As essential nutrients, sodium and potassium contribute to the fundamentals of physiology and pathology of human health and disease. In clinical settings, these are two important blood electrolytes, are frequently measured and influence care decisions. Yet, blood electrolyte concentrations are usually not influenced by dietary intake, as kidney and hormone systems carefully regulate blood values.
Over the years, increasing evidence suggests that sodium and potassium intake patterns of children and adults influence long-term population health mostly through complex relationships among dietary intake, blood pressure and cardiovascular health. The public health importance of understanding these relationships, based upon the best available evidence and establishing recommendations to support the development of population clinical practice guidelines and medical care of patients is clear.
This report reviews evidence on the relationship between sodium and potassium intakes and indicators of adequacy, toxicity, and chronic disease. It updates the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) using an expanded DRI model that includes consideration of chronic disease endpoints, and outlines research gaps to address the uncertainties identified in the process of deriving the reference values and evaluating public health implications.
Table of Contents
|2 Applying the Guiding Principles Report||31-50|
|3 Methodological Considerations||51-82|
|4 Potassium: Dietary Reference Intakes for Adequacy||85-106|
|5 Potassium: Dietary Reference Intakes for Toxicity||107-120|
|6 Potassium: Dietary Reference Intakes Based on Chronic Disease||121-154|
|7 Potassium Dietary Reference Intakes: Risk Characterization and Special Considerations for Public Health||155-176|
|8 Sodium: Dietary Reference Intakes for Adequacy||179-208|
|9 Sodium: Dietary Reference Intakes for Toxicity||209-224|
|10 Sodium: Dietary Reference Intakes Based on Chronic Disease||225-320|
|11 Sodium Dietary Reference Intakes: Risk Characterization and Special Considerations for Public Health||321-348|
|12 Knowledge Gaps and Future Directions||351-366|
|Appendix A: Abbreviations and Acronyms||367-370|
|Appendix B: Open Session Agendas||371-374|
|Appendix C : Committee's Assessment of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Systematic Review||375-388|
|Appendix D: Indicators Not Relevant for EstablishingDietary Reference Intake Values||389-418|
|Appendix E: Supplemental Literature Searches||419-450|
|Appendix F: Estimates of Potassium and Sodium Intakes from Breast Milkand Complementary Foods||451-464|
|Appendix G: Sources of Evidence for Potassium and Sodium Intake Distributions||465-470|
|Appendix H: Supplemental Risk Characterization Figures||471-478|
|Appendix I: Committee Member Biographical Sketches||479-486|
|Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intakes Summary Tables||487-498|
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