis of the CZMA. MPAs may not be the complete answer, but their expansion is likely to improve land-based efforts to protect marine biodiversity and habitats.
The discussion of fishery management above covers primarily federal waters. In state and local areas, there are a large number of fishery reserves established for specific purposes. Unfortunately, relatively little is known about the contribution of these reserves to maintaining or rebuilding fisheries. These areas tend to be small in size and very specific with respect to purpose (e.g., herring spawning area, good habitat for large rockfish). Nearshore environments are often key areas for spawning and rearing of juvenile fish, so their proportional significance in the life histories of some species may be quite large. In addition, it appears that a large proportion of these state and local reserves are proximate to shoreside protected areas as well, and this may show potential for managing across the shoreline boundary. Many of these sites are of relatively recent origin relative to the time scale in which one would expect to see changes in fish populations, species composition, and size distributions. It is also fair to say that few of these have received adequate monitoring or research. It appears that there are considerable opportunities, given the uncertainty in fishery management, to use additional fishery reserves as a hedge against management failure and to learn from what works and what does not. Developing stakeholder processes around a mutual interest of parties in restoring fish stocks can be a key element in this regard where resources are inadequate to fully monitor and perform research.
Federally established MPAs clearly demonstrate the provision of a wide variety of ecosystem services. They also illustrate the growing demand for other ecosystem services. State and local designation of MPAs can be responsive to an even wider range of such services, especially where the initiative for the designation derives from local grass-roots, "bottom-up" kinds of requests. These