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connectivity: The movement of organisms from place to place (e.g., among reserves) through dispersal or migration.

core area: The central, most highly protected part of a protected area.

critical areas: Areas within an MPA that are crucial to achieving the objectives of the MPA; for example, spawning areas in an MPA established for fisheries purposes.

cultural landscape: A cluster of beliefs, values, and norms about how are places and things on the earth are related to human behavior.

culturally affiliated: To be connected to a place, region, or resource because it has significant meaning in the culture of the individual and his or her group. In most cases, cultural affiliation requires more than one generation to establish, and for some groups the connections have been developed over centuries. The federal government uses the term in various environmental laws and regulations.

ecological reserve: Zoning that protects all living marine resources through prohibitions on fishing and on the removal or disturbance of any living or nonliving marine resource. Access and recreational activities may be restricted to prevent damage to the resources. These reserves may also be referred to as fully protected areas.

ecosystem: An integrated system of living species, their habitat, and the processes that affect them.

ecosystem approach: Fishery management actions aimed at conserving the structure and function of marine ecosystems, in addition to conserving the fishery resource.

endemism: Of or relating to a native species or population occurring under highly restricted conditions due to the presence of a unique environmental factor that limits its distribution.

environmental ethics: A cluster of beliefs, values, and norms regarding how humans should interact with the environment.

exclusive economic zone (EEZ): All waters from the seaward boundary of coastal nations to 200 nautical miles.

existence value: see heritage value.

fishery reserve: Zoning that precludes fishing activity on some or all species to protect critical habitat, rebuild stocks (long term, but not necessarily permanent closure), provide insurance against overfishing, or enhance fishery yield.

growth overfishing: Fishing mortality at which the losses in weight from total mortality exceed the gain in weight due to growth. Growth overfishing results from catching too many small fish before they have reached an optimum marketable size.

heritage (or existence) value: Site possessing historical, archaeological, architec-



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