Skip to main content

Gulf War and Health: Volume 9: Long-Term Effects of Blast Exposures

View Cover

Gulf War and Health

Volume 9: Long-Term Effects of Blast Exposures (2014)
Purchase Options
Purchase Options MyNAP members save 10% online. Login or Register



Since the United States began combat operations in Afghanistan in October 2001 and then in Iraq in March 2003, the numbers of US soldiers killed exceed 6,700 and of US soldiers wounded 50,500. Although all wars since World War I have involved the use of explosives by the enemy, the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq differ from previous wars in which the United States has been involved because of the enemy's use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The use of IEDs has led to an injury landscape different from that in prior US wars. The signature injury of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars is blast injury. Numerous US soldiers have returned home with devastating blast injuries and they continue to experience many challenges in readjusting to civilian life.

Gulf War and Health, Volume 9 is an assessment of the relevant scientific information and draws conclusions regarding the strength of the evidence of an association between exposure to blast and health effects. The report also includes recommendations for research most likely to provide VA with knowledge that can be used to inform decisions on how to prevent blast injuries, how to diagnose them effectively, and how to manage, treat, and rehabilitate victims of battlefield traumas in the immediate aftermath of a blast and in the long term.


Suggested Citation

Institute of Medicine. 2014. Gulf War and Health: Volume 9: Long-Term Effects of Blast Exposures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Import this citation to:

Publication Info

228 pages | 6 x 9
  • Paperback: 978-0-309-26764-9
  • Ebook: 978-0-309-26768-7

Copyright Information

The National Academies Press and the Transportation Research Board have partnered with Copyright Clearance Center to offer a variety of options for reusing our content. You may request permission to:

  • Republish or display in another publication, presentation, or other media
  • Use in print or electronic course materials and dissertations
  • Share electronically via secure intranet or extranet
  • And more

For most Academic and Educational uses no royalties will be charged although you are required to obtain a license and comply with the license terms and conditions.

Click here to obtain permission for Gulf War and Health: Volume 9: Long-Term Effects of Blast Exposures.

Translation and Other Rights

For information on how to request permission to translate our work and for any other rights related query please click here. Customer Service

For questions about using the service, please contact:

Copyright Clearance Center
22 Rosewood Drive
Danvers, MA 01923
Tel (toll free): 855/239-3415 (select option 1)

Loading stats for Gulf War and Health: Volume 9: Long-Term Effects of Blast Exposures...