Biographical Sketches of Committee Members
GEORGE BUGLIARELLO (chair) is chancellor of Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, New York. Dr. Bugliarello, former president (1973–1994) of Polytechnic, is an engineer and educator whose background ranges from biomedical engineering to fluid mechanics, computer languages, sociotechnology, and science policy. A member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and the Council on Foreign Relations, and a founding fellow of the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, he is a past president of Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society, and an honorary lifetime member of the National Association for Science, Technology and Society. He has served as both member and chair of several National Research Council committees and is currently a member of the Committee on Human Rights of the National Academy of Sciences, NAE, and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bugliarello's international experience includes consultant to UNESCO and U.S. member of the Science for Stability Steering Committee and the Science for Peace Steering Committee of the Scientific Affairs Division of NATO.
H. NORMAN ABRAMSON retired as the executive vice president of Southwest Research Institute in 1991 after 35 years of service in increasingly responsible positions. He has a B.S. in mechanical engineering and an M.S. in engineering mechanics from Stanford University and a Ph.D in engineering mechanics from the University of Texas-Austin. He is internationally known in the field of theoretical and applied mechanics, particularly for his expertise in the dynamics of contained liquids in astronautical, nuclear, and marine systems. Dr. Abramson is a past vice president and past governor of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, a past director of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and an officer of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE). He was an elected member of the NAE Council from 1984 to1990. He has also served on a variety of NAE and National Research Council committees and panels, including the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy; U.S. National Committee on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics; Committee on Computational Mechanics; Committee on Earthquake Engineering Facilities; Ship Structure Committee; Research and Technology Coordinating Committee for FHWA; and the Committee on Technology Policy Options in a Global Economy. He has also been a member of advisory boards to government agencies and a consultant to several organizations.
THOMAS F. HAFER, senior program manager with Science and Technology Associates, has a long history of involvement in the search for alternatives to antipersonnel landmines by the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Army. Mr. Hafer has an M.S. in electrical engineering. For 10 years, he managed programs at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) on the development of novel types of intelligent mines, communications for intelligent minefields, countermine and demining technologies, sensors, and situational awareness.
J. JEROME HOLTON, program manager and senior scientist with Defense Group Inc., earned his Ph.D. from Duke University in experimental physics. He has made a significant contribution to defense through a broad range of research and analyses, both technical and programmatic, related to the integration of spectral sensing technology and light detection and ranging (LIDAR). He has also worked on the integration of technologies for automatic target recognition algorithms to supplement other detection and identification systems on the battlefield, primarily for chemical and biological weapons.
LEE M. HUNT, former director of the National Research Council's (NRC) Naval Studies Board, has extensive experience with sea and landmine warfare, as well as explosive ordnance disposal, including sea and landmine countermeasures and explosive ordnance in World War II and the Korean Conflict. He has conducted more than 70 major
studies in mine warfare, authored numerous papers on the subject, and worked to reduce the hazard of abandoned explosive ordnance since 1964. He is currently vice president for academic affairs of the Mine Warfare Association and a member of the Advisory Council for the College of Engineering, Florida State University.
RICHARD H. JOHNSON, a consultant who lives in Springfield, Virginia, has extensive experience with mine warfare. In his last assignment as an Army Colonel, capping 30 years of working on every aspect of ammunition, Mr. Johnson was the project manager for mines, countermine, and demolitions. During his career, he was responsible for managing the development and fielding of approximately 15 separate systems. Prior to his position as project manager, Mr. Johnson commanded the Fire Support Armaments Center providing full life-cycle engineering support for indirect-fire weapons, fire-control systems, mines and demolitions, and other selected systems, such as precision munitions. He recently was a member of a Defense Science Board panel that recommended improvements in unexploded ordnance remediation technology, and he works part time as a senior analyst on conventional arms control issues with Dyn-Meridian, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia.
K. SHARVAN KUMAR, professor of engineering, Brown University, has extensive experience and an international reputation in materials science, as well as technological expertise in a variety of applications in aerospace systems and defense-related technologies. Dr. Kumar has investigated the microstructure and mechanical properties of iron aluminides and their composites for potential use in passive mine countermeasures and led a team that evaluated the role of reinforcements in intermetallic and metallic matrices and identified innovative methods of processing these materials for specific applications. He has significant experience in the area of materials processing using combustion synthesis techniques and has participated in several Navy-funded projects on using exothermic reactions to produce a variety of metal-matrix composites. He has also worked on the development of materials using combustion synthesis for ballistic penetration resistance. Dr. Kumar holds several patents, one of which was licensed and used in the fabrication of the external fuel tank for the space shuttle.
RONALD F. LEHMAN II is director of the Center for Global Security Research at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. He is also chairman of the Governing Board of the International Science and Technology Center, an intergovernmental organization headquartered in Moscow, and a member of the U.S. Department of Defense Threat Reduction Advisory Committee. In 1995, he was appointed to the five-member President's Advisory Board on Arms Proliferation Policy. Ambassador Lehman was the director of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency from 1989 to 1993. Earlier, he was Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy, chief U.S. negotiator on strategic offensive arms, and deputy assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. He has also served on the National Security Council staff as a senior director, on the professional staff of the U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee, and in Vietnam with the U.S. Army.
LARRY G. LEHOWICZ, Major General, U.S. Army (retired), and vice president of Quantum Research-International, is a graduate of the U.S. Army War College. A decorated combat leader, his current position in the civil sector is enhanced by his expertise in survivability analysis, developmental and operational testing and evaluation, and information operations. General Lehowicz's capstone position prior to the completion of his active military service was the command of the U.S. Army's Operational Test and Evaluation Command, an organization dedicated to ensuring that warfighting systems, information management systems, and other systems are operationally tested and evaluated. As the Deputy Chief of Staff for Combat Developments, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, General Lehowicz was responsible for analyzing and recommending the most promising alternative conceptual and technological approaches for the future battlefield. He chaired the German, French, United Kingdom, and Israeli bilateral International Army Staff Talks, the mission of which was to ensure doctrinal compatibility and system interoperability on the future combined battlefield.
ALAN M. LOVELACE, a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), is retired senior vice president of General Dynamics. Dr. Lovelace has had a long and distinguished career in both government and industry and has made significant contributions to U.S. preeminence in aerospace. His long experience with the National Academies includes a term as chair of the NAE. His areas of expertise are in aerospace materials, particularly the application of boron-reinforced and graphite-reinforced epoxies. Dr. Lovelace has a Ph.D. in chemistry, is a fellow and past president of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and is a member of the International Academy of Astronautics, Sigma Xi, and Phi Beta Kappa.
HARVEY M. SAPOLSKY, professor of public policy and organization, Political Science Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Director of the Security Studies Program at the MIT Center for International Studies, is an educator and advisor to governments. Dr. Sapolsky, who earned his Ph.D. in political economy and government, has worked in a number of public policy areas, notably defense, science, and health, examining the effects of technical change, institutional structure, and bureaucratic politics. He chaired the 1993 Policy Implications of Nonlethal Warfare
Technologies Conference at MIT and served as a member of both the Nonlethal Weapons Study Group for the Council on Foreign Relations and the Ethics and Health Policy Panel for the Hastings Center. He has served as a consultant to the Commission on Government Procurement, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Naval War College, the Office of Naval Research, the RAND Corporation, and the Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Sapolsky is a member of the Senior Review Group, Army Technology Seminar, the Assessment Panel for the U.S. Department of Defense Dual-Use Science and Technology Program and the Council on Foreign Relations. His most recent activity with the National Research Council was membership on the Committee on Risk Perception and Communication.
DANIEL R. SCHROEDER, Lieutenant General, U.S. Army (retired), has had a long and unique career in the military. He received his undergraduate degree in engineering from the U.S. Naval Academy and an M.S. in systems management from the Air Force Institute of Technology. He is a graduate of the U.S. Marine Corps Amphibious Warfare School and the U.S. Army War College. A decorated combat veteran, he counts among his many military assignments service as Deputy Assistant Chief of Engineers, Commandant of the U.S. Army Engineer School, and Deputy Commander in Chief of the U.S. Army Europe and Seventh Army. After completing his military service, General Schroeder was the senior vice president and general manager for modeling, simulation, and training for LORAL Federal Systems, now Lockheed Martin Information Systems. Since 1998, General Schroeder has been a consultant to several U.S. corporations.
MARION SCOTT is deputy director for sensors and national security at the Microsystems Science, Technology, and Components Center, Sandia National Laboratories. He attended Southern Methodist University where he received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering. He currently has programmatic responsibility for the development of sensors for a wide variety of applications, ranging from weapon state-of-health monitoring to the monitoring of industrial processes. Several of the sensors in this program area are being developed for nonproliferation applications. A major activity within his program area is the development of a miniature chemical analysis system for the detection of chemical warfare agents. Prior to assuming his current position, Dr. Scott was the manager of the Advanced Geophysical Technology Department and a staff member in the Opto-electronics Department at Sandia.
K. ANNE STREET is president and chief executive officer of Riverside Consulting Group, which specializes in the interaction of human factors and technology. In her previous position as president and chief operating officer of Geo-Centers, her projects included a ground-penetrating radar system capable of detecting landmines. Ms. Street has worked for several companies in her 27-year career, including DynCorp, Battelle Memorial Institute, The Parsons Corporation, and Fluor Engineers, Inc. She is a registered professional engineer and has an M.S. in ocean engineering and a B.S. in metallurgy and materials science. She is a member of the Board of Trustees of Aerospace Corporation and an active alumna of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, including service as a member of the Visiting Committee for the Department of Materials Science and Engineering.
PATRICK H. WINSTON, Ford Professor of Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, earned his Ph.D. in computer science. He is involved in the study of how vision, language, and motor faculties account for intelligence and is working on applications of artificial intelligence enabled by learning, precedent-based reasoning, and common-sense problem solving. His new initiatives include the Human Intelligence Enterprise, which brings together and focuses research from several fields, including computer science, systems neuroscience, cognitive science, and linguistics. Dr. Winston also chaired the Naval Research Advisory Committee.