National Academies Press: OpenBook

Laboratory Animal Management: Dogs (1994)

Chapter: INDEX

« Previous: APPENDIX: CROSS REFERENCE
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1994. Laboratory Animal Management: Dogs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2120.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1994. Laboratory Animal Management: Dogs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2120.
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Page 134
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1994. Laboratory Animal Management: Dogs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2120.
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Page 135
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1994. Laboratory Animal Management: Dogs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2120.
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Page 136
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1994. Laboratory Animal Management: Dogs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2120.
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Page 137
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1994. Laboratory Animal Management: Dogs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2120.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1994. Laboratory Animal Management: Dogs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2120.
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Index Acromegaly, 94, 96 Addison's disease (hyperadrenocorticism), 93, 95-96 Adenovirus, 54-57 Adipose tissue, 26 Aging, 79-81 Alaria cants, 62 Albumin, 106 Alpha-2 agonists, 67 Amebas, 58, 59 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists, 115 American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Panel on Euthanasia, 70-71 Ameroid, 88-89 Analgesics anti-inflammatory nonsteroidal, 67 euthanasia, 70-71 opioid, 66-67 pain alleviation, 63-68 postsurgical, 68-69 Ancylostoma spp., 44, 59-61 Anemia, 100 Anesthesia and anesthetics alleviation of pain, 64-68 Anestrus, 41, 81 Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), 87- 88, 91 Animal Welfare Act, 1, 11 Animal Welfare Regulations (AWRs) cross referenced, 131 - 132 defined, 1-2 Antigens, 5, 120 Antibiotics, 69 Arthritis, 5, 79 Artificial insemination, 37-39 Ascarids (Toxocara cants; Toxascaris leonina), 58-60 Association of American Feed Control Officials, 24, 42 Attachment formation, 44-45 Auscultation, 85 Autoimmune diseases, see Immunologic diseases; and specific diseases Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, 102- 104 Autoimmune (lymphocytic) thyroiditis, 102- 104 Babesia spp., 62-63 euthanasia, 70-71 Babesiosis, 62-63 gene therapy, 120, 122 Bacterial diseases, see specific diseases general, 64-66, 69 inhalants, 64, 71 injectable drugs, 64-65, 70-71 local, 66 hypothermia, 17 neuromuscular blocking agents, 65-66 presurgical, 69 133 Balantidium spp., 58-59 Barbiturates, 70 Bedding and resting apparatus, 11, 26-27, 30, 113 Behavior aging, 79 aggressive, 5, 23, 30, 45-46, 67, 70 blindness and ocular pain, 115- 116

34 fearful, 23, 45-46, 53, 67-68 herding, 5 maladaptive, 22, 53, 67 necrologic disorders, 108- 109 record-keeping, 46 selection of experimental animals, 7-9 socialization, 7-9, 11, 22-24, 44-46, 53 see also Stressors and distress Benzodiazepines, 67-68 Biohazards, 119 Bioimplants, 85 Bladder disorders, 81 Bleeding disorders, 99-101 Blindness, 114-115 Blood glucose monitoring, 94 Blood pressure, 89-90 Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), 89 Body size, 7, 25-26, 30 Body weight, 7, 25-26, 30, 39-40, 42-43, 67, 80, 95, 99, 117 Bone marrow transplantation, 107, 117, 120- 121 Bordetella bronchiseptica, 54-56 Breeding colonies deworming, 43-44 infectious diseases, 40-41, 55-56 neonatal care, 39-47, 56 nutritional requirements, 42-43 record-keeping, 46-47 reproduction, 35-41, 83-84 socialization, 44-46 specific-pathogen-free, 57 vaccination, 43-44, 55-56 see also Specific-pathogen-free animals; Reproduction; Vaccines . . . and vaccination INDEX Decapitation, 71 Degenerative joint disease, 79 Demodex cants, 58 Dental diseases, 25, 79-80, 100 Deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA), 88 Deworming, 43-44 Diabetes mellitus, 5, 94-95 Diarrhea, 59, 61 Diazepam, 67-68 Digoxin, 80-81 Dipylidium caninum, 62 Dirofilaria immitis, 5, 59, 61 Dirofilariasis, 5, 59, 61 Distemper, 5, 54-57 Distress, see Stressors and distress DLA (major histocompatiblity complex), 5 Drainage, 14- 15 Drugs, see Analgesics; Anesthesia and Anesthetics; Injectable drugs; and specific drugs Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, 110- 111 Dysesthesias, 113 Dystocia, 41-42 Ear mites (Otodectes cynotis), 58 Echinococcus spp., 62 Echocardiography, 85, 87 Ectoparasites, 57-58; see also Parasitic diseases; and specific ectoparasites Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, 12, 91-92 Ehrlichia cants, 62-63 Ehrlichiosis, 62-63 Electrocardiography, 69, 85, 87 Electrocution, 71 Embryo-transfer technology, 57 Emergency, weekend, and holiday care, 29 Endocrinologic diseases, 79, 93-97 clinical features, 93-94 husbandry and veterinary care, 94-97 Cages and pens, 19-20, 30-31 see also specific diseases Calcium derangements, 93-97 Endoparasites, 44, 58-63; see also Parasitic Carbon dioxide, 71 diseases; and specific endoparas~tes Carbon monoxide, 71 Entamoeba spp., 59 Cardiovascular diseases, 5, 61, 70, 80-87; see also Hypertension; and specific diseases Catheterization, 69, 85-87, 89, 113 Cheyletiella yasguri, 58 Chemoprophylaxis, 59, 61 Code of Federal Regulations, defined, 1-2 Colostrum, 43, 104 Common variable immunodeficiency, 102 104 Complement (C3) deficiency, 105-106 Complete blood counts (CBCs), 86-87 Congenital heart defects, 81-84 Conotruncal defects, 82 Cornification, 39 Cryptosporidium spp., 58-59 Cyanosis, 83-84 Cyclic hematopoiesis, 98, 100 Brucella cants, 37, 55 Brucellosis, 37, 55 Environmental controls, see environmental conditions under Housing Environmental enrichment, 11, 21-24 Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, 37, 41 Erythrocyte phosphofructokinase deficiency, 98, 100-101 Esophageal nematode (Spirocerca lupi), 62 Estrus, 23, 30, 35-39, 41, 81, 95-96 Euthanasia cardiac defects, 83, 86 ethics, 72 human considerations, 71-72 inhalation methods, 71 injection methods, 70 lysosomal storage diseases, 108-110 muscular dystrophy, 111-112 necropsy examination, 40

INDEX physical methods, 71 radiation injury, 119 Exercise, see under Housing Exsanguination, 71 Factor X deficiency, 98, 101 False estrus, 41 Fearful behavior, 23, 45-46, 53? 68 Filaroides spp., 58-59 Fleas, 58, 62 Food and nutrition aging, 79-80 bleeding disorders, 99-100 body size, 25-26 body weight, 25-26, 43 cardiovascular diseases, 85 conditioning, 53 contaminants, 26 deprivation, 78 diabetes, 95-96 feeding programs, 25-26 hypertension, 90-91 labels, 24 lysosomal storage diseases, 109- 110 muscular dystrophy, 111 neonatal, 42-43 necrologic diseases, 113 nutritional content, 24-25 organ transplantation, 107 orthopedic diseases, 117 pregnancy and lactation, 42 restraint training, 78 transportation, 29-31 Forms, 28-29 Fucosidosis, 108-109 Gases, 19, 31 Gene therapy, 79, 119- 122 Genetic factors, and selection of experimental animals, 5-7, 79 Genetic mapping, 5-6 Geriatrics, 79-81 Geriatrics and Gerontology, 81 Giardia spp., 58-59 Glucocorticosteroids, 117 Good Laboratory Practice Standards, 2 Granulocytopathy, 102- 104 Granulomatous pneumonia, 111 Growth hormones, 96, 102- 104 Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide), defined, 1-2 Hair-follicle mites (D emodex cants), 5 8 Hazards, and selection of experimental animals, 5 Health Research Extension Act of 1985, 1 Hearing loss, 79 Heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis), 5, 59, 61 Helminths, 58-63 Hematologic diseases, 97-98 bleeding disorders, 99- 101 clinical features, 6, 97-98 135 cyclic hematopoiesis, 100 husbandry and veterinary care, 99 101 reproduction, 101 see also specific diseases Hematopoietic stem cells, 120- 121 Hemophilia, 97, 101, 121 Hepatitis, 54-57 Herpesvirus, 54-56 Heterodoxus spiniger, 58 Hookworms (Ancylostoma spp.; Uncinaria stenocephala), 44, 59-61 Housing aging, 80 chemicals and toxic substances, 19 criteria for design and construction, 12 14 drainage, 14- 15 Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, 92 environmental conditions, 16- 19, 31, 44-46, 104 exercise, 11-12, 21-22, 83, 95, 111 hematologic diseases, 99- 101 holding areas, 31-32 hypertension, 91 immunodeficiency diseases, 104- 106 indoor facilities, 14- 15 lysosomal storage diseases, 109 muscular dystrophy, 111 necrologic diseases, 113 noise, 19, 39 necrologic diseases, 113 outdoor facilities, 14, 16 postoperative, 85 power and lighting, 18 primary enclosures, 19-20, 30-31 quarantine facilities, 54-55 radiation injury, 119 sheltered housing facilities, 14- 16 solitary, 22 space recommendations, 20-21 temperature and humidity, 16- 17, 31, 40, 80 ventilation, 17-19, 30-31, 119 whelping facilities, 39-40 Husbandry, see Bedding and resting apparatus; Emergency, weekend, and holiday care; Environmental enrichment; Food and nutrition; Housing; Identification and records; Record-keeping; Sanitation; Water and watering devices Hyperadrenocorticism (Addison's disease), 93, 95-96 Hypercalcemia, 93-97 Hypertension, 87-91 Hypoadrenocorticism, 93-96 Hypocalcemia, 93-96 Hypothermia, 17, 26-27 Hypothyroidism, 93 Hypoxia, 71

136 IATA, see International Air Transport Association Identification and records, 11, 27-30 IgA deficiency, 102- 104 IgM deficiency, 102- 104 Immune thrombocytopenic purpura, 102- 104 Immunologic diseases acquired, 102 autoimmune, 5, 101-105 clinical features, 6, 101-107 complement deficiency, 105- 106 husbandry and veterinary care, 104- 107 organ transplantation, 106- 107 primary immunodeficiency, 101 - 105 see also specific diseases Immunoprophylaxis, 43 Inbreeding, 37 Induced heart defects, 84-87 Infectious diseases, 5, 53-57, 80; see also specific pathogens and specific d iseases Inhalant anesthetics, see under Anesthesia and anesthetics Injectable drugs, 64-65, 70-71 Institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC), 29, 76-78 Instrument implantation, 70 Instruments, artificial insemination, 38-39 Insulin, 94-95 Interleukin-6 dysregulation, 102- 105 International Air Transport Association (IATA), 2, 31 Interstate and International Certificate of Health Examination for Small Animals (USDA), 29 Intestinal fluke (Alaria cants), 62 Isospora spp., 58-59 Kennel cough, 54-56 Leishmania spp., 62 Le ishmanias is , 62 Leptospirosis, 55-56 Lethal injection, 70-71 Lice (Linognathus setosus; Trichodectes cants; Heterodoxus spiniger), 58 Linognathus setosus, 58 List of Licensed Dealers, 52 Lung diseases, 60, 80 Lung fluke (Paragonimus kellicotti), 61-62 Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), 6, 107- 110; see also specific diseases Major histocompatibility complex (DLA), 5 Male-female ratio, 37 Mange (Sarcoptes scabei), 58 Mating, see Reproduction Measles, 56 Metabolic bone diseases, 25, 43 Microsatellite probes, 6 Microsporum spp., 54 INDEX Mites, 58 Mitotane, 95-96 Models, canine, 6 Monitoring, 17, 53 Motor deficits, 113 Mucopolysaccharidosis, 108- 110 Muscle mass, 26 Muscular dystrophy, 110- 112 Musculoskeletal diseases, 6 Mycoplasma spp., 54 Nasal mite (Pneumonyssoides caninum), 58 National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, 55 Nematodes, 59, 61-62 Neonatal care, see under Breeding colonies Neurologic diseases, 5, 6, 112-114; see also specific diseases Neuromuscular blocking agents, 65-66 Neutropenia, 118 Nicotine, 71 Nitrous oxide, 64 Nutrition, see Food and nutrition Ocular defense mechanisms, 115-116 Ocular pain, 114, 116 Oocysts, 59 Ophthalmologic diseases, 114-116; see also specific diseases Organ transplantation, 106-107 Orthopedic diseases, 5, 116- 117; see also specific diseases Otodectes cynotis, 58 Ownership transfer, 28 Packs, 7-8, 23 Pain, 63-67, 114, 116; see also Analgesics; Anesthesia and anesthetics; Stressors and distress; Surgery Paragonimus kellicotti, 61-62 Parainfluenza, 54-56 Parasitic diseases, 5, 8-9. 37, 44, 55, 57-63; see also specific parasites and specific diseases Particulate contaminants, 31 Parturition, see Reproduction Parvovirus, 5, 54-56 Patent ductus arteriosus, 81-83 Pathogens, see Infectious diseases; and specific pathogens Pentatrichomonas spp., 59 Persistent truncus arteriosus, 82 ·Pharmacologic therapy, 87 Phenothiazines, 67-68 Pheromones, 37 Photoperiod, and reproductive cycle, 36 Physaloptera spp., 62 Physical fitness and enclosure size, 20 Physiologic monitoring and testing, 53 fecal and blood tests for endoparasites, 63

INDEX implantation of instruments, 70 inadequately socialized dogs, 45 induced heart defects, 85-86 pregnancy tests, 39-40 renal function in hypertensive dogs, 88- 89 surgical and postsurgical, 69 Pneumonyssoides caninum, 58 Polyps, 81 Pregnancy, see Reproduction Procurement, 52-53 Prostatic disorders, 81 Proteinuria, 106 Protocol review, 76-78 Protozoa, 58-63 Pseudopregnancy, 41 Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (PHS Policy), 1-2 Pulmonary valve dysplasia, 83 Purpose-bred animals, 52, 54, 57-61, 63, 68 Pyometra, 81 Pyruvate kinase deficiency, 98, 100 Quarantine facilities, 54-55 Rabies, 9, 54-56 Radiation injury, 117- 119 Radiation pneumonitis, 118 Radioactive-waste disposal, 118 Radiography, as pregnancy test, 39 Radionuclides, 118- 119 Random-source animals, 52-55, 57-58, 63 Record of Disposition of Dogs and Cats (USDA), 29 Record of Dogs and Cats on Hand (USDA), 29 Record-keeping animal-care staff, 28 federal regulations, 28-29 reproduction, 38, 46-47 Reinforcement techniques, 78 Renal diseases, 80, 87-89, 91, 106 Retinal degeneration, 6, 79, 88, 90-91 Reproduction acromegaly, 96 aging, 81 anestrus, 41, 81 artificial insemination, 37-39 cardiovascular diseases, 83-84 Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, 92 estrus, 23, 30, 35-39 ,41, 81. 95-96 false estrus, 41 hematologic dieseases, 101 immunologic diseases, 105- 106 lysosomal storage diseases, 110 muscular dystrophy, 112 natural mating, 37-38 necrologic diseases, 114 ophthalmologic diseases, 116 137 orthopedic diseases, 117 pregnancy and parturition, 39-41, 114 pseudopregnancy, 41 radiation, 119 record-keeping, 38, 46-47 reproductive cycle, 35-37, 46, 81 semen, 38-39 see also Breeding colonies Research protocols, 76-78 Respiratory diseases, 55, 113; see also specific diseases Restraint methods, 78 Restriction-fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), 6 Rheumatoid arthritis, 102- 104 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 57-58, 62 Ringworm (Microsporum spp.), 54 Roundworm (Toxocara cants), 44, 58-60 Sanitation, 14-15, 19, 26-27, 30, 58-63, 68- 69, 119 Sarcoptes scabei, 58 Scent-marking, 37 Semen, 38-39 Sensory deficits, 113 Septicemia, 102, 107 Serum creatinine concentration, 89 Serum urea nitrogen, 106 Severe combined immunodeficiency, 102-104 Sjogren's syndrome, 102- 104 Skin keratinocytes, 121 Smooth muscle transplantation, 121 - 122 Social contact and interaction, 7-9, 11, 22- 24, 44-46, 53, 117 Sodium-to-potassium ratio, 95-96 Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) animals, 57, 59-61, 63 Spirocerca lupi, 62 Spondylosis, 79 Sterilization, surgical instruments, 68-69 Stomach nematode (Physaloptera spp.), 62 Stressors and distress allevation, 64-68 blindness, 115 blood-glucose response, 95 environmental, 21-22, 53, 67-68, 95-96 hypertension measurement, 90 non-pain-induced, 67-68 pain-induced, 63-64 parturition, 41 recognition, 63-64, 67 signs of pain, 64 sleep, 22 transportation, 29-30 treatment, 67-68 vocalization, 44-45, 63-64 see also Analgesics; Anesthesia and anesthetics; Behavior; Pain; Surgery Strongyloides stercoralis, 59-60 Strychnine, 71 Subaortic stenosis, 81-83

138 Surgery cardiovascular diseases, 84-87 gene therapy, 120- 122 hypothermic recovering dogs, 17 pain, 63-67 postsurgical care, 69-70, 85, 91, 107 presurgical preparation, 68-69, 107 record-keeping, 28 renal failure, 89 see also Analgesics; Anesthesia and anesthetics; Pain; Stressors and distress Systemic lupus erythematosus, 102- 104 Taenia spp., 62 Tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum; Echinococcus spp.; Taenia spp.), 62 Tattoos, 27-28 Testicular atrophy, 81 Tetralogy of Fallot, 82 Thrombocytopenia, 118 Thrombopathia, 98, 101 Thyrogastric disease, 102- 104 Thyroid atrophy, 79 Thyroiditis, 102- 104 Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), 57-58, 62 Total-body irradiation (TBI), 107, 117, 119- 121 Total serum protein, 106 Toxascaris leonina, 58-60 Toxocara cants, 44, 58-60 Tracheobronchitis, 54-55 Tranquilizers, 66-68, 70; see also specific tranquilizers Transplantation studies, 57 Transponders, 28 Transportation environmental conditions, 31 health certificates, 31-32 holding areas, 31-32 food and water, 29-31 primary enclosures, 30-31 stress, 29-30 Trichodectes cants, 58 Trichomonas spp., 59 Trichuris vulpis, 59, 61 Truncus arteriosus, persistent, 82 Trypanosoma cruzi, 62 Ultrasonography, 39 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 11, 21, 27-28, 32, 52 U.S. Government Principles for Utili7ation and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training, 63-64 Uncinaria stenocephala, 44, 59-61 INDEX Vaccines and vaccination animal-care personnel, 9, 62 bleeding disorders, 101 breeding colonies, 43-44, 55-56 development, 5, 57 hematologic disorders, 101 multivalent, 55-56 schedule for pups, 56 social and behavioral factors, 8-9, 78 Vaginal cytology, 36-37, 39, 81 Vasodilators, 91 Venipuncture, 7-9, 70, 78 Ventricular septal defects (VSDs), 82 Vermin, 13, 15-16, 18-19 Veterinary care aging, 80-81 cardiovascular diseases, 83, 85-86 Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, 92 emergency, 29 endocrinologic diseases, 97 health certificates, 31-32 hematologic diseases, 99-101 immunologic diseases, 104- 107 infectious-disease control, 53-57 lysosomal storage diseases, 109- 110 muscular dystrophy, 111 - 112 neurologic diseases, 113 ophthalmologic diseases, 115 orthopedic diseases, 116- 117 pain and distress, 63-68 parasitic-disease control, 57-63 parturition, 40 procurement, 52-53 record-keeping, 28 surgery and postsurgical care, 68-70 see also Euthanasia; Surgery; Vaccines and vaccination; and specific diseases Viral diseases, see Infectious diseases; and . r. 7. spec~;zc a~seases von Willebrand's disease, 97-98, 101 `'Walking dandruff" (Cheyletiella yasguri), 58 Warts, 54 Washing facilities, 15 Water and watering devices, 26-27, 29-31, 53, 78, 80, 95, 99, 109, 111, 113 Weaning, 42-43, 46 Well-being definition and measurement, 21 exercise, 22 Whipworm (Trichuris vulpis), 59, 61 X rays, 118 xmd dogs, 110-112 Zoonoses, 8-9, 37, 55, 62

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This newly revised edition incorporates the regulatory requirements and improved practices for laboratory animal care that have developed over the past two decades.

The volume covers

  • Selection of dogs as research models.
  • Design, construction, and maintenance of facilities.
  • Temperature, humidity, food, water, bedding, sanitation, animal identification, record keeping, and transportation.
  • General veterinary care, as well as special care of breeding animals and random-source animals.

Laboratory Animal Management: Dogs examines controversies over proper cage sizes and interpretation of federal requirements for exercise and offers recommendations for researchers. Guidelines are provided on how to recognize and alleviate pain and distress in research dogs and on the sensitive topic of euthanasia.

Laboratory Animal Management: Dogs discusses how to assemble a proper research protocol and how to handle conflicts. Outlined are procedures for institutional animal care and use and committee review. The volume also presents guidelines for handling aging dogs, use of radiation in experiments, and a wide range of other special circumstances.

Thoroughly referenced, this guide will be indispensable to researchers, research administrators, review committees, and others concerned about laboratory dogs.

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