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The Polygraph and Lie Detection (2003)

Chapter: Index

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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10420.
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Index

A

Accuracy measurement, 61

association measures, 62-63 n.7

Chi-square coefficient, 63 n.7

Cohen’s kappa, 63 n.7

comparison group, 35

consistent approach to, 37-51

countermeasures and, 31, 36, 66, 78

and decision threshold, 40, 42-49, 61, 62 n.7, 63 n.8, 95, 104-105 n.16, 130, 148, 354-357

diagnostic models, 37-38, 40, 41, 43, 47, 48, 49, 61, 62 n.7, 63 n.11, 66, 84, 95, 127, 149

equivariance binormal model, 342-344

false negative probability, 39

false positive index, 35, 36, 38, 39, 61, 62 n.6, 67, 68, 69, 122-123, 180-181, 182, 334, 354-357

false positive probability, 39, 89

funding source for research and, 119-120

limitations of data, 66, 68-69, 109, 115

log-odds ratio, 62-63 n.7

negative predictive value, 39

overestimation, 214

Pearson’s r, 152 n.1

percentage correct index, 31, 43, 46, 49-50, 63 n.8, 129-130, 148

phi coefficient, 63 n.7

positive predictive value, 38, 39, 58-60, 184

purpose of polygraph test and, 22-23, 24, 31, 33-37, 40, 46-47, 48, 60, 101

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve estimation, 342-344, 368

sensitivity and specificity, 38, 39, 43, 45, 48, 78, 85, 91, 94, 122-123, 211 nn.4&5, 318-319, 367-368, 369

theoretical basis, 38, 40, 42, 46, 61, 62-63 n.7, 102, 109, 127-128, 213, 343-344

trapezoidal estimate, 344, 350

used in this study, 43-44, 50-51, 342-344

and validity, 30-33, 66

Yule’s Q, 62-63 n.7

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10420.
×

Accuracy of polygraph testing.

See also Criterion validity

beliefs about, 7, 20, 22, 54, 55, 59, 79-80, 90-91, 189, 190, 198, 219- 220, 221

computer voice stress analyzer compared, 168

computerized scoring systems, 298, 299-300, 318-320, 330

countermeasures and, 101, 139-148, 151

defined, 31

diagnostic testing analogy, 7, 128-130, 149

drug effects, 86, 138-139, 142, 150

evidence of, 213-215

in field studies, 148, 350-353

format of test and, 89, 124-125, 127-128, 134-135, 136, 138, 139, 254, 346

funding source and, 347-351

historical claims, 107, 294-296

in laboratory studies, 121-125, 148, 150, 204, 344-349, 350, 351

motivational effect, 127-128, 144, 147, 150, 152 nn.1&2

overall, 2-3, 4, 24, 148-149, 212-213

parallel combined tests, 367-368

personality differences of individuals and, 135-136, 150

physiological differences of individuals and, 94, 101, 134- 135, 150

in reality vs. laboratory experiments, 102, 126-130, 132-133, 143-144, 182, 204

reports to Congress, 114

for security screening, 31, 34-35, 36-37, 48, 60, 66, 95, 101, 130-134, 148, 153 n.7

of serial combination tests, 369

sociocultural group identity of examinees and, 101, 136-137, 150

specific incident, 101, 121-130, 148

Test of Espionage and Sabotage (TES), 34-35, 131-132

with thermal imaging, 157

trends, 125, 345-347

variability across studies, 124, 150

Acquaintance test. See Stimulation test

Air Force Office of Special Investigations, 263

Airport security screening analogy, 33

Al Qaeda terrorist network, 193, 211 n.6

Alcohol intoxication, 139

Alternative techniques and technologies

autonomic indicators, 80, 154, 155-157, 174

brain function measurement, 80, 104 n.9, 154-155, 157-162, 174-175

classes of techniques, 154-155

demeanor, 52, 155, 163-170, 175-176, 201

direct investigation, 155, 170-173, 176, 201

need for evaluation, 7-8, 176, 217

research approach, 99, 227-228

theoretical limitations, 80, 99, 170, 175, 217

American Association of Police Polygraphists, 278

American Polygraph Association, 278

Anthrax terrorism, 193

Anxiety, 135, 142, 158

Arousal theory, 74, 76, 77, 82, 103 n.7, 127, 156, 287.

See also Psychophysiological responses

Autonomic indicators, 80, 154, 155-157, 174

Assessment of validity. See Accuracy measurement;

Construct validity;

Criterion validity;

Qualitative assessment of polygraph testing;

Quantitative assessment of polygraph testing

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10420.
×

B

Background checks, 20, 25, 170-172, 264, 281

Base rate of deception

and accuracy measurement, 46, 48, 50, 148, 354-357

and decision threshold, 46, 48, 50, 148, 183, 184, 354-357

diagnostic model, 48, 50, 149

false positive index and, 180-182, 354-357

masking of examiners to, 328, 334, 341

and other uses of polygraphs, 192

in screening situations, 50, 109, 130, 153 n.4, 181-182, 183-184

in specific-incident studies, 130, 181, 184

Behavioral confirmation research, 90

Benzodiazepines, 142

Bite-mark identification, 201, 203, 206-207

Blood pressure, 81, 88, 287, 291, 292, 293, 295.

See also Cardiovascular activity

“Bogus pipeline” research, 55, 56, 59-60, 110

Brain function measurement, 80, 104 n.9, 154-155, 157-162, 174-175

C

Cardiovascular activity, 286-287, 303, 305-306, 309

blood pressure measurement, 81, 88, 287, 291, 292, 293, 295

cardiac vagal activation, 155

countermeasures, 156

heart rate, 308

individual differences in direction and extent of, 82

myocardial contractility, 155-156

respiratory sinus arrhythmia, 156, 308

social and psychological influences, 82, 88-89, 156

traditional measures in polygraph testing, 81, 155

Central Intelligence Agency, 118, 188, 263, 264

Cerograph, 314

Classification error, 311

Cognitive neuroscience, 157-160, 162

Commission on Science and Security, 189.

See also Hamre Commission recommendations

Comparison question technique.

See also Test of Espionage and Sabotage

accuracy, 124-125, 127, 128, 135, 346, 351

computer voice stress analyzer compared, 168

countermeasures, 140, 141, 143

dataset for quantitative assessment, 341

directed-lie, 71, 79, 256, 328

inferences from, 104 n.9

legal issues, 205

meta-analyses of laboratory studies, 152 n.1

orienting theory and, 75, 76-77

in pretest interview, 16, 62 n.2, 77, 261

probable-lie, 14, 71, 255, 256, 328

psychophysiological responses, 14-15, 67, 70-71, 72, 74, 76-77, 83, 93

Reid (modified general questions) test, 255, 304, 311, 316, 318

scoring systems, 255-257, 318

situational effects and, 28 n.5, 87, 91

standardization, 91, 256, 311

stimulation (acquaintance) test, 27 n.4, 91, 255, 257, 258

test-retest reliability, 62 n.2, 87

theoretical bases, 69, 70, 72-77, 80-81, 93, 127

thermal imaging and, 156-157

threat-of-punishment theory and, 74, 127

uses, 15, 17, 71, 205, 255, 256

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10420.
×

validity relative to other tests, 27 n.3, 28 n.5, 67, 69, 79, 89, 253

zone comparison test, 255-256, 304, 311, 316, 318

Computer voice stress analyzer, 167-168

Computerized linguistic analysis, 165

Computerized scoring systems, 64 n.12, 256

accuracy, 209, 217, 298, 299-300, 318-320, 330

algorithm development, 302-318

artifact detection and removal, 306, 319

AXCON, 316-317

Bayesian approach, 315, 319, 366

Chart Analysis, 316-317

comparative evaluation of algorithms, 299, 316-318, 320

Computerized Polygraph System, 298, 299, 302-307, 309-312, 313-314, 316-320

cost-benefit tradeoffs, 195-197

data-mining technique, 299, 301, 312

data used, 300, 302, 303-305, 319, 372

disclosure for assessment, 20

discriminant analysis, 97, 299, 300, 301, 302-303, 309, 310, 313, 314-315, 319, 367

evaluation of demeanor effects with, 52

feature evaluation and selection, 311-314

feature extraction, 307-310, 316, 319

Identifi, 316-317

logistic regression, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 309, 312, 313-314, 315, 319, 367

neural network models, 303, 309, 313, 367, 370

PolyScore algorithms, 196, 298, 299, 302-311, 312-320

quantitative assessment of studies, 341

relevance for TES, 303, 318-319, 320

signal processing, 305-307

signal transformation, 306-307, 312, 319

standardization, 307, 310-311

statistical analysis, 217, 311

statistical models for classification and prediction, 298-299, 300-302, 313-316

of thermal imaging, 157

validation strategies, 196, 201, 209, 312-313, 316-317

Concealed information technique, 257

accuracy, 124-125, 127-128, 134-135, 136, 138, 139, 346

brain function analysis, 159-160, 161-162, 175

computer voice stress analyzer compared, 168

countermeasures, 143

expectation bias and, 90

inferences from, 104 n.9

legal issues, 103 n.1, 204-205

meta-analyses of laboratory studies, 152 n.1

peak-of-tension test, 168, 258, 341

principle, 15, 71

quantitative assessment of studies, 136, 341

social interaction effects, 104 n.15, 105 n.17

theoretical basis, 69, 70, 75-76, 93, 103 n.5, 127-128

uses, 15, 24, 204-205

validity relative to other tests, 27 n.3, 28 n.5, 69, 79

Conditional probabilities, 104 n.11

Conditioned response theory, 73, 75

Conflict theory, 72-73, 77

Construct validity, 32-33, 52, 66-67, 96, 103 n.3, 117

Control questions, 14-15, 27 n.3, 253, 254-257, 261, 266

Cost-benefit tradeoffs in interpretation computerized scoring, 195-197

decision making on policies, 61, 95, 190-191, 208-209, 358-363

with friendly thresholds, 42, 44, 45-46, 186-187, 188, 208

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10420.
×

laboratory studies, 109

quantifying, 61, 180-183, 208-209, 358-363

with suspicious thresholds, 44, 45-46, 183-186, 208

Counterintelligence, defined, 265

Counterintelligence Scope Polygraph testing, 263

Countermeasures

access to research on, 118

and accuracy measurements, 31, 36, 66, 78

and adverse personnel actions, 140, 146

biofeedback and conditioning paradigms, 141

brain functional analyses and, 162, 174, 175

defined, 28 n.6

detection of, 22, 144, 145, 147

drug and alcohol effects, 139, 142

effectiveness of, 4-5, 101, 139-148, 151, 216

format of test and, 140, 141, 143

generalizability of studies, 143-144

incentives for use, 145-146, 192, 193

innocent examinees’ use of, 140, 145, 151

levels of use, 139, 146

limitations of research, 4-5, 69, 143-144

mental strategies, 139, 140-141, 143, 147

physical strategies, 139, 140, 143, 144, 289

physiological indicators of, 144

posthypnotic suggestions as, 143

qualitative assessment of research, 332

quantitative assessment of research, 139-148, 151

rationale, 140-142

research questions, 66, 68, 145-147, 231

in security screening, 147, 148, 151

and sensitivity of polygraph, 22, 36, 86, 87

training, 143, 144, 146, 147, 151

Criminal investigations, 14, 254.

See also Specific-incident examinations

Criterion validity

confounding factors, 66

defined, 31

empirical evidence of, 324.

See also Systematic review of validation studies

measurement. See Accuracy measurement;

Accuracy of polygraph testing

as value added, 58-60

D

Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 67, 98, 103 n.1, 202, 206, 207, 210, 211 n.9, 294

Deception detection.

See also Alternative techniques and technologies;

Demeanor

decision criteria for judging, 1-2, 157

early case studies, 295-296

evaluation of methods for, 221-222

examinee’s expectation of, 20, 22, 54, 55, 59, 79-80, 90-91

overall assessment, 170

psychophysiological, 52

research recommendations, 225-226, 228-229

sensitivity and specificity of indicators, 38, 39

specific issue, 150

training observers, 166

Decision analysis of polygraph security screening, 358-363

Decision theory, 46

Decision thresholds.

See also Costbenefit tradeoffs in interpretation

accuracy measurement and, 40, 42-49, 61, 62 n.7, 63 n.9, 95, 104-105 n.16, 129-130, 148, 354-357

base rate of deception and, 46, 48, 50, 148, 183, 184, 354-357

empirical variation in, 47-49

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10420.
×

federal agency differences in, 186-187

“friendly,” 42, 44, 45-46, 186-187, 188, 219

receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and, 43-45, 46, 49, 62-63 nn.7&9

selection of, 42, 46-47

“suspicious,” 44, 45-46, 183-186, 218-219

Defense Intelligence Agency, 263

Demeanor

automated measurements of, 164

and autonomic responses, 82

combined with polygraph, 201

defined, 163

ethical and legal issues, 176

of examinee, 11, 16, 52, 64 n.12, 82, 155, 175-176

of examiner, 256

facial and body movement, 164, 174

graphology, 168-169, 170

linguistic analysis, 165-166

theoretical limitations, 175

thermal imaging techniques, 156-157, 163, 174

voice stress analysis, 166-168, 170, 175

Demographically distinct subgroups, 331-332

Detective Comics, Inc. (DC Comics), 295

Diagnostic models. See Medical diagnostic models

Diazepam (Valium), 138, 142

Dichotomization theory, 75, 77

Direct investigation, 155, 170-173, 176, 201

Directed-lie tests, 255, 256

DISC theory, 294

DNA profiling, 85, 104 n.12, 203-204, 207

Drug Enforcement Administration, 263

Drug screening, 53-54, 171, 264

Drugs affecting detection of deception, 86, 138-139, 142, 150

E

Electrodermal activity, 288, 303-304, 328

accuracy, 162

countermeasures, 143

differential responses to stimuli, 153 n.5

drug effects on, 138-139

factor analysis of indices of, 100

functional brain imaging combined with, 158-159

lability, 134-135

research approaches, 110, 116-117

skin conductance responses, 82-83, 110, 134-135, 158-159, 288, 302-304, 305, 308, 309, 313, 314, 317, 328

skin resistance measurements, 83, 110, 288, 317, 328

traditional measures in polygraph testing, 81, 155

Electroencephalograms (EEGs), 160-162

Empirical error

contextual factors, 87-88

endogenous factors, 86-87

expectancies, 42, 89-91

in inferences from tests, 85-91

stigmas as, 88-89, 101

Employee screening polygraph.

See also U.S. Department of Energy security screening examination

accuracy, 31, 34-35, 48, 60

criteria for judging answers, 1-2

error sources, 88, 90

random vs. fixed-interval, 53-54

reexamination/rescreening, 112

techniques, 23, 25, 71

Equivariance binormal model, 180, 342-344

Error. See Empirical error

Event-related potentials, 155, 160-162, 175

Event-specific investigations. See Specific-incident examinations

Examinees. See Polygraph examinees

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10420.
×

Examiners. See Polygraph examiners

Executive Order 12958, 268

Expectancy effects, 20, 22-23, 42, 79, 83, 89-91, 104-105 n.16, 115, 129, 130, 150, 158, 204

Expert scientific testimony, admissibility standards, 12, 67, 98, 103 n.1, 201-203, 206, 207, 293-294, 296

F

Facial and body movement, 164

Factor analytic methods, 96

Fallacy of the transposed conditional, 85

False confessions, 28 n.9, 56

False negatives

accuracy and, 36, 38, 67, 180-181, 182

base rate of deception and, 180-181

computerized scoring and, 311, 316, 317

corrective measures, 33

costs of, 189, 190, 192, 193, 219, 220-221

decision threshold and, 46, 60, 61, 109, 180-181, 219

examiner expectancy and, 90

parallel combined testing and, 367-368

populations likely to show results as, 31, 76

pretest interview and, 35

probability, 39, 60

serial combination tests and, 369

False positives

accuracy and, 35, 36, 61, 62 n.6, 67, 68, 69, 122-123, 180-181, 182, 185, 211 n.2, 334, 354-357

base rate of deception and, 180-182, 185, 211 n.2, 354-357

computerized scoring and, 311, 316, 317

corrective measures, 33

costs of, 6, 54, 60, 179, 185-186, 188, 189, 190-191, 192, 193, 218-219, 220

decision threshold and, 46, 60, 61, 109, 180, 183-184, 185, 218-219

examiner expectancy and, 90

and false confessions, 56

index, 38, 39, 61, 62 n.6, 122-123, 180-185, 211 n.2, 334, 354-357

parallel combined testing and, 368

physiological conditions that produce, 87, 93

populations likely to show results as, 31, 87

pretest interview and, 35

probability, 39, 60, 89

ROC curve and, 46, 180, 316, 360

serial combination tests and, 369

Federal Bureau of Investigation base rate of deceptive individuals, 184, 187

basis for adverse personnel decisions, 36-37

“failures” of polygraph tests, 62 n.5

polygraph screening test, 219, 263-264, 274, 281-282, 284, 293

Webster Commission recommendations, 188-189, 190, 220

Federal Rules of Evidence, 67

Field research

accuracy of, 125-126, 148, 350-353

biases in, 304-305

defined, 328

desirable elements, 108-109

experimental, 108, 109-111, 116-117, 120, 316, 328-329

meta-analysis, 333-334

observational, 108-109, 112-116

planned approaches, 116-117

qualitative assessment, 108, 109-120, 304-305, 316, 328-329, 341-342

quantitative assessment, 125-126, 350-353

Fingerprinting, 201, 202, 203

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, 362

Forensic science

mainstream science and, 206-208

polygraph testing as, 203-204, 210

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10420.
×

Frye v. United States, 98, 201, 202, 206, 293-294

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 155, 158-160, 174-175

Funding/sponsorship issues, 110, 119-120, 329, 340-341, 347-351

G

Game theory, 359

Gender of examinees, and accuracy, 136-137

Generalizability

base rate of deception and, 153 n.4

between examiners, 132

of laboratory studies, 109, 143, 204

of specific-incident testing to security screening, 109

theory, 96

H

Habituation, 76

Hamre Commission recommendations, 8, 189-190, 220

Handwriting identification, 201, 202

Hanssen, Robert, 187, 189

I

Inferences from polygraph tests

countermeasures detection, 22

empirical error sources, 85-91, 92

fallacy of the transposed conditional, 85

legal issues, 204-206

logical issues, 84-85

noncooperation and, 22

in preclearance screening, 23-24, 37

scoring method and, 64 n.12

subtractive method, 84, 104 n.9, 108, 110

Integrity testing, 172-173, 177 n.2

Intelligence, defined, 266

Internal consistency, 30

Interpretation of responses.

See also Cost-benefit tradeoffs in interpretation;

Polygraph charts;

Scoring polygraph tests

deception indicated opinion, 84, 266, 276

endogenous error sources, 86-87

no deception indicated opinion, 266-267, 282

no opinion, 49-50, 262, 267, 276

no significant response opinion, 38, 77, 262, 283

significant response opinion, 35, 38, 77, 84, 256-257, 262

theoretical issues, 80, 81, 94

unresolved issues opinion, 268

Wen Ho Lee investigation, 30

Interviews and interrogations, 11, 173

Irrelevant questions, 78, 254, 256

Item response theory, 96

J

Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 97, 196, 298, 303, 307, 309, 312-313, 318

L

Laboratory research, 311, 328, 333, 340-342

accuracy of, 121-125, 148, 150, 344-349, 350, 351

cost-benefit tradeoffs in interpretation, 109

extrapolation to field use, 126-130, 132-133, 143-144

generalizability, 109, 143

qualitative assessment, 108, 109, 120, 328

quantitative assessment, 60, 121-125, 148, 305, 344-349, 350, 351

of specific-incident testing, 121-125, 148

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10420.
×

Lafayette Computerized Polygraph System, 261, 298, 303

Lee, Wen Ho, 30, 280-285

Legal issues

admissibility of polygraph evidence, 12, 67, 201-208, 211 n.9, 293-294

clinical prediction of violence, 207-208

forensic science, 203-204, 206-208, 210

prosecutor’s fallacy, 85, 104 n.13

Lie detection.

See also Deception detection

mystique, 18-21, 294-296

revealing truth distinguished from, 21-23

ritualized techniques across cultures, 18-20

scientific approach, 65-69

Local commuting area, 266

Los Alamos National Laboratory, 280

M

Machiavellianism, 135

Magnetic resonance imaging, 157-158.

See also Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

Marston, William Moulton, 99, 291, 292-296

Medical diagnostic models

accuracy measurement, 37-38, 40, 41, 43, 47, 48, 49, 61, 62 n.7, 63 n.11, 66, 84, 95, 127, 149

base rate of deception and, 48, 50, 149

combining information sources in, 197, 364-372

dimensionality problem, 366, 371

expert systems, 369-372

independent parallel testing, 199, 367-368

independent serial testing, 199-200, 368-369

quantitative assessment, 128-130, 149

scoring, 40, 196

statistical classification systems, 199, 365-369

Meprobamate, 138, 142

Meta-analyses

deception detection from demeanor, 163-164, 166

of direct investigation techniques, 171, 172-173

file-drawer effect, 118-119

of laboratory studies of polygraph accuracy, 152 n.1

rationale for excluding, 107-108, 333-334

Methylphenidate (Ritalin), 138-139, 142

Modified general question test, 255, 304, 311, 316, 318

Motivational effect on accuracy, 127-128, 144, 147, 150, 152 nn.1&2, 159-160, 170

N

National Agency Check, 265

National Defense Authorization Act, 279 n. 2

National Institute for Truth Verification, 167, 168

National Institutes of Health, 2, 108, 111

National Reconnaissance Office, 263, 264

National Research Council, 291, 292, 293, 296

National Security Agency, 14, 254, 263, 264

Naval Criminal Investigative Agency, 263, 264

Negative predictive value, 39

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10420.
×

O

Oak Ridge nuclear facility, 296

Office of Personnel Management, 281

Office of Technology Assessment, 12, 100, 209

Orienting theory, 72, 75-79, 93, 103 n.4, 127-128

P

P300 amplitude, 161-162

Pavlovian conditioning, 75, 287

Percentage correct index, 31, 43, 46, 49-50, 63 n.8, 129-130, 148

Personality differences of individuals, 135-136, 150

Personnel Assurance Program, 267, 268

Personnel Security Assurance Programs, 267, 268

Personnel security clearance, 267

Physiological differences of individuals, 94, 134-135, 150

Pneumographs, 81

Polygraph (instrument)

Axciton, 298, 303-304, 305, 316-318

defined, 27 n.2, 267

Lafayette, 261, 298, 303

prototype, 291, 292, 296

reliability and validity, 33

secrecy about design, 20, 105 n.18, 305

sensors, 13, 81, 261, 267, 288, 289, 303-304

Stoelting, 303, 305, 318

Polygraph charts.

See also Interpretation of responses;

Scoring polygraph charts

inferences about truthfulness or deception, 22

validity assessment from, 22, 28 n.7, 34

Polygraph examinations, 70-71

admissibility in court, 12, 67, 201-203, 293-294

combining other information sources with, 7-8, 25, 197, 199-201, 209-210, 220, 364-372

components, 16-17

defined, 27 n.2, 267

design of questions, 253, 257

and false confessions, 28 n.9

as forensic science, 203-204, 210

“friendly” vs. “unfriendly,” 17, 22

future potential, 213

logs, 116

mystique, 18, 20-21, 107, 294-296

opposition to, 12, 58, 291, 292-293

origins and history, 291-296

posttest interview, 55

pretest interviews, 16, 34, 54, 55, 62 n.2, 71, 130, 253, 256, 257, 260, 261, 282

procedures and standards, 19, 30, 93, 194-195, 277-278

and public confidence in national security, 57

purposes of, 21-24.

See also Uses of polygraph examinations

questioning/interrogations. See Polygraph tests

report, 267

right to decline, 260

scientific issues, 2-3, 21-24, 65-69, 99-102, 212-213

sequential approach, 95, 304-305

Polygraph examinees.

See also Countermeasures

beliefs about polygraph accuracy, 20, 22, 54, 55, 59, 79-80, 90-91

consent requirements, 88, 275

fear of being falsely accused, 38, 73, 74, 100, 127

guilty complex, 86

legal representation, 275

moral values of, 255

noncooperation, 22

orienting response, 72, 127-128

physiological/medical conditions affecting responses, 86-87

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10420.
×

privacy and employee rights, 274-277

sociocultural group identity, 136-137, 150

stigmatized individuals, 88-89, 101, 104 n.15, 109, 136-137

variability within and between, 30, 70, 79-80, 82, 93, 287, 288, 311

Polygraph examiners

administering, 262

expectation bias, 22-23, 42, 79, 83, 89-90, 104-105 n.16, 130, 138, 204

interaction with examinees, 22-23, 72, 81, 83, 87-89, 101, 130, 136, 197, 256

inter-rater reliability, 30, 33, 96, 298, 304, 341

latitude in question construction, 30, 68, 71, 78-79, 83, 149

naïve, 121-122, 149

peer, 262

quality control reviewer, 262, 283

skills, 20, 37, 52, 81, 143, 197, 256, 317, 320

subculture, 19, 99, 120, 137

supervisory, 261, 262, 283

training and certification, 16, 19, 33, 119, 133-134, 137, 144, 149, 260, 263, 277-278

variation in decision thresholds, 47-48

Polygraph research.

See also Field research;

Laboratory research;

Quantitative assessment of polygraph testing

and adoption of new technologies and practices, 97-98

biases in, 304-305.

See also Expectancy effects;

Selection bias

“bogus pipeline” technique, 55, 56, 59-60, 110

case-control studies, 113, 114, 115

case series, 113

case studies, 113

classified, 118, 148, 230, 231

clinical trials analogy, 111

comparative analyses, 329

contextual issues, 24, 92

cross-sectional surveys, 113

data collection process, 113-114

desirable qualities, 110-111, 112-113, 223-224

on deterrence, 53-54

experimental studies, 109-111

field studies, 108, 109-115, 305, 328, 333, 340-342

funding/sponsorship issues, 110, 119-120, 329, 340-341, 347-350

history, 99-100, 291-296

limitations of, 106, 108

mystique of lie detection and, 19, 20, 21, 111

observational studies, 112-115

obstacles to, 110-111

“open science” strategy, 99, 148, 296

organizational emphasis, 229-231

progress in, 213

prospective cohort studies, 112, 114

quality of, 2, 99-100.

See also Qualitative assessment of polygraph testing

recommendations, 226-231

relationship to other scientific fields, 95-96

retrospective cohort studies, 112-113

on scoring polygraph charts, 97-98, 298-321

social context and structure of, 98-99

state of, 79-82, 91-100, 102

systematic review of. See Systematic review of validation studies

theoretical development. 2-3, 79-82, 92-95, 99, 102, 108, 109, 213

variables of interest, 109-110

Polygraph tests

“bogus pipeline” technique, 55, 56

card test, 27 n.4, 74, 257

context of, 25, 70-71

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10420.
×

control question. See Comparison question technique

defined, 16, 27 n.2

guilty knowledge technique. See Concealed information technique

inferences from, 83-91

known-solution, 258

monitoring of, 261, 262

numbers test, 27 n.4, 257

physiological responses, 13-14, 71-83

principles, 1, 11, 12-13

purposes of, 21-23

records, 20, 267, 276-277

relevant questions. See Relevant/irrelevant question technique

sequence of questions, 254, 261-262

stimulation test, 27 n.4, 91, 255, 257, 258

techniques, 14-15, 16-17.

See also Comparison question technique;

Concealed information technique

theoretical basis. See Theories of polygraph examination

validity assessment. See Validity of polygraph examinations

value of, 11

Positive predictive value, 38, 39, 58-60

Positron emission tomography (PET), 155, 157-158

Predictive validity, 31, 58-60

Preemployment/preclearance screening, 11-12

accuracy measurement, 36-37, 60

background checks, 171

difficulties with, 2, 150, 216

federal policies, 62 n.4

graphology, 169

inferences from detection of deception, 23-24, 28 n.8, 216

interviews, 173, 177 n.3

pilot studies, 132

purposes, 23, 62 n.3

techniques, 23, 25, 71

Probable-lie tests, 255, 256

Propanolol, 138

Psychological set theory, 74-75, 77

Psychological testing and measurement, 95-96, 103 n.8

Psychometric methods and theory, 96

Psychopathic personalities, 136

Psychophysiological responses

alternative technologies, 80

computer voice stress analyzer compared, 168

conditioned response theory, 73, 287

conflict theory, 72-73

controversies, 13

correlation among, 82

“emergency reaction” hypothesis, 82

empirical limitations of research, 80, 81-83, 92

“fight-or-flight” reaction, 82

gender differences, 137

inter- and intra-individual differences in, 70, 79-80, 82, 93, 134-135, 287, 288

in nondeceptive states, 32

psychological set and related theories, 74-75

relative importance of, 37, 51

test conditions and, 17, 28 n.5, 31, 42

theoretical basis, 13, 32, 67, 71-83, 287

unresolved theoretical issues, 32, 79-81, 98

“white-coat hypertension” phenomenon, 17

PsycInfo, 324

Publication bias, 149

Pygmalion effect, 89

Q

Qualitative assessment of polygraph testing, 304, 305.

See also Systematic review of validation studies

conflict of interest, 119-120, 304, 305

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10420.
×

experimental field studies, 108, 109-111, 116-117, 120, 316, 328-329

laboratory studies, 108, 109, 120, 328

observational field studies, 108-109, 112-116

overview, 107-109

planned approaches, 116-117

pro-polygraph bias, 117-118

unscientific decision making, 117-119

Quality control programs, 194-195, 198, 209

Quantitative assessment of polygraph testing

accuracy measurement methods, 43-44, 50-51, 342-344

characteristics of studies, 340-342

countermeasures, 139-148, 151

diagnostic models, 7, 37-38, 40, 41, 43, 128-130

expectancy effects, 22-23, 158

extrapolation of laboratory research to field use, 126-130, 132-133, 143-144, 213-214

field studies, 125-126, 350-353

internal validity and salience ratings, 108, 329, 341-342, 346, 352-353

laboratory studies, 60, 121-125, 148, 305, 344-349, 350, 351

limitations of research, 4, 64 n.13, 94, 143-144, 213-214

overall accuracy, 3-4, 24, 148-149

screening studies, 130-134, 149-150

special populations and conditions, 134-139

specific-incident examinations, 24, 121-130

studies included in, 213, 335-338, 340-342

variability in accuracy estimates, 150

Questioning. See Polygraph tests

R

Racially stigmatized groups, 88, 136, 137

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves

computerized scoring and, 316

and decision thresholds, 43-45, 46, 49, 62-63 nn.7&9

estimation from equivariance binormal model, 180, 342-344

and false positive rates, 180, 316

maximum likelihood estimation, 344

parallel combined tests, 368

screening criteria for systematic review and, 325, 340

trapezoidal estiamte, 344, 350

Reid (modified general questions) test, 255, 304, 311, 316, 318

Relevant/irrelevant technique

accuracy, 89, 132, 254

contextual factors, 87

countermeasures, 153 n.6

inferences from, 104 n.9

nature and sequence of questions, 70-71, 254, 268, 284, 305

physiological responses, 83, 93

pretest interview, 77

principle, 14

probable-lie, 256

quantitative assessment of studies, 341

scoring, 318

theoretical bases, 72, 73, 77, 78, 93, 103 nn.3&5

uses, 23-24, 70-71

validity relative to other techniques, 253

Reliability

defined, 2, 29, 30

internal consistency, 30, 33

inter-rater, 30, 33, 96, 298, 304, 341

test-retest, 29-30, 33, 62 nn.1&2, 87

and validity, 195, 209

Reproducibility of results, 253

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10420.
×

Research recommendations. See Polygraph research

deterring and detecting security threats, 225-226, 228-229

expansion of effort, 8-9, 225, 228-229

objectives, 8-9, 225

potential payoff, 229

program organization, 9, 229-231

Respiratory activity, 81, 83, 155, 289, 303, 306, 308, 309, 313, 314

Response conflict, 159, 162

Ritalin (methylphenidate), 138-139, 142

S

Scientific Assessment Technologies, 298, 302

Scientific basis for polygraph testing.

See also Polygraph research;

Theories of polygraph examination;

Validity of polygraph examinations

adequacy of, 67-68, 101, 212-213

scientific approach, 65-69

Scoring polygraph charts.

See also Computerized scoring systems

averaging multiple examiners, 330

blind, 117, 135, 137

decision thresholds, 40, 47-48, 49

diagnostic model, 40

empirical limitations, 81, 83

examiner interpretation, 1, 13, 14, 52, 253, 255, 256, 283, 298, 302, 320

factor analysis, 100

features used in, 308

generalizability to other examiners, 132

global, impressionistic, 103 n.6, 254

numerical, 255-257, 260, 298, 309

pretest phase and, 320

quality control procedures, 194-195, 209

quantitative assessment of studies, 341

as rating procedure, 49, 331

reliability, 328

repeatability of, 30

TES, 77

weighting of channels, 103 n.6

Security screening.

See also Employee screening polygraph;

Preemployment/preclearance screening;

U.S. Department of Energy security screening examination;

other federal agencies

accuracy of, 6, 31, 34-35, 36-37, 48, 60, 66, 95, 130-134, 148, 153 n.7, 215-216

base rate of deception in, 5, 50, 109, 130, 153 n.4, 181-182, 183-184

combining information sources in, 7-8, 197, 199-201, 209-210, 217, 364-372

countermeasures, 147, 148

criterion of truthfulness, 215

decision making on policies, 61, 95, 190-191, 358-363

decision threshold for, 5-6, 46-47, 50, 183-184, 218-219

difficulties with, 2, 5-6, 215-216, 218

error sources, 88, 90

expert systems used in, 200-201, 217, 369-372

federal agencies’ practices and requirements, 62 n.4, 263-264

focused situations, 193-194, 205, 209

generalizability of specific-incident testing to, 109, 215

inferences from detection of deception, 23-24, 28 n.8

initiation of, 296

literature on, 108, 109, 114, 334, 341

minor security violations and, 34-36, 53, 130, 132, 184

parallel combination test, 199, 367-368

purposes, 23, 62 n.3, 179, 358-359

Q clearance, 281

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10420.
×

questioning techniques, 14, 15, 23, 152-153 n.4, 192-194, 254, 255, 256, 280

random vs. fixed-interval, 53-54, 359

recent policy recommendations on, 187-190, 220-221

reexamination/rescreening, 112, 133

research questions, 131, 133

serial combination test, 199-200, 209, 368-369

techniques, 23, 25, 71, 192-194

theoretical basis, 80-81, 95

tradeoffs in interpretation, 5-6, 181-183

Selection bias, 112, 113, 114, 115, 316, 317, 320

Self-monitoring, 135

Seven-Position Numerical Analysis Scale, 302

Shepard, John F., 292-293

Signal detection theory, 38, 40, 42, 61, 62-63 n.7, 104-105 n.16, 342-343

Signal value of stimuli, 75, 77

Social interaction effects, 22-23, 72, 81, 83, 87-89, 91, 94, 101, 104 n.15, 150, 256, 370

Social psychology research, 163

Social Science Citation Index, 324

Sociocultural group identity, 136-137, 150

Special Access Program, 268

Specific-incident examinations, 1, 12

accuracy measurement, 31, 34, 48, 60, 352

base rate of deception in, 130, 181, 184

countermeasures, 147

decision threshold in, 184

generalization of data to security screening, 109

quality of research, 114

quantitative assessment of studies, 121-130, 135, 341

scientific evidence from, 2, 334

scoring based on, 303

techniques, 14, 15, 23, 24, 25, 70-71, 254, 255, 257

theoretical basis, 80, 127-128

tradeoffs in interpretation, 181, 184

Standardization issues, 90, 91, 104 n.14, 114, 149, 204, 253, 254, 256, 296, 311

Standardized tests, 172-173

Statement validity analysis, 165

Stigma effects, 88-89, 101, 104 n.15, 109, 136-137, 150

Stimulation test, 27n.4, 91, 255, 257, 258

Systematic review of validation studies

committee review, 327-330

contextual analysis, 333-335

critical characterization, 107, 325-330, 340-342

extraction of datasets for ROC analysis, 330-333

initial staff screen, 325-327

integration of results, 333-335

literature search and compilation, 324

question formulation, 323-324

resolution of unresolved issues, 330-331

T

Test of Espionage and Sabotage (TES), 282

accuracy, 34-35, 131-132

research, 110, 131-132

scoring, 77, 256, 262, 303, 318-319, 320

standardization, 62 n.2, 91, 104 n.14, 311

technique, 15, 256-257, 261-262

theoretical justification, 77

uses, 256, 260

validity, 134

Theories of polygraph examination.

See also specific theories and accuracy measurement, 38, 40, 42, 46, 61, 62-63 n.7, 109, 127-128, 343-344

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10420.
×

comparison question format, 69, 70-71, 72-77, 80-81, 93, 127

concealed information format, 69, 70, 75-76, 93, 103 n.5, 127-128

interpretation of responses and, 80, 81, 94

psychophysiological responses, 13, 32, 67, 71-83, 287

of relevant/irrelevant format, 72, 73, 77, 78, 93, 103 nn.3&5

for security screening, 80-81, 95, 201

specific-incident examinations, 80, 127-128

status of research, 79-82, 92-95, 99, 102, 108, 109

TES, 77

unresolved questions, 32, 79-81, 98, 201

and validity or results, 32

Thermography, 156-157, 174

Threat-of-punishment theory, 74, 77

Tradeoffs. See Cost-benefit tradeoffs in interpretation

Trapezoidal estimate, 344, 350

U

Unified test theory, 96

United States v. Scheffer, 201-202

Urinalysis, 264

U.S. Department of Defense, 264

decision threshold for security screening, 186-187, 219

U.S. Department of Defense Polygraph Institute, 19, 49, 55, 99, 119, 120, 134, 135, 137, 156-157, 168, 230, 256, 260, 278, 299, 302, 303, 317, 330, 351

U.S. Department of Energy security screening examination, 15.

See also Test of Espionage and Sabotage

Accelerated Access Authorization Program, 265, 269, 272

access authorization, 265, 274

accuracy of, 6, 34-35, 218

advance notice of, 274

adverse personnel action, 197, 198, 265

confidentiality of records, 276-277

consent requirements, 275

decision threshold, 6, 186

eligibility evaluation, 266

examiner-examinee interactions, 90

Hamre Commission

recommendations, 8, 189-190, 220

information provided prior to, 34-35, 275-276

in-test phase, 260, 261-262

issues covered, 259

legal representation during, 275

methods and procedures, 197-198, 260

Office of Counterintelligence, 266, 273

Office of Independent Oversight and Performance, 269

Office of Security and Emergency Operations, 269, 274

policy changes for laboratory personnel, 189-190, 192, 218-221

positions requiring, 12, 260, 268-269, 270

post-test phase, 260, 262, 282, 284

pretest interview, 34, 260, 261

privacy and employee rights, 274-277

reconsideration rights, 274

refusal to take, 271-272

regulations, 12, 260, 264-278

reinvestigation, 260, 270

standards, 277-278

topics within scope of, 270-271

training of examiners, 260, 277-278

type of test, 34, 62 n.2, 256, 260

uses of results, 260, 272-274, 276

waivers, 269

Wen Ho Lee case, 280, 282-283

U.S. National Science Foundation, 2, 108

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10420.
×

U.S. Secret Service, 166, 263, 264

Criminal Investigations, 302

Uses of polygraph examinations, 11-12, 23-24.

See also Employee screening polygraph;

Preemployment/preclearance screening;

Security screening;

Specific-incident examinations

and accuracy measurement, 22-23, 24, 33-37, 40, 46-47, 48, 60-61, 66, 101

base rate and, 192

cost-benefit tradeoffs in

interpretation and, 40, 46-47, 48, 179-194

deception detection, 23

and decision thresholds, 183-187

federal agencies, 187-190, 259, 263-264, 267, 272-274

as interrogation procedure, 17, 23

legal context, 67, 98, 103 n.1, 201-208, 293-294

limitations on, 12, 66, 260

in personnel decisions, 197, 198, 200

policy recommendations of federal agencies, 187-190

theoretical issues, 77, 80-81, 95, 127-128

Utility of polygraph examinations

beliefs of examinees and, 6, 19, 22, 52, 54, 56, 61, 176, 199, 214

decision threshold and, 183-187

deterrence, 6-7, 25, 51, 52, 53-54, 58, 61, 112, 176, 186, 187, 225-226, 228-229, 359

eliciting admissions and confessions, 6, 22, 25, 51, 52, 54-56, 57, 60, 61, 91, 115, 187, 214-215

false confessions and, 28 n.9

for investigative purposes, 22, 25

public confidence in national security, 51, 58, 214

validity and, 22, 51-58, 60-61, 63 n.11, 111, 201, 214-215

V

Validity of polygraph examinations.

See also Construct validity;

Criterion validity

accuracy and, 30-33, 61

and admissibility in court, 12, 67, 98, 201-208, 293-294

combined with other information sources, 59, 198-199, 209-210, 371

control questions, 27 n.3, 67

cross-validation of combined screening strategies, 371

defined, 2, 52, 63 n.11

disputes about physiological responses, 13-14, 67-68

evidence of, 3-4, 66, 67-68, 213-215

external, 126-130, 132-133

incremental, 59, 198-199, 209-210

internal, 108, 129, 329, 341-342, 346, 352-353

mystique of lie detection and, 18, 20, 21, 52, 54, 56, 58, 199

pretest interview and, 16

questions for assessing, 222-223

reference points, 58-60

reliability and, 195, 209

review of research. See Systematic review of validation studies

situational effects and, 17, 28 n.5, 31, 42, 61, 66, 83, 89, 101

standardization and, 104 n.14

theory and, 32

and utility, 22, 51-58, 60-61, 63 n.11, 111, 201

Value of polygraph examinations. See Utility of polygraph examinations

Verification bias, 129

W

Wackenhut Security, 282

Walker, John Anthony, 53

Webster Commission recommendations, 188-189, 190, 220

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10420.
×

Wonder Woman, 295-296

X

X-ray screening in airports, 33

Z

Zone comparison test, 255-256, 304, 311, 316, 318

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2003. The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10420.
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The Polygraph and Lie Detection Get This Book
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The polygraph, often portrayed as a magic mind-reading machine, is still controversial among experts, who continue heated debates about its validity as a lie-detecting device. As the nation takes a fresh look at ways to enhance its security, can the polygraph be considered a useful tool?

The Polygraph and Lie Detection puts the polygraph itself to the test, reviewing and analyzing data about its use in criminal investigation, employment screening, and counter-intelligence.

The book looks at:

  • The theory of how the polygraph works and evidence about how deceptiveness—and other psychological conditions—affect the physiological responses that the polygraph measures.
  • Empirical evidence on the performance of the polygraph and the success of subjects’ countermeasures.
  • The actual use of the polygraph in the arena of national security, including its role in deterring threats to security.

The book addresses the difficulties of measuring polygraph accuracy, the usefulness of the technique for aiding interrogation and for deterrence, and includes potential alternatives—such as voice-stress analysis and brain measurement techniques.

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