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ENGA"NC .~ ~ . - · . 1_ __ Fostering High School Students, Motivation to Learn Committee on Increasing High School Students' Engagement and Motivation to Learn Board on Children, Youth, and Families Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee respon- sible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. B 7128 between the National Academy of Sciences and Carnegie Corporation of New York. Any opinions, find- ings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authorks) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data National Research Council (U.S.~. Committee on Increasing High School Students' Engagement and Motivation to Learn. Engaging schools: fostering high school students' motivation to learn / Committee on Increasing High School Students' Engagement and Motivation to Learn, Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-08435-0 (hardcover) ISBN 0-309-52690-6 (PDF) 1. High school teaching United States. 2. School management and organization United States. 3. Motivation in education. I. Title. LB1607.5.N39 2003 373.12'0073--dc22 2003017626 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http:// www.nap.edu Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Suggested citation: National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine. (2004~. Engaging Schools: Fostering High School Students' Motivation to Learn. Commit- tee on Increasing High School Students' Engagement and Motivation to Learn. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Stienre, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of ~ - ~clences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engi- neers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is presi- dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Coun- cil is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www. nationa l-academies.org
COMMITTEE ON INCREASING HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS' ENGAGEMENT AND MOTIVATION TO LEARN DEBORAH STIPEK (Chair), School of Education, Stanford University CAROLE AMES, College of Education, Michigan State University THOMAS }. BERNDT, Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University EMILY COLE, Principal Emeritus, Jefferson Davis High School, Houston Independent School District JAMES COMER, Yale University School of Medicine Child Study Center JAMES CONNELL, Institute for Research and Reform in Education, Toms River, New Jersey MICHELLE FINE, Department of Psychology, City University of New York RUTH T. GROSS, Professor Emeritus, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine W. NORTON GRUBB, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley ROCHELLE GUTIERREZ, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign CAROL LEE, School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University EDWARD L. MCDILL, Department of Sociology and Center for the Social Organization of Schools, The Johns Hopkins University RUSSELL RUMBERGER, School of Education, University of California at Santa Barbara CARMEN VARELA RUSSO, Baltimore Public School System, Baltimore City Public Schools LISBETH B. SCHORR, Project on Effective Interventions, Harvard University TIMOTHY READY, Steely Director (until September 2002) ELIZABETH TOWNSEND, Senior Project Assistant (from July 2002) MEREDITH MADDEN, Senior Project Assistant (until June 2002) v
BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES MICHAEL COHEN (Chair), Department of Pediatrics, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine JAMES A. BANKS, Center for Multicultural Education, University of Washington, Seattle THOMAS DEWITT, Children's Hospital Medical Center of Cincinnati MARY JANE ENGLAND, Regis College, Weston, Massachusetts MIND Y FULLILOVE, Columbia University, Department of Psychiatry PATRICIA GREENFIELD, Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles RUTH T. GROSS, Professor Emerita, Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics NEAL HALFON, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles MAXINE HAYES, Washington State Department of Health MARGARET HEAGARTY, Department of Pediatrics, Harlem Hospital Center, Columbia University RENEE R. JENKINS, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Howard University HARRIET KITZMAN, School of Nursing, University of Rochester SANDERS KORENMAN, School of Public Affairs, Baruch College, New York HON. CINDY LEDERMAN, Circuit Court, Juvenile Justice Center, Miami, Florida GARY SANDEFUR, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin- Madison RUTH STEIN, Department of Pediatrics, Montefiore Medical Center JANE ROSS, Acting Director (from November 2002) SUSAN K. CUMMINS, Director (until November 2002) LISA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant ELENA O. NIGHTINGALE, Scholar-in-Residlence . . v''
Foreword The National Academies have long worked on issues related to educa- tion, focusing primarily on the scientific foundations of teaching and learning. With this report we look at a different ingredient in education motiva- tion and the important role it plays in fostering academic achievement. We all know that our interest in or desire to learn is critical to the amount of effort we are willing to put into a task, particularly if it means mastering difficult or unfamiliar material. Children often come to school eager to learn but, as this report suggests, many lose their academic motiva- tion as they move through elementary school into high school. In fact, by the time many students enter high school, disengagement from course work and serious study is common. The consequences of becoming disengaged from school are extremely serious, particularly for adolescents from urban and poor high schools who may not get the "second chances" afforded those who are more economically privileged. Even the best teachers, cur- ricula, standards, and tests cannot be effective if the students to whom they are addressed are not engaged in learning. What can policy makers, school administrators, guidance counselors, teachers, parents, or others do to in- fluence that motivation, so as to enable our youth to remain engaged in learning throughout high school? This important report provides evidence that high schools can be designed to provide a challenging and rigorous program to all students, and it makes a compelling case for the real possibil- ity of improving the quality of urban high schools throughout our nation. This volume, like most products of the National Research Council, was prepared by a committee of volunteer scholars and other experts. We are Nix
x FOREVDORD indebted to them for their willingness to tackle an important and difficult question in service to the nation. For this particular study, we are especially indebted to the committee chair, Deborah Stipek, for her extraordinary leadership and commitment. Deborah agreed to chair this important activity even though she had just become the dean of the Stanford School of Education. Then, when unforeseen circumstances left the committee with reduced staff, she ex- panded her role in drafting and redrafting the text through the final stages of committee consultation and the intensive review process. It is the devo- tion of leaders like her to the common good that makes it possible for the National Research Council to be such an effective instrument for guiding the nation. On behalf of the National Academies, I thank Deborah and the com- mittee for this report. They have made an important contribution to an ongoing dialogue in the United States that focuses on improving the education of our next generation of citizens. Nothing that we do is more important. Bruce Alberts, Chair National Research Council
Acknowledgments The committee could not have completed its work without the help of our sponsor and able consultants and staff. This report was supported by a grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York to the Board on Chil- dren, Youth, and Families of the National Research Council and the Insti- tute of Medicine as part of an initiative on Adolescent Education and Urban School Reform. A study committee was formed to address the particular topic of adolescent motivation and school engagement. We are indebted to consultants who provided important background information, assisted in data collection, and prepared written summaries. Amy Ryken, University of Puget Sound, did a thorough review of the motivational effects of high schools that use occupations as themes for instruction. Brenda Arellano, University of California, Santa Barbara, contributed to the literature review on high school dropouts. April Burns, City University of New York, exam- ined evidence on the economic and educational disparities in suburban and urban schools. Adena Klem, Institute for Research and Reform in Educa- tion, reviewed comprehensive reform models in urban high schools. Nettie Legters, Johns Hopkins University, reviewed the recent movement toward career academies in high schools. Karen Strobel, Stanford University, sum- marized evidence on the developmental outcomes associated with adoles- cents' participation in organized nonschoo! activities. Lonna Murphy, Purdue University, contributed to the literature review on peer influences. Andy Furco, University of California, Berkeley, reviewed literature on is- sues of motivation and engagement in service-learning. Special thanks are owed to Cary Watson for her multiple and critical roles in completing this report. Ms. Watson, a graduate student at the Stanford University School of Education, did much of the research on students' nonacademic needs and assisted in revisions of the entire volume. x'
. . xt! ACKNO VDLEDGMENTS Our study director, Timothy Ready, was invaluable in launching our work. He ably organized all of our meetings and helped structure our task. Although he left the National Research Council before our study was com- pleted, his broad searches for relevant evidence and early drafting were critical to our progress. We are also grateful to Patricia Morison, deputy director of the Center for Education, for her guidance and advice during the late stages of report revision. Laura Penny, a freelance writer and editor, was our invaluable critical eye in shaping the text. Elizabeth Townsend served as an extraordinarily capable project assistant, maintaining all our email contacts, keeping track of innumerable drafts, and otherwise keeping the project humming, all with good cheer. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with proce- dures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Joshua Aronson, Department of Applied Psychology, New York Univer- sity; Joyce L. Epstein, Center on School, Family, and Community Partner- ships and the National Network of Partnership Schools, Johns Hopkins University; David A. Goslin, Former President and CEO, American Insti- tutes for Research; Pedro A. Noguera, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University; Richard M. Ryan, Department of Psychology and Psy- chiatry, University of Rochester; Richard S. Stein, Conte Polymer Center, University of Massachusetts; loan E. Talbert, School of Education, Stanford University; and John Tyler, Departments of Education and Economics and The Taubman Center for Public Policy, Brown University. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Catherine Snow, Gradu- ate School of Education, Harvard University, and Elsa M. Garmire, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an inde- pendent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully con- sidered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Deborah J. Stipek, Committee Chair
Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 STUDENT ENGAGEMENT AND DISENGAGEMENT IN URBAN HIGH SCHOOLS High Standards and Democratic Values, 16 Importance of Social Relationships, 17 The Status Quo, 18 Urban High Schools, 20 Dropping Out: The Ultimate in Disengagement, 24 Outcomes After High School, 25 The Potential of School Reform, 27 Organization of the Report, 29 THE NATURE AND CONDITIONS OF ENGAGEMENT What Is Engagement?, 31 The Context Matters, 33 Psychological Mediators of Engagement, 33 Engaging Learning Contexts, 44 Beyond the Classroom, 54 Beyond the School, 55 A Ways to Go, 58 3 TEACHING AND LEARNING Literacy, 61 Mathematics, 75 Special Needs of Urban Youth, 88 x''' 13 60
xtv Supporting Teachers, 90 Conclusions, 94 4 CLIMATE, ORGANIZATION, COMPOSITION, AND SIZE OF SCHOOLS School Climate, 97 School Organization, 107 School Composition, 112 School Size, 113 Conclusions, 118 5 FAMILY, COMMUNITY, AND PEERS School-Family-Community Connections, 121 Peers, 133 Conclusions, 143 MEETING STUDENTS' NONACADEMIC NEEDS The Traditional Approach, 146 A Different Vision, 157 Conclusions, 167 7 EDUCATION THROUGH THEME-BASED LEARNING COMMUNITIES Practices Enhancing Motivation and Engagement, 172 Perceptions of Students and Teachers, 177 Evidence from Outcome Evaluations, 179 Conclusions, 184 8 COMPREHENSIVE HIGH SCHOOL REFORM DESIGNS 187 From the What to the How: Implementation Strategies, 189 Research Evidence, 194 How to Bring About Change: The Process, 196 Scaling Up High School Reform: Prospects and Challenges, 201 Annex to Chapter 8, 205 9 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions and Recommendations, 213 Challenges of Implementation, 223 CONTENTS 97 120 145 168 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS INDEX 211 226 269 275
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