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Contents

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1
    Recognizing the Limits, 2
    Managing Marine Resources, 2
    Conclusions and Recommendations, 4
1     INTRODUCTION 10
    Why MPAs?, 13
    Statement of Task, 14
    Study Approach and Report Organization, 15
2     CONSERVATION GOALS 17
    Conservation Goals on Land and in the Sea, 17
    Goals of Marine Reserves and Protected Areas, 21
    Summary, 29
3     CONVENTIONAL MANAGEMENT OF MARINE FISHERIES 30
    Problems and Issues in Fishery Management, 30
    Conventional Fishery Management, 32
    Uncertainty, Fishery Management, and a Role for Marine Reserves, 40
4     SOCIETAL VALUES OF MARINE RESERVES AND PROTECTED AREAS 42
    Origin of the Values Associated with Marine Ecosystems, 43
    Costs and Benefits to User Groups, 46


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