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Prepublication copy- subject to further editorial correction necessarily say anything about his location at that time. Internet access routed through satellites can be difficult to localize as well. The reason is that a satellite's transmission footprint can be quite large (hundreds of square miles?), and more importantly is moving quite rapidly. Localization (but only within the footprint) can be accomplished only by working with a detailed knowledge of the orbital movements of an entire constellation of satellites. However, those connecting to the Intemet through a broadband connection can be localized much more effectively, though with some effort. For example, while a cable Intemet ISP may assign IP addresses to users dynamically, any given address must be mappable to a specific cable modem that can be identified with its media access control address. While such mapping is usually done for billing and customer care reasons, it provides a ready guide to geographical addresses at the end user's level. Those who gain access through DSL connections can be located because the virtual circuit from the digital subscriber line access multiplexer is mapped to a specific twisted pair of copper wires going into an individual's residence. Also, wireless connections made through cell phones (and their data-oriented equivalents) are now subject to a regulation that requires the network client to provide location information for E-9 1 1 (enhanced emergency 9 ~ 1 ) reasons. This information is passed through the signaling network and would be available to a wireless ISP as well. In principle, the information needed to ascertain the location of any IP address is known collectively by a number of administrative entities, and could be aggregated automatically. But there is no protocol in place to pass this information to relevant narti~ ~nr1 then Blah ~oor~oOtimn it -~t A^~^ today. The result is that in practice, recovering location information is a process. _ ~~ ~ _^ A _ ~ ~ REV ~4 4 ~5~1 _ ~~ ~1 ~~ 1 ~ ~ 1 ~~ ~ IVY 1~ 1 complex and time-consuming To bypass these difficulties, technical proposals have been made for location-based authentication.6 However, the implementation of such proposals generally requires the installation of additional hardware at the location of each access point, and thus cannot be regarded as a general- purpose solution that can localize all (or even a large fraction of) Internet users. The bottom line is that determining the physical location of most Internet users is a challenging task today, though this task Urals become easier as broadband connections become more common. C.4 USER INTERFACES The history of information technology suggests that increasingly realistic and human-like forms of human-computer interaction will develop. The immediately obvious trends in the near-term future call for greater fidelity and "realism" in presentation. For example, faster graphics processors will enable more realistic portrayals of moving images, which soon will approach the quality of broadcast television. Larger screens in which the displayed image subtends a larger angle in the eye will increase the sense of being immersed in or surrounded by the image portrayed. Goggles with built-in displays do the same, but also offer the opportunity for three-dimensional images to be seen by the user. Virtual reality displays 6 See for example, Dorothy E. Denning and Peter F. MacDoran, ~ 996,"Location-Based Authentication:Grounding Cyberspace for Better Security", in Computer Fraud & Security, February. (publisher Elsevier Science Ltd). A commercial enterprise now sells authentication systems that draw heavily on the technology described in this paper. See 'http:l/www.cvberlocator.comlworks.html>.
A Information-Gathering Sessions of the Committee PLENARY MEETING OF JULY 17-19, 2000 National Research Council 2001 Wisconsin Avenue Green Building Washington, D.C. Monday, July 17 Presentation of Charge Dean Hoffman, U.S. Department of Justice Linda Roberts, U.S. Department of Education Panel: Considering the Extent of the Problem David Finkelhor, University of New Hampshire Michael Marshall, Microsoft (retired) John Rabun, National Center for Missing and Exploited Children Jeff Richards, Internet Alliance Primer on the First Amendment Geoffrey Stone, University of Chicago Panel: First Amendment Perspectives Bruce Taylor, National Law Center for Children and Families Robert Flores, National Law Center for Children and Families 391
392 YOUTH, PORNOGRAPHY, AND THE INTERNET Elliot Mincberg, People for the American Way Marvin Johnson, American Civil Liberties Union Paul McMasters, The Freedom Forum Tuesday, July 18 Panel: Technological Issues Milo Medin, Excite@Home Paul Resnick, University of Michigan Bhavani Thuraisingham, MITRE Panel: Library Perspectives Marilyn Mason, Independent Consultant Carol Roddy, Ohio Public Library Information Network Judith Krug, American Library Association Walter Minkel, Cahners Business Information Caroline Ward, Ferguson Library and outgoing president of Ameri- can Library Association Services for Children Panel: School Perspectives Lynne Schrum, University of Georgia Linda Braun, LEO: Librarians and Educators Online Carrie Gardner, Milton Hershey School Maribeth Luftglass, Fairfax County Schools Panel: Community Perspective Robin Raskin, Family PC Parry Aftab, Cyberangels Bruce Watson, Enough Is Enough PLENARY MEETING OF OCTOBER 18-20, 2000 Georgetown Holiday Inn Mirage Room II 2101 Wisconsin Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. Wednesday, October 18 Panel: Perspectives on Child Development Jeff McIntyre, American Psychological Association Mary Anne Layden, University of Pennsylvania
APPENDIX A Demonstrations: Sexually Explicit Material on the Internet (closed session) Panel: Understanding the Obscenity Statutes Governmental Perspectives 393 Terry Lord, Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section, U.S. Depart- ment of Justice Kenneth Neu, Federal Bureau of Investigation Daniel Armagh, National Center for Missing and Exploited Children Nongovernmental Perspectives Rob Showers, Gammon & Grange Beth Farber, Federal Public Defender Robert Peters, National Obscenity Law Center, Morality in Media Ton Katz, Marks & Katz, LLC Questions for the Panels · Given a policy to prosecute obscenity cases, what factors deter- mine whether or not to pursue a case? How does the exposure of a minor to obscene materials affect a decision to prosecute? · How are community standards for determining obscenity set? · Would a case of Internet obscenity be prosecuted differently from one associated with a neighborhood bookstore? Why or why not? · How has policy regarding enforcement of obscenity laws changed over the years at the local, state, and federal level? · What approaches would be most effective in dealing with online obscenity? (to include but not be limited to any or all of the following: technological tools such as filters, community practices, legislation or regulation) Thursday, October 19 Panel: Perspective of ISPs (general purpose,familyfriendly) Steve Ensley, American Family Online Mike Chilton, Dotsafe Ginny Wydler, America Online Questions for the Panel · How do you decide what is appropriate material for minors to access? How does this differ by age?
394 YOUTH, PORNOGRAPHY, AND THE INTERNET · Please comment on the exposure of minors to sexually explicit material online by source, i.e., explicitly sought, inadvertently accessed, or pushed actively by another party. · How do you limit exposure for minors to sexually explicit material online? What strategies or tools appear most successful? What strategies or tools have limited success? Why? · Is there a "range" for access for minors? How is it determined? · What approaches would be most effective in limiting the exposure of minors to sexually explicit material on the Internet? · Unsolicited or bulk e-mails are sent to minors' accounts but may contain links to sexually explicit sites. How might these mailings be eliminated or better targeted to adults? Panel: Perspectives of Education Associations fulie Underwood, National School Boards Association Arthur Sheekey, Council of Chief State School Officers Questions for the Panel · What are your primary concerns about the exposure of minors to sexually explicit material online? · How are your members responding to the issue? · How should the risk of exposure to inappropriate sexual content be balanced against the risk of denying access to helpful or educational material that might be inappropriately blocked? · What approaches to limit the exposure of minors to online sexually explicit material are appropriate for schools, communities, libraries, and families? Panel: Perspective of Teenagers Brittany and Yves, Teenangels, New lersey, with Parry Aftab, Cyber- angels Alex, Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology, A1- exandria, Virginia Questions for the Panel · Do you think that adults (parents, teachers) understand enough about the Internet to provide supervision? · How easy is it to circumvent actions intended to prevent someone from reaching sexually explicit material online? · What do you think are the best ways to protect minors from inap- propriate Internet content?
APPENDIX A 395 · Have you ever seen pornography online? How did it happen? For instance, was it sent to you? Did you accidentally access a message con- taining a link? Did you mistype a URL and get an adult site? · What have you done when you have gotten sexually explicit mate- rial online? Have you told anyone? Who? What happened? · Do you think you get a lot of bulk or unrequested e-mails contain- ing sexually explicit material? · Have you ever been made uncomfortable by someone in a chat room or by an Instant Messenger message? What happened? What did you do? · Do you know how to protect yourself when you go online? Where did you learn these rules? Discussion of COPA Commission Report (closed session Friday, October 20 Panel: Adult Entertainment Industry Representatives Danni Ashe, Danni's Hard Drive J.T. Edmond, Flying Crocodile Gloria Leonard, Free Speech Coalition Larry Lux, Playboy Online Gerard Van der Leun, Penthouse.com Questions for the Panel ) · What is your perception of the issue of minors' exposure to sexu- ally explicit material online? How are your members/clients responding to the issue? How broad is your membership base compared to the universe of providers of such material? · What are the most appropriate means for distinguishing between adults and minors in an online context? · How should/can the current regime of limiting the exposure of minors to sexually explicit print and TV and movies be extended to the Internet domain? · What are the most appropriate approaches to limit the exposure of minors to online sexually explicit material? What strategies or tools ap- pear most successful? What strategies or tools have limited success? Why? · Unsolicited or bulk e-mails are sent to minors' accounts but may contain links to sexually explicit sites. How might these mailings be eliminated or better targeted to adults? · What approaches would you like to see adopted or developed to limit the exposure of minors to online sexually explicit material?
396 YOUTH, PORNOGRAPHY, AND THE INTERNET · What technologies might better target likely audiences for adult entertainment? Overview of Bertelsmann Report, Protecting Our Children on the Internet lack Balkin, Yale University PUBLIC WORKSHOP OF DECEMBER 13, 2000 Georgetown University Conference Center Salon H Meeting Room 3800 Reservoir Road, N.W. Washington, D.C. Note: The proceedings of this workshop are summarized in an NRC report entitled Nontechnical Strategies to Reduce Children's Exposure to In- appropriate Material on the Internet: Summary of a Workshop (National Re- search Council and Institute of Medicine, Board on Children, Youth, and Families and Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, loah G. Iannotta, ea., National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2001~. Non-Technical Strategies That Can Be Used to Protect Children on the Internet: What Are the Roles of Policies, Parents, Schools, Libraries, and Communities? Linda Roberts, Director, Office of Educational Technology and Senior Adviser to the Secretary, U.S. Department of Education Anne Thompson, Program Commissioner, National PTA Questions for Discussion · How does one define non-technical strategies for protecting kids from inappropriate material on the Internet? · What non-technical approaches are used in the home, classroom, and community settings? · What is the role of parents in making non-technical strategies effec- tive, and what do parents need? 1 tJ · How effective have current policies been in encouraging schools and communities to develop non-technical strategies? An Extended Panel on Bringing Developmental Considerations to Bear on the Impact of Inappropriate Material on the Internet Part I: Effects of Exposure to Pornographic and Other Inappropriate Mate- rial on the Internet lane Brown, Professor, School of Journalism and Mass Communica- tions, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
APPENDIX A 397 Joanne Cantor, Professor, University of Wisconsin, Madison Ed Donnerstein, Dean and Professor, Department of Communication, University of California, Santa Barbara Moderator/Discussant: Sandra Calvert, Committee Member and Pro- fessor of Psychology, Georgetown University Issuesfor Discussion · What types of inappropriate material do young people encounter, and how do they come in contact with it? · What is the potential impact on children of viewing sexually ex- plicit and other forms of inappropriate material in the media? · Is impact dependent only on the type of material or also on the source (e.g., static image on the Internet, picture from a magazine, active images from television)? · What are the limits of this research, and to what extent can we make comparisons among the effects of viewing different types of inap- propriate material (e.g., sexually explicit vs. violent vs. hate speech)? Part II: Developmental Considerations for Determining Appropriate Inter- net Use Guidelines for Children and Adolescents Patricia Greenfield, Professor, Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles lames Youniss, Professor, Life Cycle Institute, Catholic University of America Dorothy Singer, Senior Research Scientist, Department of Psychol- ogy, Yale University, and Co-director, Yale University Family Television Research and Consultation Center Issuesfor Discussion · How are emotional, cognitive, social, and moral development af- fected by the media landscape created by children's access to and use of the Internet? · What types of material may be harmful according to children's growth and developmental needs, and how may harmful effects change with age and developmental milestone? · How do parents and educators balance giving young people the responsibility of exploring the Internet with protecting them from mate- rial that may be disturbing? · How should developmental issues shape non-technical strategies to protect kids from inappropriate material, and what non-technical strat- egies will most benefit children's development?
398 YOUTH, PORNOGRAPHY, AND THE INTERNET Push and Pull on the Internet: Children's Use and Experiences Don Roberts, Thomas More Storke Professor, Department of Com- munication, Stanford University Sarah Keller, Assistant Professor, Health Communication, Depart- ment of Communication, Emerson College Moderator/Discussant: lanes Schofield, Committee Member, Profes- sor of Psychology and Senior Scientist at the Learning Research and De- velopment Center, University of Pittsburgh Questions for Discussion · How are children using the Internet, in what settings are children logging on, and are there differential patterns of use according to age, gender, and ethnicity? · What are children's experiences while online,bo~positive and negative? · How are children pulled into material that they might not other- wise view, and what effect might this have? · How are young people driving their experiences on the Internet, and how can young people be encouraged to stay in charge of their online experiences? Innovative Approaches and Existing Efforts to 11.~e Nnn-Technoln~ical .C,trate- gies to Protect Children on the Internet o Laurie Lipper, Director, The Children's Partnership Kathy Boguszewski, Instructional Technolo~v Consultant. Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction - an) Mary Dempsey, Commissioner, Chicago Public Library Nancy Willard, Director, Responsible Netizen Research, Center for Advanced Technology in Education, University of Oregon Eileen Faucette, Founder and Coordinator, PTA Live Online Moderator/Discussant: Winnie Wechsler, Committee Member Questions for Discussion · What are some of the non-technological strategies that might be used by educators, librarians, parents, and local communities to ensure children's safe and appropriate use of the Internet? · What types of inappropriate material do these strategies address, and how do they protect against the potential harm this material might cause? · Who has been responsible for implementing and monitoring these approaches? · How can these approaches be tailored to different venues (e.g., home, school, library)?
APPENDIX A 399 Bridging Research, Policy, and Practice Ellen Wartella, Dean and Professor, College of Communication, Uni- versity of Texas, Austin Laura Gurak, Associate Professor, Rhetoric; Faculty Fellow, Law; and Director, Internet Studies Center, University of Minnesota Betty Chemers, Deputy Administrator, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Questions for Discussion · What research is needed to develop new non-technical strategies for protecting children from inappropriate material on the Internet? · Are regulations needed to protect children on the Internet, and what policies might encourage children to use the Internet in safe and appropriate ways? · How should nonprofit organizations, educational institutions, gov- ernment agencies, and parents be working together to create a safe envi- ronment for kids to use the Internet? · How should we be thinking about linking research, policy, and practice? PLENARY MEETING OF MARCH 7-9, 2001 Excite@Home 450 Broadway Redwood City, California Wednesday, March 7 Basic Concepts in Information Retrieval Nick Belkin David D. Lewis Hinrich Schutze, Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University David Forsyth, University of California, Berkeley Ray Larson, University of California, Berkeley, School of Information Management and Systems Issues for Discussion · Stability of content categorization · Automatic text categorization · Machine-aided text understanding
400 Filters YOUTH, PORNOGRAPHY, AND THE INTERNET · Vision and image recognition · Search engine technology Susan Getgood, Surf Control Inc. lames Wang, Pennsylvania State University Bennett Hazelton, Peacefire Questions for Discussion · What techniques can be used to identify sexually explicit material? · How do filter vendors select the content they screen? · What flexibility do their products offer? · What is involved in circumventing the filtering provisions? · How is the performance of a product measured? (rates of false positives, false negatives) Authentication and Age Verification Eddie Zeitler, Lambert and Associates Fred Cotton, Search.org Deirdre Mulligan, University of California, Berkeley Business Models Models for Kid-Friendly and Kid-Safe Internet Businesses Brian Pass, MediaOne Irv Shapiro, Edventions Inc. Questions for Discussion · What are the primary challenges of building a business based on the idea of attracting kids to safe and appropriate Internet content? · What is the business case for firms operating in this space? · What role do responsible adults (parents, teachers, librarians, and so on) play? · How do you deal with the issue of inappropriate material? Business Models Based on Advertising and Ad Tracking Chris Kelly, Excite@Home
APPENDIX A Questions for Discussion 401 · How do business models based on the sale of Web advertising work? · What techniques are used to filter out those with a low probability of buying from those with higher probabilities of buying? · What drives the cost structure of such businesses? Thursday, March 8 Rights Management Technology David Maher, Intertrust Inc. John Blumenthal, Stake Inc. Issuesfor Discussion · The technology of digital rights management systems · Infrastructure needed to support rights management systems · Application of rights management systems to restricting distribu- tion of material Usenet Newsgroups and the World Wide Web Dan Geer Developmental Progression and Sexuality John Gagnon, SUNY Stony Brook Pepper Schwartz, University of Washington Elizabeth Casparian, Independent Consultant Questions for Discussion · How does developmental progression affect the appropriateness of exposing a minor to sexually explicit material? · What types of material may be harmful according to children's growth and developmental needs, and how mav harmful effects change with age and developmental milestone? _ _ ) ~ · How should developmental issues shape efforts to protect kids from inappropriate sexually explicit material? Approaches to Regulating Sexually Explicit Material on the Internet Larry Lessig
402 .xxx domains (by videoconference) Donald Eastlake, Motorola YOUTH, PORNOGRAPHY, AND THE INTERNET Public Testimony from Birds of a Feather Session with the 2001 Conference on Compters, Freedom, and Privacy, by Videoconference SITE VISIT TO AUSTIN, TEXAS, APRIL 3-4, 2001 Attendees from the National Research Council Linda Hodge Marilyn Mason Herb Lin (staff) Daniel Llata (staff) Tuesday, April 3 Pflugerville: John Connally High School Session with teachers, administrators, school librarians, and technolo- gists Session with students Cepeda Branch Library Session with librarians and technical managers Session with youth group leaders, teachers, and program directors Open Session at the Courtyard Marriott Hotel North Parents and PTA members School board members Other adults Wednesday, April 4 Visit to Settlement Home Panel session with students Panel session with teachers and school administrators SITE VISIT TO GREENVILLE, SOUTH CAROLINA, APRIL 17-18, 2001 Attendees from the National Research Council Father William T. Byron Linda Hodge Bob Schloss Herb Lin (staff) Daniel Llata (staff)
APPENDIX A Tuesday, April 17 Mauldin Middle School William Harner, District Superintendent Session with students Session with teachers and school administrators 403 W. Jack Greer Library of Mauldin Beverly lames, Executive Director of Greenville County Library System Session with librarians and technical managers Phillis Wheatley Association Session with youth group leaders Session with students Open Session at W. Jack Greer Library of Mauldin Boards of Trustees, Greenville County Library System Representatives of School District of Greenville County PTSA representatives Wednesday, April 18 Greenville Senior High Academy of Academic Excellence Ginger Stuart, Interim Principal Session with students Session with teachers and school administrators SITE VISIT TO SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH, APRIL 26-27, 2001 Attendees from the National Research Council David Forsyth Geoffrey Stone Gail Pritchard (staff) Joah Iannotta (staff) Thursday, April 26 Utah Education Network (LIEN) Sessions with UEN administrators and technologists Meeting with Paula Houston, Complaints Ombudsman, Obscenity and Por- nography, Office of the Utah Attorney General
404 YOUTH, PORNOGRAPHY, AND THE INTERNET Salt Lake City Library Session with librarians and technical managers Session with Library Teen Advisory Panel Open Session at Salt Lake City Library Friday, April 27 Tooele High School Sessions with students Session with teachers and school administrators SITE VISIT TO SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA, MAY 2-3, 2001 Attendees from the National Research Council Linda Hodge lanes Schofield Winnie Wechsler Herb Lin (staff) Gail Pritchard (staff) Wednesday, May 2 Pancho Bernardo High School Session with students from the high school Session with students from Bernardo Heights Middle School Session with high school teachers, school administrators, and school librarians Casa Familia Community Program Session with Casa Familia staff Session with Casa Familia students Session with Casa Familia youth group leaders, instructors, and tech- nical managers El Cajon Library Session with librarians and technical managers Open Session in El Cajon Library Community Room Thursday, May 3 Lincoln High School Session with high school students
APPENDIX A SITE VISIT TO BLACKSBURG, VIRGINIA, MAY 8-9, 2001 Attendees from the National Research Council Dick Thornburgh Sandra Calvert Linda Hodge Robin Raskin Herb Lin (staff) Gail Pritchard (staff) Tuesday, May 8 Blacksburg Middle School Session with students Session with teachers and school administrators 405 Christiansburg High School Session with librarians and technical managers Session with instructional supervisors and teachers of technology courses Blacksburg Electronic Village Discussion with director Wednesday, May 9 Blacksburg High School Session with teachers and school administrators Session with students SITE VISIT TO CORAL GABLES, FLORIDA, MAY 311UNE 1, 2001 Attendees from the National Research Council Nick Belkin Herb Lin (staff) D.C. Drake (staff) Thursday, May 31 Coral Gables High School Session with students (mostly juniors and sophomores) Session with teachers and school administrators
406 YOUTH, PORNOGRAPHY, AND THE INTERNET Boys and Girls Club, Kendall Branch Session with students Session with administrators and instructors Open Session at Coral Reef Senior High School PTA representatives Other parents SITE VISIT TO REDDING, SHELTON, BRISTOL, KENT, AND HAMDEN, CONNECTICUT, JUNE 1-2, 2001 Attendees from the National Research Council Dan Geer Linda Hodge Friday, June 1 Joel Barlow High School in Redding, Connecticut Panel session with parents and community members Shelton Intermediate School in Shelton, Connecticut Session with teachers, school administrators, librarians, technical man- agers, and resource officers Session with middle school students Bristol Board of Education Offices in Bristol, Connecticut Session with principals, teachers, public librarians, students, and tech- nical managers Open Session at Kent Center School in Kent, Connecticut Session with local education policy makers and parents Saturday, June 2 Connecticut State PTA Office Session with parents