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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10135.
×

Index

A

Accountability, 5, 6, 14, 26, 62, 77, 78, 86, 92, 102, 110, 111

Agriculture, 6, 107-109

American Commonwealth Management Services, 63

American Water Works Association, 35, 42-43, 44, 58

American Water Works Company, Inc., 11, 18, 46

American Water Works Service Company, 69

Anti-trust issues, see Competition issues, general

Arsenic, 3, 47-48

Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies, 54

Azurix Corporation, 24, 25

B

Baltimore Water Company, 31

Bank guarantees, 12, 75

Benchmarking, 4, 47, 55, 59, 92, 101, 132-133

Bonds, municipal, 6, 12, 27-28, 51, 52-53, 62, 68

Britain, see United Kingdom

C

California Resources Agency, 11

Canada, 48, 49

Capital investment, 5, 12, 18-20, 22, 46, 51-53, 54, 58, 62, 81-85, 100, 132, 133

bonds, 6, 12, 27-28, 51, 52-53, 62, 68

Environmental Protection Agency, 18, 129-130

historical perspectives, 33, 38, 125, 126

outsourcing, 66, 67

public-private partnerships, 72

regionalization, 50-51, 53, 90-91

small utilities and regionalization, 50-51, 53

Chemicals, 1

arsenic, 3, 47-48

water treatment, general, 19, 30, 33, 34, 35-36, 48-49

Cities, see Urban areas

Clean Water Act, 19, 35-36, 37, 45, 48

Community-level issues, 2, 6, 10, 13, 22, 79-80, 90, 101-104, 111

see also Local government; Regionalization; Small and medium-sized utilities; Urban areas

community-level system defined, 12, 13

cultural values, 7, 106, 109, 111

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10135.
×

franchising arrangements, 11, 90

number of systems, 2, 12, 13

watersheds, 6, 8, 11, 25, 26, 82, 89, 91, 93, 104, 105, 106, 111-112

Competition issues, general, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13, 27, 41, 58, 77, 92-96, 112

see also Pricing

deregulation, 15, 45, 121-126

market forces, 6-7, 11, 14-17, 20, 21, 23, 34, 40, 41, 51, 56, 112-113

political issues, 26

Comprehensive operating agreements, 11-12

design-build-operate arrangements, 11-12, 20-21, 45, 47, 70, 71-74, 99, 110

design-build-own-operate-transfer arrangements, 21, 70, 91

Computer technology, 46, 48, 49

Consolidation, 4, 8, 46, 48-50 (passim), 66, 77, 84, 88-91

Construction of facilities, 11-12, 28, 35-36, 42, 46

see also Capital investment

design-build-operate arrangements, 11-12, 20-21, 45, 47, 70, 71-74, 99, 110

design-build-own-operate-transfer arrangements, 21, 70, 91

Contracting services out, see Outsourcing

Cost factors, 5, 6, 15, 23-24, 25, 28, 42, 46, 51, 52, 54, 57, 60, 61, 62, 77, 78, 79, 80, 85-88, 92, 96, 112, 125, 133

see also Capital investment; Funding; Pricing; Risk assessment and sharing

contract preparation and bidding, 27, 44, 47, 64, 102

design-build-and-operate contracting, 45, 72-73

economies of scale, 4, 11, 20, 23, 46, 51, 68, 81-85, 88, 100;

see also Regionalization

economies of scope, 23, 85

lease financing, 74-75

outsourcing, 64, 65, 66, 68-69

performance benchmarking, 59, 92

political factors, 41, 42

public-private partnerships, 45, 72-75

regionalization, 89, 90-91

wastewater treatment, 12, 37, 48, 49

The Cost of Clean Water, 54

Cultural values

see also Political issues

community, 7, 106, 109, 111

organizational, 55, 58, 62

D

Depreciation, 5, 53, 86

Design-build-operate arrangements, 11-12, 20-21, 45, 47, 70, 71-74, 99, 110

tax law, 45

Design-build-own-operate-transfer arrangements, 21, 70, 91

Disaster response, 27, 32, 49, 57

terrorism, viii, 43

E

East Bay Municipal Utility District, 60, 6162, 82

Economic issues, vii, 1, 2, 3, 5-7, 10, 92-96, 100, 105-106

see also Capital investment; Competition issues; Cost factors; Employment issues; Pricing; Regionalization

committee study charge, 11

depreciation, 5, 53, 86

economies of scale, 4, 11, 20, 23, 46, 51, 68, 81-85, 88, 100,

see also Regionalization

economies of scope, 23, 85

extent of privatization, 11, 14-17, 20, 21, 23, 34, 40, 67, 76

interest rates, 12, 27-28

market forces, 6-7, 11, 14-17, 20, 21, 23, 34, 40, 41, 51, 56, 67, 112-113

professional education, 46

Education and training, see Professional education

Employment issues, 4, 5, 7, 8, 44, 61, 77, 81-82, 101

labor/management relations, 57, 61, 79, 101, 133-134

leadership/education, 45-46, 55, 65, 80, 113

outsourcing, 65, 66, 67

political issues, 56-57, 103-104, 125-126

regional, 108

worker productivity, 58

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10135.
×

England and Wales, see United Kingdom

Enron Corporation, 25

Environmental issues, 5, 6, 10, 12-13, 42, 79, 96, 104-106, 107-108, 133

see also Health issues; Standards

cost factors, 45

funding, 47, 48, 129

watersheds, 6, 8, 11, 25, 26, 82, 89, 91, 93, 104, 105, 106, 111-112

Environmental Protection Agency, 2-3, 36-37, 42, 47, 57, 84-85, 93, 102, 105, 128-130

see also Clean Water Act; Safe Drinking Water Act

capital investment, 18, 129-130

committee study funding, 11

consumer confidence reports, 43, 128-129

historical perspectives, 35

outsourcing, 63, 65, 66, 67

public-private partnerships, 70-71, 78

Executive Order 12803, 52-53

F

Federal government, 44-45, 50, 93

see also Environmental Protection Agency; Legislation

funding, 3, 45, 54, 129

interest-rate subsidies, 27-28

Internal Revenue Service, 44-45, 64

taxation, 6, 8, 12, 27-28, 44-45, 51, 52-53, 101

Financial incentives, 2, 11, 44, 49, 50, 53, 59, 62, 77, 87, 91, 97, 99, 129

Foreign countries, see International perspectives

Franchising arrangements, 11, 90

Full-service contract operation and management, 11-12

Funding, 3, 6, 12, 14, 18-19, 35-36, 38, 45, 53, 54, 79

see also Capital investment

committee study, 11

commingling, 26-27

design-build-and-operate contracting, 45

environmental issues, general, 47, 48, 129

lease financing, 74

Safe Drinking Water Act, 47, 129

small and medium-sized utilities, 51-52, 53, 130

state-level, 6, 28, 36, 53

technological innovations, Clean Water Act, 35-36

G

Geographic issues, see Community-level issues; Regionalization; Rural areas; State government

Government role, see Community-level issues; Federal government; Funding; International perspectives; Legislation; Local government; Political issues; Regulatory issues; Standards; State-level issues

Government Standards Board, 86

Great Britain, see United Kingdom

H

Health issues, 6, 10, 25, 26, 35-36, 42, 54, 93, 124-125

see also Standards

cost factors, 45

disaster response, 27, 32, 49, 57

terrorism, viii, 43

historical perspectives, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33-34, 35-36, 42

public-private partnerships, 72

Historical perspectives, vii-viii, 1, 2-3, 10, 14, 15, 20, 24, 29-40, 44, 53, 70, 122, 123-126

capital investment, 33, 38, 125, 126

design-build-own-operate-transfer arrangements, 21

funding, 6

health issues, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33-34, 35-36, 42

international perspectives, 29-30, 38-40, 122, 123-126

Philadelphia Suburban Company, 20

pricing (rates), 37, 39, 112

small utilities and regionalization, 33, 50-51, 123-124

standards, 32-35, 38, 41

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10135.
×

technological innovations, 29, 30, 33, 34, 35, 48

urban areas, 29, 30, 31-33, 35, 38, 39, 48

wastewater treatment, 10, 35-37, 41, 42, 49

I

Incentives, see Financial incentives

Indianapolis Water Company, 24

Infrastructure, 18, 20, 39, 41, 53, 60, 81-85, 100, 132, 133

see also Capital investment; Construction of facilities; Operations, maintenance and repair

Insurance, 12, 75, 133

Interest rates, 12, 27-28

Internal Revenue Service, 44-45, 64

International Organization for Standardization , 65-66

International perspectives, viii, 7, 13, 23

see also Terrorism

economies of scope, 85

foreign ownership, 41, 46, 64, 85

historical, 29-30, 38-40, 122, 123-126

outsourcing, 64, 65-66, 68

performance benchmarking, 59

political issues, 23, 39, 121

pricing (rates), viii, 23, 39, 92, 124

standards, 65-66

terrorism, viii, 43

United Kingdom, 23, 38, 44, 59, 92, 121-127

urban areas, 23, 38, 39, 121-126

Irrigation, see Agriculture

L

Labor/management relations, 57, 61, 79, 101, 133-134

Lease financing, 27, 74-75

Legislation, 42, 43, 47, 62. 98

see also Regulatory issues; Standards

Clean Water Act, 19, 35-36, 37, 45, 48

historical perspectives, 30, 32, 52

Safe Drinking Water Act, 3, 8, 19, 35, 37, 47, 51-52, 68, 89, 91, 105, 128-130

small utilities and regionalization, 50-51

Water Act (United Kingdom), 123-124

Litigation, 13, 49, 105

Local government, 2, 14, 20, 58, 77, 93, 95, 100, 101-104, 110, 124-125

see also Community-level issues; Regionalization; Urban areas

M

Maintenance and repair, see Operations, maintenance and repair

Masons Water Yearbook, 23

Meters, 1, 61

N

National Association of Water Companies, 3, 15, 77

Nonprofit organizations, 38

O

Ondeo, 64

Operations, maintenance and repair, vii, viii, 1, 8, 76, 132

see also Outsourcing

lease financing, 75

Outsourcing, 11-12, 20-21, 24, 39, 58, 62-69, 95, 110

see also Technical assistance

capital investment, 66, 67

cost factors, 64, 65, 66, 68-69

employment issues, 65, 66, 67

Environmental Protection Agency guidelines, 63, 65, 66, 67

international perspectives, 64, 65-66, 68

political issues, 64, 65

service efficiencies, 65, 66

small and medium-sized utilities, 67-69

urban areas, 63, 64, 69

P

Partnerships, public-private, 11, 24, 49-50, 54, 56, 58, 69-75

see also Technical assistance

cost factors, 45, 72-75

design-build-operate arrangements, 11-12, 20-21, 45, 47, 70, 71-74

tax law, 45

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10135.
×

Design-build-own-operate-transfer arrangements, 21, 70

Environmental Protection Agency guidelines, 70-71, 78

Philadelphia Suburban Company, 20

Phoenix Water Service Department, 60-61

Political issues, 1-2, 5, 10, 13, 18-19, 25-26, 42-45, 47, 51, 56-57, 78-79, 87, 103-104, 110

see also Cultural values

committee study charge, 11

competitive bidding, 26

cost, 41, 42

employment, 56-57, 103-104, 125-126

international perspectives, 23, 39, 121

outsourcing, 64, 65

pricing, 26, 56, 57, 59, 87

public disclosure/participation, 26, 56, 57, 59

regionalization and consolidation, 49, 90-91

risk sharing, 49

Pricing (rates), 5, 8, 10, 12, 18, 21, 24, 25, 46, 51, 54, 62, 76, 83, 86-88, 92, 94, 112

see also Cost factors

ability to pay, 57, 102

benchmarking, 59

consumer attitudes, 42, 43

historical perspectives, 37, 39, 112

international perspectives, viii, 23, 39, 92, 124

lease financing, 75

local regulation, 20, 101, 102

meters, 1, 61

outsourcing, 64

political issues, 26, 56, 57, 59, 87

state regulation, 11, 14, 18, 37, 83, 47-48, 87-88, 91, 92, 94-96, 102

Professional education, 45-46, 55, 65, 113

Public Citizen group, 24

Public health, see Health issues

Public Health Service, 32-33

R

Rates, see Pricing (rates)

Regionalization, 4, 11, 46, 60, 84-85, 88-91, 100, 106-109, 110, 121

see also Small and medium-sized utilities; State-level issues

capital investment, 50-51, 53, 90-91

cost factors, general, 89, 90-91

economies of scale, 4, 11, 20, 23, 46, 51, 68, 81-85, 88, 100,

see also Regionalization

economies of scope, 23, 85

employment issues, 108

historical perspectives, 33, 50-51, 123-124

political factors, 49, 90-91

regulatory issues, 48

technological innovation, 50-51

Regulatory issues, vii, 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, 22, 24, 26, 46-48, 88, 91-99, 133

see also Environmental Protection Agency; Risk assessment and sharing; Standards; Taxation

competition, deregulation, 15, 45, 121-126

historical perspectives, 32-33, 37-38, 121-126

lease financing, 74

local pricing controls, 20, 101, 102

models of water service provision, 58, 60-61, 74, 77, 78-79, 92

organizational factors, 58

private regulatory measures, 44

regionalization and small utilities, 50

state regulation of pricing (rates), 11, 14, 18, 37, 83, 47-48, 87-88, 91, 92, 94-96, 102

Repair, see Operations, maintenance and repair

Risk assessment and sharing, 11-12, 22, 41, 47, 49-50, 54, 77-78, 131, 134

bank guarantees, 12, 75

insurance, 12, 75, 133

international perspectives, 23

litigation, 13, 49, 105

urban areas, 49, 78

Rural areas, 67-69, 85

S

Safe Drinking Water Act, 3, 8, 19, 35, 37, 47, 51-52, 68, 89, 91, 105, 128-130

Seattle Public Utilities Treatment Plant, 49, 131-134

Securities, see Stocks and shares

Service efficiencies, 20, 50, 57, 58, 69, 79, 86, 101-102, 124, 131

outsourcing, 65, 66

Severn-Trent Environmental Services, 11

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10135.
×

Small and medium-sized utilities, viii, 7-8, 13, 14, 21-22, 46, 78, 111

see also Regionalization

capital investment and regionalization, 50-51, 53

funding, 51-52, 53, 130

outsourcing, 67-69

risk sharing, 49

standards, 3-4, 28

technological innovation, 50-51

wastewater treatment, 7-8, 50

Standards, vii, viii, 2-3, 5, 7, 8, 19, 42, 47-48, 57, 84-85, 92, 101-102, 105

see also Environmental Protection Agency; Regulatory issues

arsenic, 3, 47-48

asset management, 86

cost factors, 42, 43

Clean Water Act, 19, 35-36, 37, 45, 48

foreign-owned firms, 46

historical perspectives, 32-35, 38, 41

management, general, 26

outsourcing, 64, 65-66

performance benchmarks, 4, 47, 55, 59, 92, 101, 132-133

risk sharing, 49

Safe Water Drinking Act, 3, 8, 19, 35, 37, 47, 51-52, 68, 89, 91, 105, 128-130

small utilities and regionalization, 50-51

state-level, 47, 69, 91

State-level issues, 18, 38, 46, 96-88, 105, 113, 130

agricultural uses vs urban uses of water, 107-109

capital costs, 19, 53

funding, 6, 28, 36, 53

organizational structure, legislation, 58-59, 97-99

rates and charges, regulation, 11, 14, 18, 37, 83, 47-48, 87-88, 91, 92, 94-96, 102

regionalization and small utilities, 50

standards, water quality, 47, 69, 91

tax-exempt financing, 53

Stocks and shares, 25, 32, 37, 66, 110

T

Taxation, 8, 77, 88

bonds, 6, 12, 27-28, 51, 52-53

exemptions, 6, 12, 27-28, 44-45, 51, 52-53, 101

Internal Revenue Service, 44-45, 64

lease financing, 74, 75

outsourcing, 63

Technical assistance, 12, 47, 50, 89, 102-103, 110

see also Outsourcing

Technological innovations, vii,, 1, 8, 4, 13, 22-23, 41, 46, 48-49, 89, 111

Clean Water Act funding, 35-36

computer technology, 46, 48, 49

historical perspectives, 29, 30, 33, 34, 35, 48

international firms, viii

professional education, 45-46

small utilities and regionalization, 50-51

water treatment, 19, 30, 33, 34, 35-36. 48-49

Telecommunications, 13, 15, 23, 90, 92

Terrorism, viii, 43

Troubled Waters, 124

U

Unions, see Labor/management relations

United Kingdom, 23, 38, 44, 59, 92, 121-127

United Water, 64

Urban areas, vii, 1, 10, 13, 14, 17, 24, 54-55, 60-61, 62, 77, 82-83, 85, 106-107, 131-134

agricultural uses and, 107-109

competitive bids, 26

historical perspectives, 29, 30, 31-33, 35, 38, 39, 48

international perspectives 23, 38, 39, 121-126

long-term water contracts, communities with, 22

organizational structure, 58-59

outsourcing, 63, 64, 69

Philadelphia Suburban Company, 20

public officials, 44

public-private partnerships, 70-73

risk assessment/sharing, 49, 78

W

Wales, see England and Wales

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10135.
×

Wastewater treatment, 1, 2, 12, 15

chemicals, 19, 30, 33, 34, 35-36, 48-49

arsenic, 3, 47-48

committee study charge, 11

cost factors, 12, 37, 48, 49

design-build-own-operate-transfer arrangements, 21

federal grants, 20, 50

historical perspectives, 10, 35-37, 41, 42, 49

number of publicly owned, 12, 14

outsourcing, 63, 69

small and medium-sized utilities, 7-8, 50

technological innovations, 19, 30, 33, 34, 35-36, 48-49

Water Act (United Kingdom), 123-124

Water and Wastewater Infrastructure Authorities, 53, 54

Water Environmental Federation, 44

Water Infrastructure Network, 53, 54, 85

Watersheds, 6, 8, 11, 25, 26, 82, 89, 91, 93, 104, 105, 106, 111-112

Workforce issues, see Employment issues; Professional education

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10135.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10135.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10135.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10135.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10135.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10135.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10135.
×
Page 144
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10135.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10135.
×
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Privatization of Water Services in the United States: An Assessment of Issues and Experience Get This Book
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In the quest to reduce costs and improve the efficiency of water and wastewater services, many communities in the United States are exploring the potential advantages of privatization of those services. Unlike other utility services, local governments have generally assumed responsibility for providing water services. Privatization of such services can include the outright sale of system assets, or various forms of public-private partnerships—from the simple provision of supplies and services, to private design construction and operation of treatment plants and distribution systems. Many factors are contributing to the growing interest in the privatization of water services. Higher operating costs, more stringent federal water quality and waste effluent standards, greater customer demands for quality and reliability, and an aging water delivery and wastewater collection and treatment infrastructure are all challenging municipalities that may be short of funds or technical capabilities. For municipalities with limited capacities to meet these challenges, privatization can be a viable alternative.

Privatization of Water Services evaluates the fiscal and policy implications of privatization, scenarios in which privatization works best, and the efficiencies that may be gained by contracting with private water utilities.

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