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Biology and Life Sciences

Inspired by Biology: From Molecules to Materials to Machines

Scientists have long desired to create synthetic systems that function with the precision and efficiency of biological systems. Using new techniques, researchers are now uncovering principles that could allow the creation of synthetic materials that can perform tasks as ...

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The Role of Theory in Advancing 21st-Century Biology: Catalyzing Transformative Research

Although its importance is not always recognized, theory is an integral part of all biological research. Biologists' theoretical and conceptual frameworks inform every step of their research, affecting what experiments they do, what techniques and technologies they develop and use, ...

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Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics: The Science of the World Around Us

The development of transistors, the integrated circuit, liquid-crystal displays, and even DVD players can be traced back to fundamental research pioneered in the field of condensed-matter and materials physics (CMPP). The United States has been a leader in the field, ...

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2007 Amendments to the National Academies' Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research

In 2005, the National Academies released the report Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, which offered a common set of ethical standards for a field that, due to the absence of comprehensive federal funding, was lacking national standards for ...

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Validation of Toxicogenomic Technologies: A Workshop Summary

Beginning in the early 1980s, new technologies, began to permit evaluation of the expression of individual genes. Recent technological advances have expanded those evaluations to permit the simultaneous detection of the expression of tens of thousands of genes and to ...

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Cancer Biomarkers: The Promises and Challenges of Improving Detection and Treatment

Many cancer patients are diagnosed at a stage in which the cancer is too far advanced to be cured, and most cancer treatments are effective in only a minority of patients undergoing therapy. Thus, there is tremendous opportunity to ...

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Path to Effective Recovering of DNA from Formalin-Fixed Biological Samples in Natural History Collections: Workshop Summary

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Biotechnology Unzipped: Promises and Realities, Revised Second Edition

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Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences

Biomedical advances have made it possible to identify and manipulate features of living organisms in useful ways—leading to improvements in public health, agriculture, and other areas. The globalization of scientific and technical expertise also means that many scientists and other ...

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Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health

The patenting and licensing of human genetic material and proteins represents an extension of intellectual property (IP) rights to naturally occurring biological material and scientific information, much of it well upstream of drugs and other disease therapies. This report concludes ...

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