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network: A group of reserves designed to meet objectives that single reserves cannot achieve on their own. Networks of reserves are linked by dispersal of marine organisms and by ocean currents.

open access: A type of fishery in which anyone wanting to fish who has the appropriate gear can do so. A fishery is considered open access even when licenses are required, if the number of licenses is not limited and the holder does not have to abide by individual quotas or other restrictions to access.

precautionary approach: a management philosophy that favors constraining an activity when there is high scientific uncertainty regarding its effects on the natural environment, as opposed to allowing an activity to continue until proof, of either no effect or a negative impact, is obtained.

protected area: An area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means.

recruitment: A measure of the number of fish that enter a class during some time period, such as the spawning class or fishing-size class.

recruitment overfishing: This condition results from fishing at a high enough level to reduce the biomass of reproductively mature fish (spawning biomass) to a level at which future recruitment is reduced. Recruitment overfishing is characterized by a decreasing proportion of older fish in the fishery and consistently low average recruitment over time.

regional fishery management councils: Eight regional councils mandated in the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act to develop management plans for fisheries in federal waters.

sectoral management: A management approach in which specific agencies are given responsibility for managing particular sectors. Examples are fishery management agencies and tourism management agencies. The result of sectoral management of an area in which different sectors compete for resources is often conflict between users, and between different sector management agencies with responsibilities over a common area, even under the same government. There is an inherent incentive for each sector to maximize its profits and benefits at the expense of other sectors, the general public or the natural environment.

sink: Habitats in which birth rates are lower than death rates and emigration is lower than immigration, as applied to equilibrium populations. A more general definition is that a sink is a compartment that is a net importer of individuals.

source: Patches in which birth rates are higher than death rates and emigration rates are higher than immigration rates, as applied to equilibrium popula-

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