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Suggested Citation: "Index." National Research Council. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2006.
Page 125
Suggested Citation: "Index." National Research Council. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2006.
Page 126
Suggested Citation: "Index." National Research Council. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2006.
Page 127
Suggested Citation: "Index." National Research Council. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2006.
Page 128
Suggested Citation: "Index." National Research Council. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2006.
Page 129
Suggested Citation: "Index." National Research Council. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2006.
Page 130
Suggested Citation: "Index." National Research Council. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2006.
Page 131

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Index A Alienation within departments, a cultural barrier facing women faculty, 91­93 AASCU. See American Association of State American Association of State Colleges and Colleges and Universities Universities (AASCU), 104­106 AAUP. See American Association of American Association of University University Professors Professors (AAUP), 6 ACE. See American Council on Education American College President Study, 101 ACE Fellows Program, 105 American Council on Education (ACE), ACE Network, 106 101, 106­107 Action steps, 114­117 AP. See Advanced placement examinees for deans and provosts, 47, 70, 85, 99, Asian American female students, 18­23, 37 108, 115­116 ASPIRE (Alabama Supercomputing for department chairs, 47, 70, 85, 99, Program to Inspire Computational 108, 115 Research in Education) project, 33 for faculty, 47, 70, 85, 99, 108, 114 Assessments, collecting statistics needed for presidents, 47, 70, 85, 99, 108, 116­ for, 82 117 Association of American Universities, 66 Administrative positions, policies to Audits. See Institutional audits advance women into, 3 Admissions process, revising, 36 Advanced placement (AP) examinees, 15­ B 17 in computer science, 33 Bachelor's degrees awarded Advice networks, 59. See also Student by field and gender, 17­18 advising in science and engineering, number of Adviser, Teacher, Role Model, Friend: On women receiving, 28 Being a Mentor to Students in Science Baylor University, 63 and Engineering, 60 Benefits African American female students, 18­23, access to medical and dental, 45­46 37 lower for women faculty, 102 125

126 INDEX Big sister/little sister programs, 59 Departmental issues Black female students, 18­23, 37 action steps for chairs, 47, 70, 85, 99, Bridging programs, developing, 39 108, 115 Bring Your Daughter to Work Day, 36 cultural alienation women faculty face, Bryn Mawr College, 105 53­54, 91­93 funding, 54 Diversity. See also Inclusiveness C advisory councils for, 32 setting targets for, 32 Candidates Doctoral degrees awarded casting a broader net to identify, by broad field and gender, 72 81­82 in science and engineering, number of improving the positions of, 83­84 women receiving, 28 Career Day for Girls, 36 DOE. See U.S. Department of Education Carnegie Corporation, 106 Duke University, 48 Carnegie Mellon University, 56 Duties, allowing modification of, 96 Celebration of women in computing, 59 Center for Policy Analysis, 107 Challenges, faced by female students and E faculty, 5­8, 30, 55, 77, 93, 103, 111­ 112 Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Chicana students, 18­23 Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Child care policies Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, establishing, 45, 82­83 Institutions, Funding Organizations, reinforcing, 95 and Disciplinary Societies, 30 Chronicle of Higher Education, 102 EQUALS, 33­34 Committee on Graduate Education, 66 Equity of salaries and resources, instituting Committee on Science, Engineering, and regular studies to determine, 45 Public Policy (COSEPUP), 11, 68 Executive leadership training, to help Committee on the Guide to Recruiting and women advance to executive Advancing Women Scientists and positions, 105­106 Engineers in Academia, 1 Executive positions, recruiting and Committee on the Status of Women in advancing women to, 108 Computing Research, 42 Committee on Women in Science and Engineering (CWSE), 1, 8­9, 100 F Computer science and engineering (CSE) celebration of women in, 59 Faculty members, action steps for, 47, 70, majors in, 42 85, 99, 108, 114 Computing Research Association, 42 Faculty recruitment programs Constructive feedback, providing, 68 casting a broader net to identify COSEPUP. See Committee on Science, candidates, 81­82 Engineering, and Public Policy collecting statistics on hiring processes CSE. See Computer science and and outcomes to aid in assessments, engineering 82 engaging in focused faculty recruiting, 81 having institutional executives D intervene, 82 modifying or expanding, 81­82 Day-to-day policies, changing, 96 policies to enhance, 3 Deans and provosts, action steps for, 47, providing incentive grants, 81 70, 85, 99, 108, 115­116 taking steps to diversify search committees, 81

INDEX 127 Family-friendly policies, 27, 45­46 Institutional audits, to help women Feedback, providing constructive, 68 advance to executive positions, 104 Freshmen intending to major in S&E, by Institutional executives, intervention by, 82 race/ethnicity, gender, and field, Institutional policies and practices 20­24 creating spousal hiring programs, 83 Funding for graduate students. See also establishing parental leave policies and Research assistantships child care, 82­83 providing secure, 67­68 extending the tenure clock, 82 improving to recruit women faculty, 82­83 G instituting sexual harassment sensitivity programs, 83 Gender disparities, in U.S. academia, 5­8 Institutional resources, fewer available to Gender inclusiveness, 2 women faculty, 90­91 Graduate S&E programs, enhancing and improving, 44­45 Graduate S&E students, 39­43, 47, 70 J challenges of recruiting women, 25­29, 111 Job satisfaction, among women faculty, 88 challenges of retaining women, 53­54 Johns Hopkins University, 88 enhancing and improving Junior faculty, limiting service among, 95­ undergraduate S&E programs, 42 96 identifying prospective students, 42 offering financial aid, 43 organizing on-campus orientations, 42­ L 43 signaling the importance of women, 40­ Leadership positions. See also Executive 41 leadership training strategies for recruiting women, 39 strategies for advancing women into, strategies for retaining women, 65 113­114 women underrepresented among, 1 Low-income parents, 95 Grants, providing incentive, 81 M H Massachusetts Institute of Technology Harassment by gender, perception and (MIT), 90­91 experience of, 52, 89 Master's degrees awarded, in science and Henry Luce Foundation, The, 88 engineering, number of women High school graduates, percentage taking receiving, 28 mathematics and science in high Medical and dental benefits, offering access school, by gender, 16 to, 45­46 Hiring processes and outcomes, collecting Mentoring programs statistics to aid in assessments, 82 establishing, 58­60 Housing subsidies, offering, 45­46 to help "presidents-in-training," 104­ 105 to help women faculty, 96­98 I improving, 66­67 Methodology issues, 9­11 Incentive grants, providing, 81 Mexican American female students, 18­23 Inclusiveness, 2 Millennium Leadership Initiative (MLI), "Inspired" individuals, 77 105

128 INDEX MIT. See Massachusetts Institute of Policies and practices that advance women Technology faculty, 3 MLI. See Millennium Leadership Initiative allowing modified duties, 96 Modified duties, allowing for, 96 changing day-to-day policies, 96 equity of salaries and resources, 45 female- and family-friendly policies, N 45­46 limiting service among junior faculty, National Academies, 1, 9, 11, 60, 66 95­96 National Center for Education Statistics, offering housing subsidies and access to 49 medical and dental benefits, 45­46 National Council of Chief Academic parental leave policies and child care, Officers, 104 45, 82­83, 95 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 46 periodic reviews and adjustments of National Research Council, 30 salaries, 96 National Research Service Awards (NRSA), sexual harassment sensitivity programs, 46 45, 95 National Science Foundation (NSF), 6, 27, Postdoctoral S&E students 33­35, 87 challenges of recruiting women, 29­30, National Survey of Postsecondary Faculty 111 (NSOPF), 89n enhancing and improving the graduate National Survey of Recent College experience, 44­45 Graduates, 35n establishing female- and family-friendly Networking. See also Advice networks policies and practices, 45­46 to help women advance to executive by gender, 29 positions, 106 identifying prospective students, 45 NIH. See National Institutes of Health increasing salaries of, 46 NRSA. See National Research Service signaling the importance of women, 44 Awards strategies for recruiting women, 43­47 NSF. See National Science Foundation strategies for retaining women, 70 NSOPF. See National Survey of women underrepresented among, 1 Postsecondary Faculty Presidents, action steps for, 47, 70, 85, 99, 108, 116­117 O "Presidents-in-training," 104­105 Princeton University, 38, 103 Office of Women in Higher Education Professional socialization, increasing, 63­ (OWHE), 106 65, 67 On-campus orientations, organizing, 36­38, Program for Gender Equity, 34n 42­43 Promotion rates, women faculty facing Orientations, organizing on-campus, 36­38, lower, 87 42­43 Prospective students, identifying, 42, 45 OWHE. See Office of Women in Higher Provosts. See Deans and provosts Education Puerto Rican American female students, 18­23 P R Parental leave policies establishing, 45, 82­83 Recruiting women faculty, 1, 71­85 reinforcing, 95 challenges of, 72­77 Pedagogical changes needed, 60­61 strategies for, 78­84

INDEX 129 Recruiting women students, 14­47 enhancing education and outreach challenges of, 14­30 efforts at the K-12 level, 33­35 strategies for, 30­47 female graduate students, by field, 26 Research assistantships, 43 national "talent" in finding talent for, Research questions, 8­9 40 Research time, of women faculty, number of women receiving degrees in, inadequate protection of, 89­90 28 Resources, determining equity of access to, preparation for, 51­52 45 showing interest in high school, 48 Retaining women graduate students, 65­68 Search process improving mentoring, 66­67 for applicants, broadening, 35­36 increasing professional socialization, 67 changing to help women advance to providing constructive feedback, 68 executive positions, 107 providing secure funding for graduate diversifying committees for, 81 students, 67­68 Service, limiting among junior faculty, 95­ signaling the importance of women, 65­ 96 66 Sexual harassment Retaining women postdoctoral fellows, 68­ instituting sensitivity programs for, 45, 69 83 Retaining women students, 3, 48­70 reinforcing sensitivity programs for, 95 challenges of, 49­55 Smith College, 38 strategies for, 55­69 Social events, 36­38, 42­43, 59 Retaining women undergraduate students, Society of Women Engineers (SWE), 36, 63 55­65 Spousal hiring programs, creating, 83 establishing mentoring programs, 58­60 Statistics needed for assessments, increasing engagement with women collecting, 82 students, 61­63 Strategies for advancing women faculty, increasing professional socialization, 94­98 63­65 creating and reinforcing policies and making pedagogical changes, 60­61 practices, 95­96 signaling the importance of women, 56­ engaging women faculty more fully in 57 the institution, 98 strengthening student advising, 57­58 signaling the importance of women, 94­ Retention rates, women faculty facing 95 lower, 88 strengthening mentoring, 96­98 Rutgers, the State University of New Strategies for advancing women to Jersey, 62 executive positions, 103­107 changing the search process, 107 conducting an institutional audit, 104 S developing executive leadership training, 105­106 Salaries engaging in networking, 106 instituting regular studies to determine mentoring "presidents-in-training," equity of, 45, 110 104­105 undertaking periodic reviews and Strategies for recruiting women faculty, adjustments of, 96 78­84 Science, 44 improving institutional policies and Science and engineering (S&E) enterprise, practices, 82­83 1­3 improving the positions of candidates, doctoral degrees awarded to women, 83­84 by field, 74­75

130 INDEX modifying or expanding faculty freshmen intending to major in S&E, recruitment programs, 81­82 20­24 signaling the importance of women organizing on-campus orientations, 36­ faculty, 78­80 38 Strategies for recruiting women students, residence halls for women in, 62 30­47 revising the admissions process, 36 graduate student recruitment, 39­43 signaling the importance of women, 32­ policies to enhance, 2­3 33 postdoctoral recruiting, 43­46 strategies for recruiting women, 30­39, undergraduate student recruitment, 30­ 47 39 strategies for retaining women, 55, 70 Students. See also Graduate S&E students; University of Pennsylvania, 82 Postdoctoral S&E students; University of Southern California, 64 Undergraduate S&E students; University of Southern Colorado, 37 Women students U.S. Department of Education (DOE), 15, strengthening advising of, 57­58 25, 49 Summer Institute for Women in Higher U.S. News and World Report, 13 Education Administration, 105 W T White female students, 18­23 Team-oriented courses, 60n Why So Slow, 77 Tenure-track faculty issues, 72 WIE. See Women in Engineering extending the tenure clock for women, WISE. See Women in Science and 82 Engineering males and females tenured at top 50 Women, Minorities, and Persons with U.S. educational institutions, 76 Disabilities in Science and Engineering, women faculty facing lower tenure 6 rates, 87 Women advancing Tilghman, Shirley, 38, 103 in four institutions, 11­13, 109­110 Time to promotion, women faculty facing signaling the importance of, 32­33, 40­ longer, 87 41, 44, 56­57, 65­66, 94­95 Training. See Executive leadership Women advancing to executive positions, training 100­108 challenges faced by, 101­103 strategies for, 103­107 U Women faculty, challenges faced by, 86­99, 112 Undergraduate S&E programs, enhancing alienating departmental cultures, 91­93 and improving, 42 fewer institutional resources, 90­91 Undergraduate S&E students isolation, 92­93 broadening the search for applicants, longer time to promotion, 87 35­36 lower benefits, 102 celebrating research work of, 64 lower job satisfaction, 88 challenges of recruiting women, 15­25, lower retention rates, 88 111 lower tenure and promotion rates, 87 challenges of retaining women, 49­53 marginalization, 92 developing bridging programs, 39 research time inadequately protected, enhancing S&E education and outreach 89­90 efforts at the K-12 level, 33­35 work-family conflicts, 91

INDEX 131 Women faculty, strategies for advancing, 1, Women Professionals from Industry, 36 86­99. See also Policies and practices Women students, 3, 14­30, 49­55 that advance women faculty challenges faced by, 111 engaging more fully in the institution, increasing engagement with, 61­63 54, 98 race and ethnicity of, 18­23 recruitment strategies, 85, 113 recruiting graduate students, 25­29 retention and advancement strategies, recruiting postdocs, 29­30 94­99, 113 recruiting undergraduates, 15­25 signaling the importance of women, 78­ retaining graduate students, 53­54 80 retaining undergraduates, 49­53 Women in Engineering (WIE), 63 strategies to advance, 112­113 Women in Science and Engineering Work-family conflicts, women faculty (WISE), 63 facing, 91 Women Presidents Network, 104, 106

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Although more women than men participate in higher education in the United States, the same is not true when it comes to pursuing careers in science and engineering. To Recruit and Advance: Women Students and Faculty in Science and Engineering identifies and discusses better practices for recruitment, retention, and promotion for women scientists and engineers in academia. Seeking to move beyond yet another catalog of challenges facing the advancement of women in academic science and engineering, this book describes actions actually taken by universities to improve the situation for women. Serving as a guide, it examines the following:

  • Recruitment of female undergraduates and graduate students.
  • Ways of reducing attrition in science and engineering degree programs in the early undergraduate years.
  • Improving retention rates of women at critical transition points from undergraduate to graduate student, from graduate student to postdoc, from postdoc to first faculty position.
  • Recruitment of women for tenure-track positions.
  • Increasing the tenure rate for women faculty.
  • Increasing the number of women in administrative positions.

This guide offers numerous solutions that may be of use to other universities and colleges and will be an essential resource for anyone interested in improving the position of women students, faculty, deans, provosts, and presidents in science and engineering.

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