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Nutritional Needs in Cold and High-Altitude Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations

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Nutritional Needs in Cold and High-Altitude Environments

Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations (1996)
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This book reviews the research pertaining to nutrient requirements for working in cold or in high-altitude environments and states recommendations regarding the application of this information to military operational rations. It addresses whether, aside from increased energy demands, cold or high-altitude environments elicit an increased demand or requirement for specific nutrients, and whether performance in cold or high-altitude environments can be enhanced by the provision of increased amounts of specific nutrients.


Suggested Citation

Institute of Medicine. 1996. Nutritional Needs in Cold and High-Altitude Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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Publication Info

584 pages | 6 x 9
  • Paperback: 978-0-309-05484-3
  • Ebook: 978-0-309-17559-3

Table of Contents

skim chapter
Front Matter i-xvi
I: Committee Summary and Recommendations 1-2
1 A Review of the Physiology and Nutrition in Cold and in High-Altitude Environments 3-58
2 Committee on Military Nutrition Research Recommendations and Conclusions 59-80
II: Background and Introduction to theTopic 81-82
3 Cold Weather and High-Altitude Nutrition: Overview of the Issues 83-94
4 Leadership Insights for Military Operations in Cold Weather and at High Altitudes 95-100
5 Cold-Weather Field Feeding: Military Rations 101-114
6 Feeding the US Army Sixth Infantry Division (Light) in the Cold 115-122
Part II Discussion 123-124
III: The Cold Environment 125-126
7 The Physiology of Cold Exposure 127-148
8 Military Schedules vs. Biological Clocks 149-160
9 Influence of Cold Stress on Human Fluid Balance 161-180
10 Muscle Metabolism and Shivering During Cold Stress 181-188
11 Macronutrient Requirements for Work in Cold Environments 189-202
12 Cold Exposure, Appetite, and Energy Balance 203-214
13 Effects of Cold and altitude on Vitamin and Mineral Requirements 215-244
14 Micronutrient Deficiency States and Thermoregulation in the Cold 245-256
15 Drug-Induced Delay of Hypothermia 257-270
Part III Discussion 271-292
IV: The High-Terrestrial Environment 293-294
16 The Physiology of High-Altitude Exposure 295-318
17 Physical Performance at High Altitudes 319-330
18 Fluid Metabolism at High Altitudes 331-356
19 Maintenance of Body Weight at High Altitudes: In Search of 500 kcal/day 357-378
20 Energy and Macronutrient Requirements for work at High Altitudes 379-392
21 Oxidative Stress at High Altitudes and Effects of Vitamin E 393-418
Part IV Discussion 419-432
V: Performance in Cold and in High-Altitude Environments 433-434
22 Effets of Altitue on Cognitive Performance and Mood States 435-452
23 Food Components and Other Treatments That May Enhance Mental Performance at High Altitudes and in the Cold 453-466
General Discussion 467-478
Appendixes 479-480
A: Environmental Stress Management at High Altitudes by Adaptogens, summary of unpublished manuscript 481-484
B: Biographical Sketches 485-500
C: Abbreviations 501-504
D: Factors Related to Nutritional Needs in Cold and in High-Altitude Environments- A Selected Bibliography 505-554
Index 555-568

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