Learning to Think Spatially examines how spatial thinking might be incorporated into existing standards-based instruction across the school curriculum. Spatial thinking must be recognized as a fundamental part of K–12 education and as an integrator and a facilitator for problem solving across the curriculum. With advances in computing technologies and the increasing availability of geospatial data, spatial thinking will play a significant role in the information-based economy of the twenty-first century. Using appropriately designed support systems tailored to the K–12 context, spatial thinking can be taught formally to all students. A geographic information system (GIS) offers one example of a high-technology support system that can enable students and teachers to practice and apply spatial thinking in many areas of the curriculum.
Table of Contents
|PART I: THE NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF SPATIAL THINKING --2 The Nature of Spatial Thinking||23-48|
|3 Spatial Thinking in Everyday Life, at Work, and in Science||49-93|
|4 Teaching and Learning About Spatial Thinking||94-109|
|5 Responding to the Need for Spatial Thinking||110-134|
|6 Tools for Thought: The Concept of a Support System||135-152|
|PART II: SUPPORT FOR SPATIAL THINKING--7 High-Tech Support Systems for Spatial Thinking||153-165|
|8 An Assessment of GIS as a System for Supporting Spatial Thinking in the K-12 Context||166-216|
|9 GIS as a Support System for Spatial Thinking||217-226|
|PART III: SUPPORTING SPATIAL THINKING IN THE FUTURE--10 Conclusions and Recommendations||227-236|
|11 The Spatial Thinker||237-242|
|Appendix A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff||257-263|
|Appendix B Oral Presentations and Written Statements||264-265|
|Appendix C Individual Differences in Spatial Thinking: The Effects of Age, Development, and Sex||266-280|
|Appendix D The Role of Spatial Representations in Learning, Problem Solving, and Transfer||281-284|
|Appendix E Software Descriptions and Resources||285-286|
|Appendix F What Is GIScience?||287-288|
|Appendix G The Introduction of GIS into K–12 Education||289-292|
|Appendix H Seasonal Differences: A Customized Eighth-Grade GIS Module||293-297|
|Appendix I List of Acronyms||298-300|
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