The health and economic costs of tobacco use in military and veteran populations are high. In 2007, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) requested that the Institute of Medicine (IOM) make recommendations on how to reduce tobacco initiation and encourage cessation in both military and veteran populations. In its 2009 report, Combating Tobacco in Military and Veteran Populations, the authoring committee concludes that to prevent tobacco initiation and encourage cessation, both DoD and VA should implement comprehensive tobacco-control programs.
In the early 1980s, two water-supply systems on the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune in North Carolina were found to be contaminated with the industrial solvents trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). The water systems were supplied by the Tarawa Terrace and Hadnot Point watertreatment plants, which served enlisted-family housing, barracks for unmarried service personnel, base administrative offices, schools, and recreational areas. The Hadnot Point water system also served the base hospital and an industrial area and supplied water to housing on the Holcomb Boulevard water system
Advances and major investments in the field of neuroscience can enhance traditional behavioral science approaches to training, learning, and other applications of value to the Army. Neural-behavioral indicators offer new ways to evaluate how well an individual trainee has assimilated mission critical knowledge and skills, and can also be used to provide feedback on the readiness of soldiers for combat. Current methods for matching individual capabilities with the requirements for performing high-value Army assignments do not include neuropsychological, psychophysiological, neurochemical or neu
This book makes a strong case for taking advantage of the best of two disciplines--health care and operational systems engineering (a combination of science and mathematics to describe, analyze, plan, design, and integrate systems with complex interactions among people, processes, materials, equipment, and facilities)-to improve the efficiency and quality of health care delivery, as well as health care outcomes.
Those most interested in pursuing this approach include leaders in the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Veterans Affairs, who are committed to finding wa
The seventh in a series of congressionally mandated reports on Gulf War veterans health, this volume evaluates traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its association with long-term health affects. That many returning veterans have TBI will likely mean long-term challenges for them and their family members. Further, many veterans will have undiagnosed brain injury because not all TBIs have immediately recognized effects or are easily diagnosed with neuroimaging techniques. In an effort to detail the long term consequences of TBI, the committee read and evaluated some 1,900 studies that made up its li
Emerging Cognitive Neuroscience and Related Technologies, from the National Research Council, identifies and explores several specific research areas that have implications for U.S. national security, and should therefore be monitored consistently by the intelligence community. These areas include:
neurophysiological advances in detecting and measuring indicators of psychological states and intentions of individuals
the development of drugs or technologies that can alter human physical or cognitive abilities
Dietary supplements are widely available through a rapidly expanding market of products commonly advertised as beneficial for health, performance enhancement, and disease prevention. Given the importance and frequent evaluation of physical performance and health as a criteria to join and remain in the military, the use of these products by military personnel has raised concern regarding over-all and long-term efficacy and safety. This evaluation is especially difficult, as many of these supplements contain multiple ingredients, have a changing composition over time, or are used intermittentl
To determine whether the air quality inside armored-vehicle cabins can meet exposure guidelines under deployment conditions, the Army assessed possible synergistic toxic effects from potentially harmful substances. This book, the final of two reports on the subject from the National Research Council, addresses whether the approach discussed in the technical context section of the Army's proposed guidance is appropriate, or whether an alternative assessment method should be developed. Combined Exposures to Hydrogen Cyanide and Carbon Monoxide in Army Operations provides several concl
The 1991 Persian Gulf War was considered a brief and successful military operation with few injuries and deaths. A large number of returning veterans, however, soon began reporting health problems that they believed to be associated with their service in the gulf. Under a Congressional mandate, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) is reviewing a wide array of biologic, chemical, and physical agents to determine if exposure to these agents may be responsible for the veterans' health problems. In a 2000 report, Gulf War and Health, Volume 1: Depleted Uranium, Sarin, Pyridostigmine Bromide, and Vac