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Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders: Meeting the Challenge in the Developing World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10111.
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Acronyms

5-HT

5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)

ACE

Angiotensen-Converting Enzyme

ADL

Activities of Daily Living

AED

Anti-Epileptic Drug

AIDS

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

APA

American Psychological Association

BDI

Beck Depression Inventory

CARMEN

Set of actions for the multifactorial reduction of noncommunicable diseases (Conjuncto de Acciones para la Reducion Multifactorial de las Enfermedades No Transmisibles)

CBR

Community-Based Rehabilitation

CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CEDC

Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances

CEU

Clinical Epidemiology Unit

CINDI

Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Diseases Intervention Program

CIS-R

Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised

CMD

Common Mental Disorders

CMV

Cytomegalovirus

CNS

Central Nervous System

CP

Cerebral Palsy

CT

Computerized Tomography

CVT

Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders: Meeting the Challenge in the Developing World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10111.
×

CWD

Children with Disability

DALYs

Disability-Adjusted Life Years

DIS

Diagnostic Interview Schedule

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

DSM-IV

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (Fourth Edition)

DZ

Dizygote

ECA

Epidemiological Catchment Area

ECASS

European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study

ECLAMC

Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations

ECT

Electro-Convulsive Therapy

EEG

Electroencephalogram

EITB

Enzyme-Linked Immunoelectro-Transfer Blot

ERR

Event-Related Potentials

ESAP

Economic Structural Adjustment Programs

FAS

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

GABA

Gamma-Aminobutryic Acid

GBD

Global Burden of Disease

GCAE

Global Campaign Against Epilepsy

GDP

Gross Domestic Product

GP

General Practitioner

GTCS

Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures

HEA

Health Education Authority (U.K.)

HIV

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

HPA

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal

HSR

Health Systems Research

IBE

International Bureau for Epilepsy

ICD-10

International Statistical Classification of Disease (Tenth Revision)

ICIDH

International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps

ICMR

Indian Council of Medical Research

ILAE

International League Against Epilepsy

ILO

International Labor Organization

IMF

International Monetary Fund

INCLEN

International Clinical Epidemiology Network

IOM

Institute of Medicine

IQ

Intelligence Quotient

IPSS

International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia

LBW

Low Birth Weight

LDL

Low-Density Lipoprotein

MAOI

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor

MMSE

Mini-Mental State Examination

MONICA

Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease

Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders: Meeting the Challenge in the Developing World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10111.
×

MR

Mental Retardation

MRI

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

MRS

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

MZ

Monozygote

NCC

Neurocysticercosis

NCS

National Co-Morbidity Survey

NGO

Nongovernmental Organization

NICHD

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

NIH

National Institutes of Health (U.S.)

NIMH

National Institute of Mental Health (U.S.)

NIMHANS

National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (India)

NMHP

National Mental Health Programme of India

NOMASS

Northern Manhattan Stroke Study

OMAR

Operations Monitoring and Analysis of Results

OPV

Oral Polio Vaccine

PAHO

Pan-American Health Organization

PAS

Periodic-Acid Schiff

PCB

Polychlorinated Biphenyl

PET

Positron Emission Tomography

PHC

Primary Health Care

PHCW

Primary Health Care Worker

PKU

Phenylketonuria

PND

Postnatal Depression

PRC

People's Republic of China

PRDP

Population Rate Difference Percentage

PSE

Present State Examination

PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

QALY

Quality-Adjusted Life Years

RCS

Research Capability Strengthening

RITM

Research Institute for Tropical Medicine

RTPA

Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator

SAARC

South Asian Assistance for Regional Cooperation

SBK

Shishu Bikash Kendro

SCAN

Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry

SMR

Standard Mortality Ratio

SPECT

Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography

SPI

Study of Perioperative Ischemia

SSRI

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor

TCA

Tricyclic Antidepressants

TDR

The Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases

TIA

Transient Ischemic Attack

TQ

Ten-Question Method

Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders: Meeting the Challenge in the Developing World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10111.
×

TSH

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

UK

United Kingdom

UN

United Nations

UNDP

United Nations Development Program

UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization

UNHCR

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNICEF

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund

USAID

United States Agency for International Development

USD

United States Dollar

WHO

World Health Organization

YLD

Years Lived with Disability

YLL

Years of Life Lost

ZPHCA

Zimbabwe Parents of Handicapped Children Association

Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders: Meeting the Challenge in the Developing World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10111.
×
Page 431
Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders: Meeting the Challenge in the Developing World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10111.
×
Page 432
Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders: Meeting the Challenge in the Developing World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10111.
×
Page 433
Suggested Citation:"Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders: Meeting the Challenge in the Developing World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10111.
×
Page 434
Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders: Meeting the Challenge in the Developing World Get This Book
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Brain disorders—neurological, psychiatric, and developmental—now affect at least 250 million people in the developing world, and this number is expected to rise as life expectancy increases. Yet public and private health systems in developing countries have paid relatively little attention to brain disorders. The negative attitudes, prejudice, and stigma that often surround many of these disorders have contributed to this neglect.

Lacking proper diagnosis and treatment, millions of individual lives are lost to disability and death. Such conditions exact both personal and economic costs on families, communities, and nations. The report describes the causes and risk factors associated with brain disorders. It focuses on six representative brain disorders that are prevalent in developing countries: developmental disabilities, epilepsy, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and stroke.

The report makes detailed recommendations of ways to reduce the toll exacted by these six disorders. In broader strokes, the report also proposes six major strategies toward reducing the overall burden of brain disorders in the developing world.

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