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A Glossary and Acronyms AAP American Academy of Pediatrics Accommodation An adaptative response that allows survival, but at the expense of some more or less serious consequences on health or physiological function Action Demonstrated effects in various biological systems that may or may not have physiological significance Adaptation Maintenance of essentially unchanged functional capacity despite some alterations in steady-state conditions Adverse effect Any significant alteration in the structure or function of the human organism, or any impairment of a physi- ologically important function, that could lead to an adverse health effect AI Adequate Intake AMDR Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range Association Potential interaction derived from epidemiological studies of the relationship between a specific nutrient and chronic disease BEE Basal energy expenditure Bioavailability Accessibility of a nutrient to participate in unspecified metabolic or physiological processes 973
974 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES BMI Body mass index BMR Basal metabolic rate CHD Coronary heart disease CSFII Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individualsâa survey conducted by the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture CV Coefficient of variationâstandard deviation divided by the square root of n, where n is the sample size CVD Cardiovascular disease DHA Docosahexaenoic acid DLW Doubly labeled water Doseâresponse Second step in a risk assessment, in which the realtion- assessment ship between nutrient intake and adverse effect (in terms of incidence or severity of the effect) is determined DRI Dietary Reference Intake EAR Estimated Average Requirement EEPA Energy expenditure of physical activity EER Estimated energy requirement EPA Eicosapentaenoic acid EPOC Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption Erythrocyte A red blood cell FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FASEB Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology FDA Food and Drug Administration FFA Free fatty acids FFM Fat-free mass FM Fat mass FNB Food and Nutrition Board FQ Food quotient
975 A PPENDIX A Function Role played by a nutrient in growth, development, and maturation Hazard First step in a risk assessment, which is concerned identification with the collection, organization, and evaluation of all information pertaining to the toxic properties of a nutrient HDL High density lipoprotein IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer IM Intramuscular IOM Institute of Medicine IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety Lacto-ovo- A person who consumes milk (lacto), eggs (ovo), and vegetarian plant foods and products, but no meat LBM Lean body mass LDL Low density lipoprotein LOAEL Lowest-observed-adverse-effect levelâthe lowest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which an adverse effect has been identified LSRO Life Sciences Research Office MET Metabolic equivalentâa rate of energy expenditure sustained by a rate of oxygen consumption of 3.5 ml/kg of body weight/min MI Myocardial infarction NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveyâ a survey conducted periodically by the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NOAEL No-observed-adverse-effect levelâthe highest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which no adverse effect has been observed NRC National Research Council OTA Office of Technology Assessment
976 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES PAI Physical activity index PAL Physical activity level RDA Recommended Dietary Allowance REE Resting energy expenditure Risk assessment Organized framework for evaluating scientific infor- mation, which has as its objective a characterization of the nature and likelihood of harm resulting from excess human exposure to an environmental agent (in this case, a nutrient); it includes the development of both qualitative and quantitative expressions of risk Risk Final step in a risk assessment, which summarizes the characterization conclusions from steps 1 through 3 of the assessment (hazard identification, doseâresponse, and estimate of exposure) and evaluates the risk; this step also includes a characterization of the degree of scientific confidence that can be placed in the Tolerable Upper Intake Level Risk management Process by which risk assessment results are integrated with other information to make decisions about the need for, method of, and extent of risk reduction; in addition, risk management considers such issues as the public health significance of the risk, the technical feasibility of achieving various degrees of risk control, and the economic and social costs of this control RMR Resting metabolic rate RNA Ribonucleic acid RNI Recommended Nutrient Intake RQ Respiratory quotient SD Standard deviation SDA Specific dynamic action SE Standard error SEM Standard error of the mean SMR Sleeping metabolic rate TEE Total energy expenditure
977 A PPENDIX A TEF Thermic effect of food UF Uncertainty factorâthe number by which the no- observed-adverse-effect level (or lowest-observed- adverse-effect level) is divided to obtain the Tolerable Upper Intake Level; the size of the UF varies depend- ing on the confidence in the data and the nature of the adverse effect UL Tolerable Upper Intake Level USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture VLDL Very low density lipoprotein WHO World Health Organization