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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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Index

A

Absenteeism, 1, 11, 17, 30, 47-52 (passim), 58. 153, 157, 351, 364
     age factors, 51
     back disorders, 53-54, 97, 123, 143, 147, 153, 154, 157
     Bureau of Labor Statistics, 50, 51, 52
     epidemiologic studies, 97, 98, 435
     preventive interventions, 305-306, 316-317, 319, 326, 327
     surveillance, 305-306
     upper extremity disorders, 98, 110, 183, 315-317
     workers' compensation and, 28-29, 58
     Adenosine triphosphate, 202
Administrative controls, 8, 304, 307, 368, 437
     see also Ergonomic interventions
     back disorders, 8, 309, 311, 312, 313
     rest breaks, 111-112, 160, 161, 162, 174, 181, 183, 263, 274, 320
     upper extremity disorders, 183, 315-316, 322
African Americans,
     see Race/ethnicity
Age factors, 2, 4, 6, 9, 11, 10, 32, 89, 90, 330, 336, 347, 365, 373, 433
     see also Elderly persons
     absenteeism, 51
     back disorders, 7, 39, 40, 43, 44, 51, 55, 151
     carpal tunnel syndrome, 51, 56, 286, 360, 442, 447-448
     databases, 39, 40, 43, 44, 46-47, 48, 366
     ergonomic interventions, 304
     gender and, 39, 42, 51, 337
     hand disorders, 54-55
     muscle contraction, 203
     peripheral nerve, 217-218
     psychosocial factors, 141, 151
     skeletal muscle, 209, 210, 217-218
     tendinitis, 51
     tendons, other, 198-199
     upper extremity disorders, 7, 51, 55, 56, 183, 286, 360, 433
     vertebral bone and disc, 188, 189-190, 193-194, 217-218, 433
Agricultural workers,
     see Farm workers
Alcohol consumption, 75-76, 442
Allodynia, 186-187
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 57
American National Standards Institute, 307
Animal models, 5, 22, 65, 66, 67, 184, 216
     peripheral nerve, 213, 216
     skeletal muscle, 207-208, 216
     spinal discs, 193, 194, 216
     tendons, 197-199, 216-217
Annual Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, 44-45, 49, 60-61
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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Anxiety, 25, 148, 149, 159, 289, 435
     see also Psychosocial factors
     back disorders, 107, 108, 109, 142, 145, 149, 150, 151, 154, 156, 157
     somatization, 26-27, 108, 149, 175, 288
     upper extremity disorders, 7, 111, 112, 161, 166, 296, 358
Arms, 111, 151, 173, 174, 180, 231, 255, 268-269, 319
     see also Elbows; Forearms; Hands; Shoulders; Upper arm; Wrists
Arthritis,
     see Osteoarthritis
ATP,
     see Adenosine triphosphate
Attitudes, 26, 30, 108, 314, 319, 326
     see also Anxiety; Depression; Job satisfaction; Psychosocial factors about pain/functional limitations, 23, 33, 59, 145
Attributable risk, 114, 118-132
     back disorders, 98-99, 108-109, 118-124, 141-147
     defined, 87-88
     psychosocial factors, 141-183 (passim)
     upper extremity disorders, 101-102, 110, 111-112, 125-132, 160-183, 314, 441-442, 443, 459
Auditory disorders,
     see Hearing disorders; Noise
Australia, 452-453
Automobile manufacturing workers, 22, 23, 56-57, 180-181, 238, 239, 275, 307

B

Back belts, 307, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 436
Balance theory of job design and stress, 293
Bending, 9, 55, 98, 99-100, 119-122, 124, 354, 364, 434
     attributable risk, 88, 119-122, 124
     spinal curvature, 251
     spinal discs, 190, 192, 249-250
Best practice interventions, xiii, 13, 310-313, 320, 322-323, 369, 437, 439
Biomechanics, 9, 56, 81, 91, 219-286, 353, 356-357, 361, 362, 365, 373, 432, 439
     see also Tissue mechanobiology
     back disorders, 6-7, 219, 235-253, 356-358, 363
     spinal discs, 229-230, 239, 247-250, 252, 373
     vertebra, 229-230, 250, 252
     carpal tunnel syndrome, 260, 261, 265, 266-268, 286
     collagen, 228, 229
     committee study methodology, 4, 5, 22
     connective tissue, 227-228;
     see also “tendons” infra
     elbows, 253, 269, 277, 278
     electrophysical measurements, 24, 93, 208, 225, 230, 231-232, 233, 243, 257-258, 259, 260, 263-264, 268-269, 271, 274, 275, 278, 291-292, 297, 360, 443, 440-449 (passim)
     epidemiology and, 252, 253, 459
     fatigue, tissue, 226, 232-233, 269-279
     force, general, 221-222, 224, 225, 226, 253-286
     forearms, 233, 257, 260, 267-269, 274, 277, 278, 284
     gender factors, 258, 277, 284
     grip, 231, 233, 258, 259, 268, 274, 275-276, 279-285 (passim), 360
          pinch grip, 267, 276, 279, 448
     hands, general, 231, 254-260 (passim), 265-266, 270-281 (passim)
     individual factors, 33, 35
     lifting, 225, 236, 237-239, 244, 246, 250-251
     loading, 3, 5, 6-7, 33, 34, 35, 81, 95
     neck, 253
     pain, 373
          back, 235-241, 246-248, 250-253, 287, 357-358
          upper extremities, 279-284, 286, 287, 360
     pinch force/strength, 254, 256, 260, 262, 268, 270, 276, 277, 280, 282, 284, 285-286, 317, 448
     posture, 221, 257-258, 259, 266-268, 270, 279, 280, 281, 284, 286, 359-360
     preventive interventions, 304
     prospective research, 237
     psychosocial factors, 234, 237, 275-279, 297, 373
     repetitive motion, 221, 224, 225, 253-257 (passim), 270, 275-277, 373
     shear loads, 221, 227-228, 230, 232, 239-251 (passim), 265, 268
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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     shoulder disorders, 253, 263, 264, 269, 274, 277, 278
     skeletal muscle, 222, 225, 226, 227, 228-229, 234, 242-243
     spinal discs, 229-230, 239, 247-250, 252, 373
     stress, general, 234, 259
     stretching, 202, 206, 207-208, 216, 227, 228
     surveillance, 243, 250
     temperature factors, 219, 221-226 (passim), 248, 253, 255-256, 258, 260-264, 280-282
     tendons, 222, 227-228, 239, 247, 250-252, 265-266, 268, 373
     time factors, 224, 225, 226, 258, 280, 281-284, 286, 373
     twisting, 55, 239, 244, 270, 271, 275-276, 278
     typing, 231, 254, 256, 257, 260, 263, 264, 268-269, 278, 280, 281
     upper extremity disorders, 7, 219, 253-286, 359-360, 363, 432, 439, 458;
     see also specific disorders and extremities supra
     vertebra, 229-230, 250, 252
     vibration, 221-226 (passim), 230, 231, 233, 254, 255-256, 258, 260-264, 268, 270-273, 274, 276, 277-278, 280, 281-283, 286
     wrist, 255, 257-258, 260, 261, 262, 263, 265-267, 268, 270, 274, 275-279, 282, 284, 360, 363
Biophysical model, 293
Biostatistics, 68, 74
Blood flow/pressure, 76, 198, 205, 210, 212, 214, 233, 269, 274, 293, 297, 299, 448
Body weight,
     see Weight factors, body
Bone, 22, 101, 251-252, 372
     see also Skeletal muscle; Vertebra cellular healing processes, 193
Bracial arteriography, 135
Bradford Hill criteria,
     causality, 20, 21, 28, 66, 72-79, 87, 108, 144
     tissue mechanobiology, 184
Brain neurobiology, 186
     pain, 25-26, 185
     psychological stress, 290, 291
Breaks,
     see Rest breaks
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), xiv, 10, 58, 64
     absenteeism, 50, 51, 52
     Annual Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, 44-45, 49-51, 60-61
     databases, 22-23, 44-45, 46-47, 48-52, 60-61, 351-352, 366, 435-436
Bursitis, 48

C

Cadaver studies, 22, 66, 184, 253, 261, 266
     spinal discs, 191, 192
     tendinosis, 197
     tissue mechanobiology, 22, 66, 184
Caffeine, 442
Canada, 30, 31, 121
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), 19, 27, 56, 79, 231, 360, 431, 434, 435-436, 440-451, 458-460
     age factors, 51, 56, 286, 360, 442, 447-448
     biomechanics, 260, 261, 265, 266-268, 286
     computer users, 45-46, 51, 340-341, 452
     cultural factors, 449
     epidemiology, 101-102, 103, 118-124, 435-436, 440-443, 451, 459-460
     incidence and prevalence, 39, 40, 41, 43, 49, 50, 51, 56, 176, 352, 435-436, 440-443, 448-449
     exercise, 267
     gender factors, 55, 56, 442, 447-448
     preventive interventions, 267, 301, 318, 439-442, 450, 459
     psychological stress, 299
     racial factors, 442, 447-448
     self-reports, 43
     service workers, 50, 435-436
Case-control studies, 22, 76-77, 79
     see also Randomized controlled trials back disorders, 97, 99-100, 238, 308, 311
     upper extremity disorders, 131, 442
Catecholamines, 290, 293, 295, 298, 299
Causality, 20, 21, 28, 66, 72-79, 87, 108, 144, 184, 352, 361-362, 446
     epidemiology, 77, 78, 79, 352, 361-362, 446
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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Cellular processes, 184, 247, 372, 374
     see also Contraction, muscles; Immune response; Inflammatory response
     cytokines, 215, 217, 290, 299
     peripheral nerve, 12, 25, 185-187, 210-213
     synovial cells and synovitis, 48, 194
     tendons, 194, 196-197, 199
     vertebra and discs, 188, 189-190, 192-193, 362
Chairs, 318, 359
Chrysler Corporation, 56
CISDOC, 86
Clerical workers
     see also Office workers;
     Typing age factors, 51
     back disorders, 51
     preventive interventions, 318-319
     upper extremity disorders, 51, 103, 138, 160-161, 166, 167, 169, 173, 174, 178
     visual display units (VDUs), 138, 160-161, 166, 182, 340-341
Clinical evaluation, 97, 98, 253
Clinical interventions, 70, 97, 308-309, 316, 445
     see also Physicians
     safety culture, 4, 314, 327
Cocontraction, muscles, 231-232, 249, 292, 296
Coffee,
     see Caffeine
Collagen, 188, 194, 196, 197, 198, 199, 213, 217, 228, 229
Comorbidity, 2, 90, 304, 374
Compensation,
     see Wages and salaries; Workers' compensation
Compressive loads and compression muscle cocontraction, 232

     peripheral nerve, 211-212, 217, 230-231
     spinal, 73, 186, 188, 191, 193, 214-215, 216, 229, 237-238, 244, 248, 249-250
     discs, 73, 186, 188, 191, 193, 248, 249-250
     vertebra, 186, 188, 191, 192
     tendons, 194, 197
Computer databases,
     see Databases
Computer users, 337, 340-341, 344, 346, 365
     see also Typing
     back disorders, 8, 51, 54
     carpal tunnel, 45-46, 51, 340-341, 452
     e-commerce, 342-343, 346-347
     mouse use, 268-269, 315, 341
     preventive interventions, 315, 316, 317, 318-319, 340-341, 452
     psychosocial factors, 7, 347
     upper extremity disorders, 7, 45-46, 51, 138, 160, 263, 264, 269, 315, 316, 317, 318-319, 340-341, 358, 452, 459
     visual display units (VDUs), 138, 160-161, 166, 182, 340-341
Confidentiality, 45, 56, 60
Confounding, 6, 68, 73-74, 75-76, 89-91, 100, 114, 145, 447
Connective tissue
     see also Tendons and ligaments biomechanics, 227-228
     muscle contraction, 202
Construction workers, 55, 91-92, 334
     back disorders, 53, 54, 55, 118, 119, 120, 352
     gender factors, 54
     incidence and prevalence, 50, 53, 352, 436
     upper extremity disorders, 129, 134, 135, 139, 172, 322-323
Contraction, muscles, 199-210, 217, 226, 232-233, 242-243, 296
     age factors, 203
     cocontraction, 231-232, 249, 292, 296
     motor neurons/units, 186, 199-209 (passim), 233, 275, 297
     psychosocial stress, 292, 296, 297, 298
     spasms, 186, 291
Coping mechanisms, 2, 4, 23, 31, 32, 33, 35, 107, 108, 187, 189, 302, 374, 435
Cortisol, 290, 293, 295, 296, 298, 299
Cost factors, 1, 8-9, 11, 12, 17, 50, 57-59, 63-64, 150, 338, 343, 364, 368
     see also Absenteeism
     back disorders, 150
     databases, 47, 150
     e-commerce, 343
     interventions, 302, 319, 324-327
     medical, 62, 63, 326
     research, 70
     somatization, 26-27
     surveillance, 304-305
     wages, loss of, 1, 8-9, 17, 58, 63
     whole person approach, 26
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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Court cases,
     see Litigation
Cross-sectional surveys, 98
     back disorders, 68, 73, 79-80, 97, 100
     upper extremity disorders, 88, 97, 102-103, 360, 448-449
CTS,
     see Carpal tunnel syndrome
Cultural factors, 2, 20(n.3), 22, 28, 31
     see also Organizational factors; Social factors
     carpal tunnel syndrome, 449
     safety culture, 4, 314, 327
     whiplash, 31
     workers' compensation, 31, 449
Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD), 102, 125, 193, 220, 248, 254
Cyclical loading, 184, 185, 216, 218
     see also Repetitive motion
     tendons, 196, 199, 216, 266
     vertebra, 192, 216
Cytokines, 215, 217, 290, 299

D


Databases, 1, 22-23, 38-64, 351-352, 366-367, 368
     see also Incidence and prevalence; Reporting
     age factors, 39, 40, 43, 44, 46-47, 48, 366
     back disorders, general, 39, 48, 53-54
     best practices, 13
     Bureau of Labor Statistics, 22-23, 44-45, 46-47, 48-52, 60-61, 351-352, 366, 435-436
     cost factors, 47, 150
     epidemiologic literature review, 86
     gender factors, 42, 43, 46, 48, 366
     insurance, 40, 46, 49
     interventions, 45-46
     National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 38, 62
     National Arthritis Data Workgroup, 435
     National Center for Health Statistics, 11, 45, 61-62, 352, 366-367, 436
     National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 38, 41, 62
     National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 38, 39-42, 43, 45, 46-47, 52-56, 61-62, 441
     NIOSHTIC database, 86
     National Occupational Exposure Survey, 11, 57, 63, 79, 366-367
     OSHA, 46-48 (passim), 61
     pain, 44, 49
     racial factors, 43, 46-47, 48
     repetitive motion, 48, 49
     risk factors, 45, 86
     self-report surveys, 38
     time factors, 46-47
Decision latitude
     see also Monotonous work
     back disorders, 105, 106, 109, 143, 144, 365
     epidemiology,
     upper extremity disorders, 96, 110, 111, 112, 160, 161, 165, 166, 170, 172, 173, 177, 178, 183, 435
     upper extremity disorders, other, 298, 435
Definitional issues, 11, 19-20, 36-37, 62, 367, 371, 440, 445, 458-459
     see also Standards
     attributable risk, 87-88
     case definitions, 371
     diagnosis, 11, 18
     elastic materials, 185
     ergonomics, 303, 452
     fatigue, 185
     load tolerance, 219
     OSHA reporting requirements, 47
     relative risk, 87
     repetitive stress, 451
     risk, 31-32, 440
     stiffness, 185
     strength, 185
     workers' compensation, 36
     work-related conditions, 1, 20(n.3), 37, 440
Demographic factors, 6, 10, 39, 44, 61, 64, 330, 331, 336-337, 366
     see also Age factors; Gender factors; Race/ethnicity; Sectoral/occupational breakdowns;
     specific sectors and occupational categories
     educational attainment, 90, 149, 151, 342
     marital status, 90
     socioeconomic status, 90
Department of Defense, 307
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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Department of Labor
     see also Bureau of Labor Statistics; Mine Safety and Health Administration
     Workers' Compensation Programs, 45, 56-57
Department of Transportation, 45
Depression, 158, 159, 289, 435
     back disorders, 107, 109, 148, 149, 150, 154, 156, 157, 287
     somatization, 27, 149
     upper extremity disorders, 180, 287
Diabetes, 434
Diagnosis, 18, 98, 321, 326
     back disorders, 44, 432
     definitional issues, 11, 18
     insurance claims data, 56-57, 96, 98, 141, 142, 151
     medical records, 56-57, 63, 142, 183, 304-305, 351
     radiographs, 19, 24, 25, 98, 192, 217, 431, 432, 438
     upper extremity disorders, 431-432, 441, 445-446
     whole person approach, 24, 25
Disability, 3, 5, 17, 19, 35, 36, 150, 152
     attitudes about pain/functional limitations, 23, 33, 59, 145
     defined, 36
Distress,
     see Anxiety; Depression
Dose-response relationships, 6, 31, 75, 77, 78, 93, 103, 184, 185, 308, 356, 360, 361, 370-371, 372, 440
     see also Load-response relationships
Dupuytren's contracture, 129
Duty cycle, 207, 208, 238, 274, 345-346, 372
     see also Rest breaks
Dynamic load, 21, 198, 228, 230, 241, 243, 245, 257, 331, 333
Dynamometers, 284, 285

E

Ecological model, 293-295
Economic factors, 1, 22, 28, 29, 330, 338
     see also Cost factors; Funding; Insurance; Wages and salaries; Workers' compensation
     downsizing, 343-344
     globalization, 331, 341-343, 344-345, 347
     preventive interventions, 303
     profitability, 30
     socioeconomic status, 90
Edema, 7
     peripheral nerve, 210-212, 213
     spinal, 214, 217
     tendons, 196, 197-198, 216
Educational interventions, 8, 324, 326, 327, 344-345
     back disorders, 301, 309, 310, 311, 313
     upper extremity disorders, 316, 317, 318, 323
Educational workers
     back disorders, 54
     upper extremity disorders, 56, 171
Education of professionals, 12, 13, 368
Effective Workplace Practices and Programs Conference, 310
Elbows, 20, 27, 297, 436, 446, 450
     biomechanics, 253, 269, 277, 278
     epidemiology, 110, 111, 125, 172, 173, 175, 177, 182
     tissue mechanobiology, 186, 196
Elderly persons, 336, 347, 351, 360, 365, 433
     back disorders, 39, 44, 433
     skeletal muscle, 209
Electrophysical measurements, 24, 93, 208, 225, 230, 231-232, 233, 243, 257-258, 259, 260, 263-264, 268-269, 271, 274, 275, 278, 291-292, 297, 360, 440-449 (passim)
Embase, 187
Emotionally stressful work, 106, 147
Engineering controls, 8, 303, 321, 322, 345, 355, 437
     see also Ergonomic interventions
     back belts, 307, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 436
     upper extremity disorders, 315, 320, 322, 459
Epicondylitis, 19, 133, 134, 180, 196, 197, 216, 431
Epidemiology, 3, 5, 19, 20, 22, 27, 34, 85-183, 361, 362, 373-374, 432, 434, 439
     see also Attributable risk; Incidence and prevalence; Relative risk; Reporting; Surveillance
     absenteeism, 97, 98, 435
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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     back disorders, 6, 31, 65, 66, 67-70, 73, 81, 97, 98-101, 104-108, 109, 118- 124, 141-159, 252, 352, 354-355, 356
     biomechanics and, 252, 253, 459
     carpal tunnel syndrome, 101-102, 103, 118-124, 435-436, 440-443, 459- 460
     incidence and prevalence, 39, 40, 41, 43, 49, 50, 51, 56, 176, 352, 435-436, 440-443, 448-449
     causal associations, criteria for, 77, 78, 79, 352, 361-362, 446
     comorbidity, 2, 90, 304, 374
     confounding, 6, 68, 73, 89-91, 100, 114, 145, 447
     cultural factors, 31
     decision latitude,
     back disorders, 105, 106, 109, 143, 144
     upper extremity disorders, 96, 110, 111, 112, 160, 161, 165, 166, 170, 172, 173, 177, 178, 183, 435
     definitional issues, 11
     elbow disorders, 110, 111, 125, 172, 173, 175, 177, 182
     forearm disorders, 111, 173, 175
     hand disorders, 20, 94-95, 101, 102, 125, 138, 161, 172, 173, 174, 175, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182
     incidence and prevalence, 43, 53, 54-55, 57, 174, 175, 181, 436, 440-441
     see also “carpal tunnel syndrome” supra
     literature review, methodology, 85-98
     neck disorders, 85, 101, 103-104, 110, 138, 150, 153, 158, 160, 161, 173, 178, 179, 180, 182
     observational, methodology, 65, 66, 67-70, 73, 77, 78, 81, 91, 93-95,
     psychosocial factors, 104-113, 141-183, 370-371, 373
     shoulder disorders, 101, 103-104, 110, 111, 138, 139, 140, 150, 160, 161, 163, 166, 168, 169, 171, 173, 174, 177, 178, 179, 180, 182
     spinal disc disorders, 42, 44, 123, 124, 142, 153
     standards for data collection, 45, 46, 48-49, 61, 64, 304-305, 321, 366, 367, 371
     typing-related disorders, 103, 138
     upper extremity disorders, 7, 94-95, 96, 97, 98, 101-104, 109-113, 125-140, 160-183, 253, 314, 358, 359, 458, 459
     pain, 110, 127, 128, 129-131, 138, 139, 161-183, 352
     posture, 138, 139
     repetitive motion, 102, 103, 114-115, 125-127, 131, 133, 134, 140, 358
     vibration, 101, 102, 103, 114, 125-131, 134-137, 139, 140, 314
     see also specific disorders and extremities supra
     wrists, 20, 102, 111, 125, 126, 138, 172, 174, 175, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182;
     see also “carpal tunnel syndrome” supra
Epinephrine/norepinephrine, 290, 298-299
Ergonomic interventions, 2, 10, 33, 303-329, 344, 365-366
     see also Administrative controls; Engineering controls; Modifier interventions; Workstations
     age factors, 304
     back disorders, 8, 9, 308-314, 438
     chairs, 318, 359
     defined, 303, 452
     gender factors, 304
     job analysis, 93-95, 238, 304, 305, 306-307, 330, 331, 365
     psychosocial factors, 9-10, 27, 304
     upper extremity disorders, 7, 9, 314-320, 439-440, 451-452
Ergoweb, 86
Error of measurement, 76-77
Ethics, research, 70, 184
Ethnicity,
     see Race/ethnicity
Event data, 10, 11, 23, 27, 47, 48, 49, 53, 219, 248, 250, 289, 368
Exercise, 8
     see also Physical therapy
     back disorders, 309
     carpal tunnel syndrome, 267
     skeletal muscle, 206
     tendons, 197, 198-199
     upper extremity disorders, 314, 316, 318, 319, 320
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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F

Factory workers,
     see Manufacturing workers
Family factors, 108, 159
Farm workers, 118, 332, 333
     incidence and prevalence, 46-47, 50-51, 426
     sprains, strains, and tears, 51, 436
Fatigue, human experience of, 3, 34, 205, 234, 326, 353
     upper extremity disorders, 172, 175
Fatigue, tissue, 216, 344, 346-347
     biomechanics, 226, 232-233, 269-279
     defined, 185
     skeletal muscle, 200, 202-203, 205, 208, 217, 226, 232-233, 269-275
     spinal discs, 191-192
     tendons, 216
     time factors, testing, 216
Federal Employees' Compensation
     program, 45
Federal Railroad Administration, 45
Females,
     see Gender factors
Fibrosis, 7, 188, 189, 192, 198, 199, 212-213, 214, 217, 229, 291, 363
Finland, 121
Food processing workers, 333, 334
     upper extremity disorders, 7, 127, 130, 133, 134, 276, 316, 317-318, 438
Force, general, 20, 230, 358, 434
     see also Grip;
     Pinch force/strength biomechanics, 221-222, 224, 225, 226, 253-286, 286
     skeletal muscles, 205, 206
     time study, 94
     upper extremity disorders, 7, 102, 103, 114-115, 125, 133-134, 139, 253-286, 314, 359, 360, 364-365
Ford Motor Company, xiv, 22, 23, 307
Forearms, 297, 450
     see also Wrists biomechanics, 233, 257, 260, 267-269, 274, 277, 278, 284
     epidemiology, 111, 173, 175
     preventive interventions, 315, 317, 318, 319
     psychosocial stress, 297
     ulnar deviation, 231, 257, 265, 274, 276, 279, 284, 448
Foreign countries,
     see International perspectives;
     specific countries
Forestry workers, 127-131, 135, 136, 137, 150
Funding
     research, administrative procedures, 13
     research, general, 367-368, 369

G

Gender factors, 2, 4, 6, 9, 11, 32, 46, 53, 90, 153, 335, 337, 347, 365, 433, 436
     age and, 39, 42, 51, 337
     back disorders, 7, 39, 42, 43, 51, 53, 54, 121-124, 141-159 (passim)
     biomechanics, 258, 277, 284
     carpal tunnel syndrome, 55, 56, 442, 447-448
     databases, 42, 43, 46, 48, 366
     ergonomic interventions, 304
     hormone-related conditions, 90
     peripheral nerve, 212-213
     psychophysical factors, 277, 298
     psychosocial factors, 141-159 (passim), 163, 170, 173, 178, 179, 183, 298
     relative risk, 53
     upper extremity disorders, 7, 51, 134, 163, 170, 173, 178, 179, 183, 258, 277, 284, 433
Genetic factors, 2, 289, 433
     see also Race/ethnicity
Globalization, 331, 341-343, 344-345, 347
Gloves, 274, 280, 282, 284, 285
Government workers, 8, 46, 56, 60, 332, 333
     public utility, 51, 322
Grip, 208, 441, 451
     biomechanics, 231, 233, 258, 259, 268, 274, 275-276, 279-285 (passim), 360
     pinch grip, 267, 276, 279, 448
     preventive interventions, 315
     see also Power hand tools

H

HAL (hand activity level) scales, 94-95
Hammering, 85, 257, 278, 279, 281, 284
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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Hands, 54-55, 340, 431, 433
     see also Carpal tunnel syndrome; Grip; Trigger finger; Typing age factors, 54-55
     biomechanics, 231, 254-260 (passim), 265-266, 270-281 (passim)
     epidemiology, 20, 94-95, 101, 102, 125, 138, 161, 172, 173, 174, 175, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182
     incidence and prevalence, 43, 53, 54-55, 57, 174, 175, 181, 436, 440-441
     gloves, 274, 280, 282, 284, 285
     HAL (hand activity level) scales, 94-95
     power hand tools, 85, 219, 222, 255, 258, 259, 263, 268, 274, 276, 277-279, 280, 282, 315, 438
     preventive interventions, 315, 319, 439-440
     racial factors, 54-55
     repetitive motion, 54-55, 125
     time factors, activity level, 95
     twisting, 55
     vibration, 48, 101, 102, 212-213, 231, 260
     vibration white finger (VWF), 127, 130, 131, 135, 136, 137
     work stations, hand tools, 222, 259
Health and Retirement Survey, 38, 40, 58-59
Health care workers, 148, 160, 333-334, 436
     see also Nurses; Physicians
     back disorders, 53, 54, 72, 106, 148, 312
     carpal tunnel syndrome, 55
     hand disorders, 54-55
     physical therapists, disorders among, 333-334
     upper extremity disorders, 56, 163-164, 181, 318-318, 436
Hearing disorders, 48
     see also Noise
Height, 90
Hispanics, 336
Historical perspectives, 78; 330, 335, 345
     absenteeism, surveillance, 306
     distribution of workers, 331-334
     incidence and prevalence, 49, 50, 57, 64
     organizational factors, 30
     preventive interventions, 308-310
Holistic approach,
     see Whole person approach
Hormones, 90, 290, 298
Hours worked, 46, 48, 136, 138, 139, 303, 344, 346-347
     overtime, 161, 183, 303, 344
HSELINE, 86
Hypothyroidism, 434

I

Immigrants, 336-337
Immune response, 186
     see also Inflammatory response
     psychological stress, 198, 290, 295, 299, 300
Incidence and prevalence, 19, 20, 21, 40-64 (passim), 79, 87, 435-436, 438
     see also Databases
     back disorders, general, 41, 42, 43-44, 53-54, 55, 352, 435
     carpal tunnel, 39, 40, 41, 43, 49, 50, 51, 56, 176, 352, 435-436, 440-443, 448-449
     construction workers, 50, 53, 352, 436
     farm workers, 46-47, 50-51, 426
     general population vs workers, 2, 9, 18, 20, 38-39, 55, 59-60, 64, 85, 351, 354, 435
     historical perspectives, 49, 50, 57, 64
     manufacturing workers, 7, 22, 50-51, 53, 55-57, 351-352, 435-436
     mine workers, 45, 47, 50-51, 436
     patterns of evidence, 5, 6-8, 25, 27, 56, 81-82, 351-363
     research methodology, 79, 87
     sciatica, 42, 44
     service workers, 50, 53, 177, 352
     specific industries, 18
     specific occupational groups, 18
     spinal disk injuries, 42, 44
     sprains, strains, and tears, 49, 50, 352, 435-436
     tendinitis, 40, 49, 53, 54, 352, 436
     time-series analysis, 70
     transportation workers, 50, 51, 53, 436
     upper extremity disorders, general, 40, 42, 43, 54-55, 136, 137, 160-164, 166, 169, 173, 174, 177, 181, 182, 435-436
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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Individual risk factors, 2, 5-9 (passim), 19, 21, 32-33, 35, 65, 85, 90, 104, 220, 353, 364, 365, 372, 433-434, 433
     see also Attitudes; Demographic factors; Job satisfaction; Self-report methods
     alcohol consumption, 75-76, 442
     back disorders, 25-26, 97, 106-108, 357
     biomechanical loading, 33, 35
     caffeine, 442
     coping mechanisms, 2, 4, 23, 31, 32, 33, 35, 107, 108, 187, 189, 302, 374, 435
     height, 90
     interventions, 8, 21, 302
     pain and functional limitations,
     responses to, 2, 23, 33, 59, 108, 145, 287, 291, 365
     psychosocial, 2, 21, 26-27, 31-32, 97, 104, 106-108, 294, 297, 374;
     see also “coping mechanisms” supra
     smoking, 2, 4, 75-76, 90, 304, 433, 442
     somatization, 26-27, 108, 149, 175, 288
     upper extremity disorders, 7, 97, 294, 297, 359, 360, 442, 447-448
     weight, body, 2, 4, 9, 32, 89, 304, 365, 374, 433
Industrial workers,
     see Manufacturing workers
Inflammatory response, 25, 247, 372
     see also Edema; Fibrosis cytokines, 215, 217, 290, 299
     psychological stress, 290, 299
     skeletal muscle, 204, 206-207
     spinal discs, 186, 190, 247
     tendons, 196, 198;
     see also Tendinitis
     tenosynovitis, 19, 48, 133, 134, 196, 216, 431
Insurance, 334
     see also Workers' compensation
     claims data, 56-57, 96, 98, 141, 142, 151
     cultural factors, 31
     databases, 40, 46, 49
     self-insured persons, 46-47, 55
     Social Security Insurance Disability, 40
     surveillance, 79
International Classification of Diseases, 20, 45, 431
International perspectives
     back disorders, 121
     globalization, 331, 341-343, 344-345, 347
     immigrants, 336-337
     psychosocial stress measurement, 96
Internet, 86, 187
Interventions, 5, 8, 9-10. 13, 21, 32, 64, 114, 286, 301-329
     see also Administrative controls; Best practice interventions; Clinical interventions; Educational interventions; Engineering controls; Ergonomic interventions; Exercise; Medical care; Modifier interventions; Physical therapy; Preventive interventions
     attributable risk, 88
     back belts, 307, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 436
     back disorders, 8, 9-10, 109, 235, 308-314, 355-356, 362-363
     cost factors, 302, 319, 324-327
     databases, 45-46
     definitional issues, 11
     education, professional, 12, 13, 368
     evaluation methodology, 8, 13, 65, 66, 69-71, 77, 79-82, 80-81, 235, 301, 308-329, 352, 358, 371, 374
     job satisfaction, 305, 347
     light duty, 310, 312, 320, 322, 323, 355
     organizational factors, 9-10, 302, 303-304, 305, 327, 328
     psychosocial factors, 27, 109, 355, 356
     randomized controlled trials, 69-71, 79, 80-81
     upper extremity disorders, 7, 9-10, 112, 314-320, 359, 361
Ischemia, 197, 204, 207

J


Job analysis, 93-95, 238, 304, 305, 306-307, 330, 331, 365
Job Content Questionnaire, 96
Job rotation, 7, 10, 320
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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Job satisfaction, 20, 96, 104, 148-149, 156, 157, 326, 340, 347
     see also Decision latitude; Monotonous work
     back disorders, 9, 105, 106, 141-147, 149, 151, 365, 434
     interventions, 305, 347
     upper extremity disorders, 111-112, 169, 170, 176, 177, 178, 287

K


Keyboard work,
     see Typing

L


Labor unions, 13, 30, 172
Lifting, 334, 335, 346, 347, 365, 434
     back belts, 307, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 436
     back disorders, general, 98, 99, 100, 118-124, 236, 237-239, 244, 246, 250-251, 292, 312, 362-363, 364-365, 438
     biomechanics, 225, 236, 237-239, 244, 246, 250-251
     lift index, back disorders, 94
     psychosocial factors, 292
     repetitive, back disorders, 9, 53, 66, 67-74, 81, 119
     upper extremity disorders, 139, 275
Ligaments and tendons,
     see Tendons and ligaments
Light duty, 310, 312, 320, 322, 323, 355
Litigation, 29, 31
Livermore National Laboratories, xiv
Load-response relationships, 6, 19, 21, 98, 99, 100-101, 133-134, 138-140, 184, 220, 364
     see also Lifting biomechanics, 3, 5, 6-7, 33, 34, 35, 81, 95
     spinal disc effects, 190-193
Load tolerance, 219-235, 247-249
Log and Summary of Occupational Injury and Illnesses, 48
Longitudinal studies, 88, 98, 158, 373
     see also Prospective research
     back disorders, 97, 98, 100, 141, 145, 146, 147
     upper extremity disorders, 97, 448-449
Lungs,
     see Respiratory diseases

M


Maintenance workers, 91, 118, 127-128, 285, 331, 333, 442
Males,
     see Gender factors
Manufacturing workers, 54, 91, 331, 332, 333, 334, 338, 345-346
     see also Food processing workers
     automobile manufacturing workers, 22, 23, 56-57, 180-181, 238, 239, 275, 307
     back disorders, 53, 54, 120, 146, 237-239, 312-313, 355
     biomechanical studies, 237-239
     downsizing, 343-344
     exposure determinations, 91
     incidence and prevalence, 7, 22, 50-51, 53, 55-57, 351-352, 435-436
     organizational factors, 30
     preventive interventions, 305-306, 318-319, 322, 355
     psychosocial factors, 141, 146, 165, 340
     surveillance, 305-306
     technological innovation, 338-340
     upper extremity disorders, 7, 55-57, 125, 126, 131, 134, 136, 137, 139, 165, 167-169, 171, 175, 176, 179, 180, 318-319, 322, 340, 352, 435-436, 448-449
Marital status, 90
Mechanical factors, 3, 29
     see also Biomechanics; Tissue mechanobiology
Medical care, 1, 301-302, 326, 327
     see also Health care workers; Nurses; Physical therapy, Physicians
     back disorders, 312, 313
     upper extremity disorders, 294, 323
Medical records, 56-57, 63, 142, 183, 304-305, 351
MEDLINE, 86, 187
Men,
     see Gender factors
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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Methodology,
     see Reporting; Research methodology
Military personnel, 307, 442
Mine Safety and Health Administration, 45, 47, 48, 49, 60
Mine workers
     incidence and prevalence, 45, 47, 50-51, 436
     upper extremity disorders, 135
Minority groups,
     see Race/ethnicity
Modifier interventions, 304, 307, 312, 313, 315, 316, 320, 321, 322-323, 437, 442, 448
Monotonous work, 6, 9, 96, 105, 109, 141, 143, 145, 147, 170, 182, 287, 298, 303, 365, 434, 437
Motor neurons/units, 186, 199-209 (passim), 233, 275, 297
Muscle contraction,
     see Contraction, muscles
Muscle-tendon syndrome, 128, 133

N

National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 38, 62
National Arthritis Data Workgroup, 435
National Center for Health Statistics, 11, 45, 61-62, 352, 366-367, 436
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 38, 41, 62
National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 38, 39-42, 43, 45, 46-47, 52-56, 61-62, 441
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 11, 12, 13, 20, 45, 52-53, 65, 162, 167, 366-368, 369, 445
     lift index, 94, 239, 335
     NIOSHTIC database, 86
National Institute for Working Life in Sweden, 338
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, 12, 13, 39, 368, 369, 435
National Institute of Mental Health, 13
National Institutes of Health (NIH), 2, 4
National Occupational Exposure Survey, 11, 57, 63, 79, 366-367
Neck disorders, 19, 44, 50, 56, 58, 446
     biomechanics, 253
     epidemiology, 85, 101, 103-104, 110, 138, 150, 153, 158, 160, 161, 173, 178, 179, 180, 182
     preventive interventions, 317-322 (passim), 340
Necrosis
     skeletal muscle, 204, 206, 217
     tendons, 197
Nerve entrapment, 231, 234, 266-268, 443
     see also Carpal tunnel syndrome
Netherlands, 121
NIOSHTIC, 86
Noise, 57, 329
     see also Hearing disorders
Nonwork risk factors, 19, 38-39, 59, 62, 63, 89, 90, 91, 293, 335-337, 351, 432, 433
     see also Demographic factors
     family factors, 108, 159
     general population vs workers, 2, 9, 18, 20, 38-39, 55, 59-60, 64, 85, 351, 435
     psychosocial, 7, 102, 104, 108, 110-113 (passim), 159, 287, 291, 304, 314, 358-359, 435
Norepinephrine,
     see Epinephrine/norepinephrine
Norway, 305
Nurses, 53, 72, 106, 118, 119, 120, 123, 135, 151, 170, 333-334, 352, 436

O

Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 367-368
     assessment standards, 307
     databases, 46-48 (passim), 61
Office workers, 332, 333, 340-341
     see also Clerical workers; Computer users;
     Typing preventive interventions, 318-319, 322-323
     upper extremity disorders, 51, 103, 138, 160-161, 166, 167, 169, 173, 174, 178, 294, 318-319, 322-323
     visual display units (VDUs), 138, 160-161, 166, 182, 340-341
Olecranon spurs, 125
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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Organizational factors, 3, 8, 20, 21, 30, 31-32, 33, 34, 220, 330, 331, 343-346, 353, 365
     see also Administrative controls; Labor unions
     downsizing, 343-344
     interventions, 9-10, 302, 303-304, 305, 327, 328
     modified work after injury, 30
     upper extremity disorders, 183, 294, 314
     work-related conditions, defined, 1
Osteoarthritis, 54, 125, 438
Osteoporosis, 433

P

Pain, 1, 3, 17, 21, 34, 35, 98, 158, 351, 353, 365
     back disorders, 6-7, 8, 19, 20, 25, 44, 49, 53-54, 67, 431, 433-434, 436
     biomechanics, 235-241, 246-248, 250-253, 287, 357-358
     epidemiology, 107, 108, 109, 118-124, 141-159, 352
     interventions, 308-314
     preventive interventions, 301, 309, 310, 311, 312-313
     psychosocial stress, 190, 291-292
     sciatica, 19, 44, 145, 247, 431
     biomechanics, 235-241, 246-248, 250-253, 279-284, 286, 287, 357-358, 373
     databases, 44, 49
     medical interventions, 302
     muscle spasms, 186, 291
     nonspecific, 19, 20, 101, 102, 371, 431
     peripheral nerve, 185-187
     personal responses, 2, 23, 33, 59, 108, 145, 287, 291, 365
     self reports, 96, 97, 98
     skeletal muscle, 199, 205
     somatization, 26, 288
     spinal nerve root, 215
     stiffness, 185, 195, 198
     upper extremity disorders, 433
     see also Carpal tunnel syndrome
     biomechanics, 279-284, 286, 287, 360
     epidemiology, 110, 127, 128, 129-131, 138, 139, 161-183, 352
     preventive interventions, 315, 316, 319, 439-440
     psychosocial stress, 295-299 (passim)
     vertebra, 217
     whole person approach, 23, 24, 25-26
Passive stretch injury, 207-208
Patterns of evidence, 5, 6-8, 25, 27, 56, 81-82, 351-363
     back disorders, 6-7, 8, 351, 354-358, 361-363
     causal inference, criteria for, 20, 21, 28, 66, 72-79, 87, 108, 144, 184, 352, 361-362, 446
     upper extremity disorders, 7, 358-363
Peripheral nerve, 12, 25, 185-187, 210-213, 230-231, 291, 360, 372
     age factors, 217-218
     animal models, 213, 216
     cellular processes, 12, 25, 185-187, 210-213
     compression, 211-212, 217, 230-231
     edema, 210-212, 213
     gender factors, 212-213
     pain, 185-187
     temperature factors, 186, 230
     time factors, 212
     vibration, 212-213, 230, 231
     wrist, 212-213,
     see also Carpal tunnel syndrome
Peritendinitis, 133, 196, 197-198
Physical therapy
     see also Exercise
     back disorders, 8, 311
     employed in sector, 333-334
     upper extremity disorders, 161, 162
Physicians, 98
     back disorders, 20, 32, 44
     number of visits to, 1, 20
     upper extremity disorders, 181
     whole person approach, 24, 25
     wrist, 20
Pinch force/strength, 254, 256, 260, 262, 268, 270, 276, 277, 280, 282, 284, 285-286, 317, 448
     posture, 254, 256, 262, 268
Postal workers
     back pain, 54, 120
     biomechanics, 221
     upper extremity disorders, 140
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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Page 484

Posture, 6, 8, 20, 57, 365, 434
     see also Bending; Static postural loads; Twisting
     back disorders, 118, 119, 121, 251
     biomechanics, 221, 257-258, 259, 266-268, 270, 279, 280, 281, 284, 286, 359-360
     chairs, 318, 359
     hammering, 85, 257, 278, 279, 281, 284
     pinch force, 254, 256, 262, 268
     preventive interventions, 315, 317, 359
     psychosocial factors, 295
     standing, prolonged, 120, 122, 269
     time study, 94
     upper extremity disorders, 7, 20, 94, 295
     epidemiology, 138, 139
     interventions, 315, 317, 359
Power hand tools, 85, 219, 222, 255, 258, 259, 263, 268, 274, 276, 277-279, 280, 282, 315, 438
Pre-Medline, 187
Prevalence,
     see Incidence and prevalence
Preventive interventions, 10, 12, 28, 114, 286, 301-329, 365-366, 374, 436-438, 439
     see also Administrative controls; Clinical interventions; Educational interventions; Engineering controls; Ergonomic interventions; Exercise; Medical care; Modifier interventions
     absenteeism, 305-306, 316-317, 319, 326, 327
     age factors, 304
     back belts, 307, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 436
     back disorders, other, 8, 9, 301, 308-314, 355-356, 434
     pain, 301, 309, 310, 311, 312-313
     best practice interventions, xiii, 13, 310-313, 320, 322-323, 369, 437, 439
     biomechanics, 304
     carpal tunnel syndrome, 267, 301, 318, 439-442, 450, 459
     computer users, 315, 316, 317, 318-319, 340-341, 452
     cost factors, 302, 319, 324-327
     databases, 45-46
     evaluation methodology, 8, 13, 65, 66, 69-71, 77, 79-82, 235, 301, 308-329, 352, 358, 371, 374
     forearms, 315, 317, 318, 319
     gender factors, 304
     hands, 315, 319, 439-440
     historical perspectives, 308-310
     individual risk factors, 8, 21, 302
     job satisfaction, 305, 347
     light duty, 310, 312, 320, 322, 323, 355
     manufacturing workers, 305-306, 318-319, 322, 355
     neck, 317-322 (passim), 340
     office workers, 318-319, 322-323
     organizational factors, 9-10, 302, 303-304, 305, 327, 328;
     see also Administrative controls
     posture, general, 315, 317, 359
     psychosocial factors, 27, 109, 301-302, 316, 326, 355, 356, 436-437
     safety culture, 4, 314, 327
     shoulders, 317, 319
     standards, 304-305, 307, 321, 328-329, 374;
     see also “best practice interventions” supra
     stretching, 319, 320, 322
     surveillance and, 304-306, 320-321
     time factors, 319, 325, 326
     typing, 315, 439-440, 450
     upper extremity disorders, 7, 9, 314-320, 359, 439-440;
     see also specific disorders and extremities infra and supra
     vibration, 314-315
     wages and salaries, 303, 326
     worker compensation, 303
     workstations, 7, 8, 302, 314, 317, 318, 320, 359, 361, 452
     wrist, 319, 451
Privacy,
     see Confidentiality
Prognostic research, 374
     back disorders, 141, 142, 149, 153, 157, 159
Prospective research, 22, 69, 73, 77, 79, 80, 141-159, 370-371
     see also Randomized controlled trials
     back pain, 86, 106, 107-108, 141-159, 153, 237
     biomechanics, 237
     randomized controlled trials, 69-71, 79, 80-81, 308-309, 327
     upper extremity disorders, 112-113
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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Page 485

Psychological factors, 2, 5, 6, 20, 29, 31-35, 85, 86, 115
     see also Anxiety; Attitudes; Job satisfaction; Psychosocial factors; Social factors
     back disorders, 6-7, 237, 291-292, 314, 355, 356
     pain, 190, 291-292
     biomechanics and, 234, 237, 275-279, 297
     coping mechanisms, 2, 4, 23, 31, 32, 33, 35, 107, 108, 187, 189, 302, 374, 435
     monotonous work, 6, 9, 96, 105, 109, 287, 303, 355, 434
     somatization, 26-27
     upper extremity disorders, 275-279, 287, 291, 358, 359
Psychosocial factors, xiii, 2, 6, 9, 23, 32, 287-300, 353, 365, 373, 434-435
     see also Anxiety; Decision latitude; Depression; Job satisfaction; Psychological factors
     age and, 141, 151
     attributable risk, 141-183 (passim)
     back disorders, 9, 97, 104-109, 141-159 (passim), 252, 291-292, 355, 365
     pain, 190, 291-292
     biomechanics and, 234, 237, 275-279, 297, 373
     brain neurobiology, 290, 291
     carpal tunnel syndrome, 299
     computer users, 7, 347
     coping mechanisms, 2, 4, 23, 31, 32, 33, 35, 107, 108, 187, 189, 302, 374, 435
     downsizing, 341
     emotionally stressful work, 106, 147
     epidemiology, 104-113, 141-183, 370-371, 373
     ergonomics, 9-10, 27, 304
     evaluation of individual workers, 27
     family factors, 108, 159
     forearms, 297
     gender factors, 141-159 (passim), 163, 170, 173, 178, 179, 183, 277, 298
     immune response, 198, 290, 295, 299, 300
     individual response, 2, 21, 26-27, 31-32, 97, 104, 106-108, 294, 297, 374;
     see also “coping mechanisms” supra
     inflammatory response, 290, 299
     international perspectives,
     measurement, 96
     lifting, 292
     manufacturing workers, 141, 146, 165, 340
     monotonous work, 6, 9, 96, 105, 109, 141, 143, 145, 147, 170, 182, 287, 298, 303, 365, 434, 437
     muscle contractions, 292, 296, 297, 298
     nonwork risk factors, 7, 102, 104, 108, 110-113 (passim), 159, 287, 291, 304, 314, 358-359, 435
     posture, 295
     preventive interventions, 27, 109, 303, 316, 326, 355, 356, 436-437
     research, invasiveness of, 93
     self-report methods, 95-96, 141-145, 149, 164-174
     social support systems, 2, 104, 105, 109, 110, 111, 143, 147, 160-170 (passim), 178, 287, 323, 434
     sociotechnical systems, 345
     spinal discs, 291
     tendons, 298
     time factors, 95, 347
     hours worked, 46, 48, 136, 138, 139, 303, 344, 346-347
     overtime, 161, 183, 303, 344
     stress, time pressure, 32, 96, 104, 105, 109, 171, 181, 183, 298-299, 365
     upper extremity disorders, 7, 9, 97, 109-113, 160-183, 275-279, 287, 292-300, 314, 316, 358, 361, 365, 449-450
     pain, 295-299 (passim)
     see specific disorders and extremities supra
Public utility workers
     preventive interventions, 322
     sprains, strains, and tears, 51

R

Race/ethnicity, 90, 336-337
     black persons, 43, 336
     carpal tunnel syndrome, 442, 447-448
     databases, 43, 46-47, 48
     data collection, 10, 11
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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     hand disorders, 54-55
     Hispanics, 336
     immigrants, 336-337
Radiographs, 19, 24, 25, 98, 192, 217, 431, 432, 438
Railroad workers, 45, 136
Randomized controlled trials, 69-71, 79, 80-81, 308-309, 327
Raynaud's phenomena, 48, 101, 102, 127, 134, 135, 137, 231
Relative risk, 434, 435
     back disorders, 6, 53
     defined, 87-88
     gender factors, 53
Repetitive motion, 17, 20, 21, 93, 334, 347, 365, 434, 451-425, 439-453
     see also Carpal tunnel syndrome; Typing; Vibration
     back disorders, 9, 53, 66, 67-74, 81, 98, 99, 437
     biomechanics, 221, 224, 225, 253-257(passim), 270, 275-277, 373
     databases, 48, 49
     defined, 451
     hand/wrist disorders, 54-55, 125
     lifting, 9, 53, 66, 67-74, 81, 119
     skeletal muscle, 203-206, 209
     spinal discs, 9, 53, 66, 67-74, 81
     sprains, strains, and tears, 51
     tendons, general, 197-198, 199, 216, 217
     tissue mechanobiology, 185, 372-373
     upper extremity disorders, general, 7, 51, 364-365
     biomechanics, 253, 270, 275-277
     epidemiology, 102, 103, 114-115, 125-127, 131, 133, 134, 140, 358
     interventions, 314, 359
     preventive interventions, 314
Repetitive work,
     see Monotonous work
Reporting, 20, 58
     see also Databases; Self-report methods
     Bureau of Labor Statistics, 10-11, 49
     confidentiality, 45, 56, 60
     Mine Safety and Health Administration, 48
     Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 47, 48
     organization factors, 30
Research methodology, 65-82, 368-369, 370-374
     see also Animal models; Biomechanics; Cadaver studies, Case-control studies; Cross-sectional surveys; Databases; Epidemiology; Longitudinal studies; Patterns of evidence; Prospective research; Randomized controlled trials; Reporting; Sampling; Surveillance
     basic sciences, 65, 66-68, 70, 77, 78, 432;
     see also Tissue mechanobiology
     biostatistics, 68, 74
     causal inference, criteria for, 20, 21, 28, 66, 72-79, 87, 108, 144, 184, 352, 361-362, 446
     confidentiality, 45, 56, 60
     confounding, 6, 68, 73-74, 75-76, 89-91, 100, 114, 145, 447
     electrophysical measurements, 24, 93, 208, 225, 230, 231-232, 233, 243, 257-258, 259, 260, 263-264, 268-269, 271, 274, 275, 278, 291-292, 297, 360, 440-449 (passim)
     error of measurement, 76-77
     ethical issues, 70, 184
     funding, 13, 367-368, 369
     general population vs workers, 2, 20, 435
     levels of analysis, general, 27-28
     literature reviews, 85-98, 187, 253, 308-310, 439-460
     preventive interventions, evaluation of, 8, 13, 65, 66, 69-71, 77, 79-82, 80-81, 235, 301, 308-329, 352, 358, 371, 374
     prognostic studies, 141, 142, 149, 153, 157, 159, 374
     time-series analysis, 70, 334-335
Research recommendations, 4, 8, 10-13, 19, 365-367, 370-374
Respiratory diseases, 48
Rest breaks, 111-112, 160, 161, 162, 174, 181, 183, 263, 274, 320
Retail workers, 123, 332. 436
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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Risk factors, general, 9, 10, 28-35, 54-55, 59-60, 64, 72, 86-87, 364, 372, 432-435
     see Age factors; Attributable risk; Demographic factors; Epidemiology; Gender factors; Individual risk factors; Interventions; Preventive interventions; Psychosocial factors; Race/ethnicity; Relative risk; Research methodology; Sectoral/occupational breakdowns; Surveillance; specific risk factors
     automobile manufacturing workers, 56
     biomechanics, 236-286
     causal inference, criteria for, 20, 21, 28, 66, 72-79, 87, 108, 144, 184, 352, 361-362, 446
     confounding, 6, 68, 73-74, 75-76, 89-91, 100, 114
     databases, 45, 86
     education on, 12
     job analysis, 93-95, 238, 304, 305, 306-307, 331
     pattern of evidence approach, 5, 6-8, 25, 27, 56, 81-82, 351-363
Rotation,
     see Job rotation
Rotator cuff syndrome, 19, 197, 198, 431
     automobile manufacturing workers, 56

S


Salaries,
     see Wages and salaries
Sampling, 46-49, 335
     Annual Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, 60
     back disorders, 98, 308
     cross-sectional surveys, 79
     National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 38, 62
     National Arthritis Data Workgroup, 435
     National Center for Health Statistics, 11, 45, 61-62, 352, 366-367, 436
     National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 38, 41, 62
     National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 38, 39-42, 43, 45, 46-47, 52-56, 61-62, 441
     National Occupational Exposure Survey, 11, 57, 63, 79, 366-367
     work sampling, 94
Sciatica, 19, 44, 145, 247, 431
Sectoral/occupational breakdowns, 50-51, 64, 118-183, 331-334, 361, 366, 437-438, 447-448
     see also specific sectors and occupational categories
     back disorders, 53-54, 118-124
     sprains, strains, and tears, 50, 51, 435-436
Self-employed persons, 46-47, 60, 332, 343-344, 436
     back disorders, 53, 352
Self-insured persons, 46-47, 55
Self-report methods, 38, 45, 46-47, 52-55, 81, 86, 91, 92-93, 96-98, 361, 435
     back disorders, 108, 141-145, 149, 151, 436
     carpal tunnel, 43
     National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 38, 39-42, 43, 52-56, 43, 45, 46-47, 52-55, 61-62, 441
     pain, 96, 97, 98
     psychosocial factors, 95-96, 141-145, 149, 164-174
     standards, 95, 96, 98
     time factors, 92, 95
     upper extremity disorders, 101, 164-174, 181, 436, 441
Serotonin, 299
Service workers, 330, 331-333, 345-346, 452
     back pain, 53, 54
     carpal tunnel syndrome, 50, 435-436
     gender factors, 53
     globalization, 331, 341-343, 344-345, 347
     incidence and prevalence, 50, 53, 177, 352
     upper extremity disorders, 50, 166, 167, 177, 183, 352, 435-436
Sex differences, see Gender factors
Shear loading, 292
     biomechanics, 221, 227-228, 230, 232, 239-251 (passim), 265, 268
     skeletal muscle, 206, 232, 242
     tendons, 194
     vertebra and discs, 191, 192, 239-251 (passim)
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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Shoulders, 43, 50, 57, 340, 433, 436, 451
     biomechanics, 253, 263, 264, 269, 274, 277, 278
     epidemiology, 101, 103-104, 110, 111, 138, 139, 140, 150, 160, 161, 163, 166, 168, 169, 171, 173, 174, 177, 178, 179, 180, 182
     preventive interventions, 317, 319
Sick leave,
     see Absenteeism
Skeletal muscle
     see also Tendons and ligaments
     age factors, 209, 210, 217-218
     animal models, 207-208, 216
     biomechanics, 222, 225, 226, 227, 228-229, 234, 242-243
     elderly persons, 209
     electrophysical measurements, 24, 93, 208, 225, 230, 231-232, 233, 243, 257-258, 259, 260, 263-264, 268-269, 271, 274, 275, 278, 291-292, 297, 360, 443, 440-449 (passim)
     exercise, 206
     fatigue, 200, 202-203, 205, 208, 217, 226, 232-233, 269-275
     force, general, 205, 206
     inflammation, 204, 206-207
     necrosis, 204, 206, 217
     pain, 199, 205
     repetitive motion, 203-206, 209
     shear loading, 206, 232, 242
     static postural loads, 205, 206
     time factors, 203-204, 208, 226
     tissue mechanobiology, 200-210, 217-218, 372-373
     vibration, 208, 226
Small and medium-sized businesses, 12, 60, 343-344, 347
     back disorders, 53, 312-313, 352
     farms, 46-47, 60
     gender factors, 53
     upper extremity disorders, 322-323
Smoking, 2, 4, 75-76, 90, 304, 433, 442
Social factors, 2, 3, 5, 6, 20, 24, 29, 33-35
     see also Cultural factors; Organizational factors; Psychosocial factors
     back disorders, 6-7
     interventions, 302
     support systems, 2, 104, 105, 109, 110, 111, 143, 147, 160-170 (passim), 178, 287, 323, 434
     work-related conditions, defined, 1
Social Security Insurance Disability, 40
Socioeconomic status, 90
Somatization, 26-27, 108, 149, 175, 288
Spinal discs, 188-194, 217, 372, 373, 432, 433-434, 437
     see also Vertebra
     age factors, 188, 189-190, 193-194, 217-218, 433
     animal models, 193, 194, 216
     bending, 190, 192, 249-250
     biomechanics, 229-230, 239, 247-250, 252, 373
     cellular processes, 188, 189-190, 192-193, 362
     compression, 73, 186, 188, 191, 193, 248, 249-250
     epidemiologic studies, 123, 124, 142, 153
     prevalence, 42, 44
     fatigue, 191-192
     inflammatory response, 186, 190, 247
     psychosocial factors, 291
     repetitive lifting, 9, 53, 66, 67-74, 81
     shear loads, 191, 192, 239-251 (passim)
     tissue mechanobiology, 187-194, 217
     twisting, 190, 191, 192, 249-250
     vibration, 191-192
Spinal loading, 81, 93, 190-193 (passim), 235-236, 239-248, 252, 292, 354-358, 362, 363
     compression, 73, 186, 188, 191, 193, 214-215, 216, 229, 237-238, 244, 248, 249-250
Spinal nerve roots, 19(n.2), 25, 185, 186, 189, 190, 210, 213-215, 217, 247, 291
     edema, 214, 217
Spinal stenosis, 19
Spondyloisthesis, 19, 431
Spondylolysis, 19, 431
Sprains, strains, and tears
     incidence and prevalence, 49, 50, 352, 435-436
     repetitive motion, 51
     sectoral breakdowns, 50, 51, 435-436
Standards
     best practice interventions, xiii , 13, 310-313, 320, 322-323, 369, 437, 439
     causal associations, criteria for, 72-77, 446
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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     data collection, 45, 46, 48-49, 61, 64, 304-305, 321, 366, 367, 371
     diagnostic codes, 45, 321
     globalization, 343, 347
     OSHA assessment standards, 307
     preventive interventions, 304-305, 307, 321, 328-329, 374
     self-reports, 95, 96, 98
     skeletal muscle injury prevention, 210
Standard Industrial Classification codes, 46, 331
Standard Occupational Classification codes, 46
     surveillance questionnaires, 304-305, 321
Standing, prolonged, 120, 122, 269
Static postural loads, 8, 10, 21, 221, 365, 434
     back disorders, 99, 119, 242-243
     skeletal muscle, 205, 206
     standing, prolonged, 120, 122, 269
     upper extremity disorders, 269, 317
Statistical methodology, see Biostatistics
Stiffness, 185, 195, 198
Strains, see Sprains, strains, and tears
Stress, general, 159, 221, 287-300
     see also Psychosocial factors
     back disorders, 9, 105, 142, 145, 237, 291-292, 365, 434
     biomechanics, 234, 259
     catecholamines, 290, 293, 295, 298, 299
     coping mechanisms, 2, 4, 23, 31, 32, 33, 35, 107, 108, 187, 189, 302, 374, 435
     cortisol, 290, 293, 295, 296, 298, 299
     epinephrine/norepinephrine, 290, 298-299
     immune response, 198, 290, 295, 299, 300
     muscle contraction, 292, 296, 297, 298
     preventive interventions, 303, 437
     upper extremity disorders, 7, 9, 109-110, 160, 164-170, 173, 174, 175, 178, 179, 180, 287, 292-300, 358, 365, 435
Stretching
     biomechanics, 202, 206, 207-208, 216, 227, 228
     passive stretch injury, 207-208
     preventive interventions, 319, 320, 322
Supplemental Security Income, 39
Surveillance, 1, 8, 10, 11, 44, 60, 79, 243, 250
     see also Bureau of Labor Statistics; Databases; Incidence and prevalence; National Center for Health Statistics; National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; Reporting
     absenteeism, 305-306
     biomechanical, 243, 250
     cost factors, 304-305
     definitional issues, 11
     manufacturing workers, 305-306
     preventive interventions and, 304-306, 320-321
Sweden, 121, 122, 338
Synovial cells and synovitis, 48, 194

T

Tears,
     see Sprains, strains, and tears
Technological innovation, 330, 331, 337-343, 344, 346-347, 365
     see also Computer users
     globalization, 331, 341-343
     sociotechnical systems, 345
Temperature factors, 25
     biomechanics, 219, 221-226 (passim), 248, 253, 255-256, 258, 260-264, 280-282
     peripheral nerve, 186, 230
     tendons, 194, 197, 198
     time factors, 127, 134, 224
     upper extremity disorders, 127, 134, 253, 255, 258, 260-264, 275, 285, 286, 358
Temporal factors,
     see Time factors
Tendalgia, 178
Tendinitis, 19, 27, 139, 216, 431, 435-436
     forestry workers, 128, 133
     incidence and prevalence, 40, 49, 53, 54, 352, 436
     manufacturing workers, 50, 180, 435-436
     peritendinitis, 133, 196, 197-198
Tendinosis, 196-198
Tendons and ligaments, 22, 183, 358, 360, 372
     see also Carpal tunnel syndrome; Tendinitis
     age factors, 51, 198-199
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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     animal models, 197-199, 216-217
     biomechanics, 222, 227-228, 239, 247, 250-252, 265-266, 268, 373
     cellular processes, 194, 196-197, 199
     compression, 194, 197
     cyclical loading, 196, 199, 216, 266
     edema, 196, 197-198, 216
     epicondylitis, 133, 134, 180, 196, 197, 216, 431
     exercise, 197, 198-199
     fatigue, 216
     inflammation, general, 196, 198
     muscle contraction, 202
     muscle-tendon syndrome, 128, 133
     necrosis, 197
     nociceptors, 186
     peritendinitis, 133, 196, 197-198
     psychological stress, 298
     repetitive motion, 197-198, 199, 216, 217
     shear loading, 194
     temperature factors, 194, 197, 198
     tendinosis, 196-198
     tenosynovitis, 19, 48, 133, 134, 196, 216, 431
     tenovaginitis, 196
     tissue mechanobiology, 185, 186, 194-199
     vertebral bone and discs, 189
Tenosynovitis, 19, 48, 133, 134, 196, 216, 431
Tenovaginitis, 196
Thermal factors,
     see Temperature factors
Time factors, 2, 91, 92, 94
     see also Absenteeism; Historical perspectives
     back disorders, general, 44, 104, 105, 108, 365
     biomechanics, 224, 225, 226, 258, 280, 281-284, 286, 373
     bone fracture repair, 193
     causal inference, criteria for, 72-73, 74-75, 77, 79, 108, 114, 184, 446
     databases, 46-47
     deadlines,
     see “stress, time pressure” infra
     duty cycle, 207, 208, 238, 274, 345-346, 372
     fatigue testing, 216
     force, time study, 94
     gripping, 280
     hand activity levels, 95
     hours worked, 46, 48, 136, 138, 139, 303, 344, 346-347;
     see also “overtime” infra
     job analysis, 93-95, 238, 304, 305, 306-307, 331
     job, time on, 10, 11, 30, 48, 91, 92, 94, 136, 138, 176, 366
     ligament damage recovery, 251
     litigation, 30
     National Occupational Exposure Survey, 11
     overtime, 161, 183, 303, 344
     peripheral nerve compression, 212
     preventive interventions, 319, 325, 326
     psychosocial factors, 95, 347
     rest breaks, 111-112, 160, 161, 162, 174, 181, 183, 263, 274, 320
     self-reports, 92, 95
     skeletal muscle damage, 203-204, 208, 226
     spinal loading, 193
     spinal nerve root, 215-216
     stress, time pressure, 32, 96, 104, 105, 109, 171, 181, 183, 298-299, 365
     temperature extremes, 127, 134, 224
     tendons, repetitive stress, 197-198, 216-217
     upper extremity disorders, 96, 109, 110, 111-112, 136, 138, 161, 162, 171, 174, 258, 280, 360, 446, 450
     workers' compensation, 28-29, 450
Time-series analysis, 70, 334-335
Tissue mechanobiology, 5, 21, 22, 33, 184-218, 372-373
     see also Cellular processes; Peripheral nerve; Spinal nerve roots
     animal models, 5, 22, 65, 66, 67, 184
     back disorders, 6, 187-198, 213-216, 357
     cadaver studies, 22, 66, 184
     collagen, 188, 194, 196, 197, 198, 199, 213, 217
     elbows, 186, 196
     repetitive motion, 185, 372-373
     skeletal muscle, 200-210, 217-218, 372-373
     tendons, 185, 186, 194-199
     ultrastructural responses, 199, 207-208, 216, 372, 373
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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     vertebral bone and spinal disc, 187-194, 217
     wrists, 196
Tobacco use,
     see Smoking
Torsion,
     see Twisting
Torso, 6, 227, 246, 251, 278, 357, 362
Torts,
     see Litigation
Toxic agents, 48, 329
     respiratory diseases, 48
Training,
     see Educational interventions; Education of professionals
Transportation workers, 332, 334
     back disorders, 53, 118, 119, 352, 433-434, 438
     incidence and prevalence, 50, 51, 53, 436
     railroad workers, 45, 136
     sprains, strains, and tears, 51
     upper extremity disorders, 164, 178, 436
Trigger finger, 19, 133, 431
Twisting, 9
     back disorders, attributable risk, 88, 119, 120, 124, 354
     back disorders, other, 98, 99-100, 119, 120, 124, 239, 244, 251, 364
     biomechanics, 55, 239, 244, 270, 271, 275-276, 278
     hand disorders, 55
     muscle cocontraction, 232
     spinal discs, 190, 191, 192, 249-250
     upper extremity disorders, general, 270, 271, 278, 281, 285
     wrist disorders, 55, 275-276
Typing, 51, 337, 340, 341, 439-440
     biomechanics, 231, 254, 256, 257, 260, 263, 264, 268-269, 278, 280, 281
     epidemiology, 103, 138
     preventive interventions, 315, 439-440, 450

U

Ulnar deviation, 231, 257, 265, 274, 276, 279, 284, 448
Ultrastructural responses, 199, 207-208, 216, 372, 373
Unions,
     see Labor unions
United Auto Workers, xiv, 56
Upper arm, 101, 111, 186, 253, 278, 253
     see also Shoulders

V

Vertebra
     see also Spinal discs
     age factors, 188, 189-190, 193-194, 217-218, 433
     biomechanics, 229-230, 250, 252
     cellular processes, 188, 189-190, 192-193, 362
     compression, 186, 188, 191, 192
     cyclical loading, 192, 216
     shear loading, 191, 192, 239-251 (passim)
     tissue mechanobiology, 187-194, 217
Vertebral endplates, 188, 190, 193, 248-249
Vibration, 57, 93, 219, 434
     back disorders, 9, 98, 99, 118-122, 433-434
     biomechanics, 221-226 (passim), 230, 231, 233, 254, 255-256, 258, 260-264, 268, 270-273, 274, 276, 277-278, 280, 281-283, 286
     peripheral nerve, 212-213, 230, 231
     skeletal muscle, 208, 226
     spinal discs, 191-192
     upper extremity disorders, 7, 48, 364-365
     biomechanics, 254, 255-256, 258, 260-264, 270-273, 286
     epidemiology, 101, 102, 103, 114, 125-131, 134-137, 139, 140, 314
     hands, general, 48, 101, 102, 212-213, 231, 260
     power hand tools, 85, 219, 222, 255, 258, 259, 263, 268, 274, 276, 277-279, 280, 282, 315, 438
     preventive interventions, 314-315
     Raynaud's phenomena, 48, 101, 102, 127, 134, 135, 137, 231
Vibration white finger (VWF), 127, 130, 131, 135, 136, 137
Viscoelasticity, 195
Visual analog scale, 94-95, 142, 154, 234, 277
Visual display units (VDUs), 138, 160-161, 166, 182, 340-341
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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W

Wages and salaries
     job satisfaction, 146
     loss of, 1, 8-9, 17, 58, 63
     preventive interventions, 303, 326
Washington State, workers' compensation, 45, 46-47, 55-56, 57-58, 62
Weight factors, body, 2, 4, 9, 32, 89, 304, 365, 374, 433
     upper extremity disorders, 7, 359, 360, 442, 447-448
Weight factors, object handled
     upper extremity disorders, 254, 272
Whiplash, cultural factors, 31
Whole person approach, 9, 23-27, 216, 234-235
Wisconsin, workers' compensation, 57-58
Women,
     see Gender factors
Workers' compensation, 28-29, 55-56, 57-58, 64, 90, 155
     absenteeism and, 28-29, 58
     back disorders, 55, 144, 149
     cultural factors, 31, 449
     defined, 36
     preventive interventions, 303
     somatization, 26-27
     upper extremity disorders, 55, 449-450
Washington State, 45, 46-47, 55-56, 57-58, 62
Workers' Compensation Programs,
     Department of Labor, 45, 56-57
Workstations, 259, 275-276, 278, 298, 339, 346
     see also Computer users; Typing chairs, 318, 359
     hand tools, 222, 259
     preventive interventions, 7, 8, 302, 314, 317, 318, 320, 359, 361, 452
Work style model, 295-296
World Health Organization, 1, 89
World Wide Web,
     see Internet
Wrists, 340, 431
     see also Carpal tunnel syndrome
     biomechanics, 255, 257-258, 260, 261, 262, 263, 265-267, 268, 270, 274, 275-279, 282, 284, 360, 363
     epidemiology, 20, 102, 111, 125, 126, 138, 172, 174, 175, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182
     incidence and prevalence, 43, 51, 54, 57, 181, 436, 440-441
     nonspecific, 19
     peripheral nerve, 212-213
     physician visits, 20
     preventive interventions, 319, 451
     tissue mechanobiology, 196
     twisting, 55, 275-276

X

X rays,
     see Radiographs
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10032.
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Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities Get This Book
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Every year workers' low-back, hand, and arm problems lead to time away from jobs and reduce the nation's economic productivity. The connection of these problems to workplace activities-from carrying boxes to lifting patients to pounding computer keyboards-is the subject of major disagreements among workers, employers, advocacy groups, and researchers.

Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace examines the scientific basis for connecting musculoskeletal disorders with the workplace, considering people, job tasks, and work environments. A multidisciplinary panel draws conclusions about the likelihood of causal links and the effectiveness of various intervention strategies. The panel also offers recommendations for what actions can be considered on the basis of current information and for closing information gaps.

This book presents the latest information on the prevalence, incidence, and costs of musculoskeletal disorders and identifies factors that influence injury reporting. It reviews the broad scope of evidence: epidemiological studies of physical and psychosocial variables, basic biology, biomechanics, and physical and behavioral responses to stress. Given the magnitude of the problem-approximately 1 million people miss some work each year-and the current trends in workplace practices, this volume will be a must for advocates for workplace health, policy makers, employers, employees, medical professionals, engineers, lawyers, and labor officials.

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