National Academies Press: OpenBook

Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism (2004)

Chapter: Appendix A: Acronyms

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2004. Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10827.
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Page 131
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2004. Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10827.
×
Page 132
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2004. Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10827.
×
Page 133
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2004. Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10827.
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Page 134

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Appendix A ACRONYMS ACGM Advisory Committee on Genetic Modification AEA Atomic Energy Act AGSAG Advisory Group on Scientific Advances in Genetics AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome APHIS Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service ASM American Society for Microbiology ATCSA Antiterrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 BL Biosafety Level BMBL Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories BSC Biological Safety Cabinet BSO Biological Safety Officer BWC Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention BW Biological Weapons CBW chemical and biological weapons CDC The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CIA Central Intelligence Agency DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DHHS Department of Health and Human Services DHS Department of Homeland Security DOD Department of Defense 131

132 APPENDIX A DOE Department of Energy DTRA Defense Threat Reduction Agency EAR Export Administration Regulation EPA Environmental Protection Agency FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation FDA Food and Drug Administration FOIA Freedom of Information Act GLP Good Laboratory Practice GMO genetically modified organisms HEU Highly Enriched Uranium HSE Health and Safety Executive HWSA Health and Safety at Work Act of 1974 IAC InterAcademy Council IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency IAP InterAcademy Panel on International Issues IATA International Air Transport Association IBC Institutional Biosafety Committee ICSU International Council for Science IPASS Interagency Panel for Advanced Science and Security IRB Institutional Review Boards ITAR International Traffic in Arms Regulations NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NHS National Health Service NIH National Institutes of Health NET Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission NSA National Security Agency NSABB National Science Advisory Board for Biodefense NSDD National Security Decision Directive NSF National Science Foundation OBA Office of Biotechnology Activities OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy PI principal investigator PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences PPE Personal Protective Equipment

APPENDIX A RAC RD rDNA RNA SARS SBIR SBU SEVIS SIPRI SPICE UCNI UN UNESCO Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee Restricted Data Recombinant Deoxyribonucleic Acid Ribonucleic Acid Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Small Business Innovation Research Sensitive but unclassified Student and Exchange Visitor Information System Stockholm International Peace Research Institute smallpox inhibitor of complement enzymes unclassified controlled nuclear information United Nations United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UPU Universal Postal Union USAMRIID Research Institute for Infectious Diseases USDA United States Department of Agriculture VCP WHO WMD 133 vaccinia virus complement control protein World Health Organization Weapons of Mass Destruction

Next: Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members »
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In recent years much has happened to justify an examination of biological research in light of national security concerns. The destructive application of biotechnology research includes activities such as spreading common pathogens or transforming them into even more lethal forms. Policymakers and the scientific community at large must put forth a vigorous and immediate response to this challenge. This new book by the National Research Council recommends that the government expand existing regulations and rely on self-governance by scientists rather than adopt intrusive new policies. One key recommendation of the report is that the government should not attempt to regulate scientific publishing but should trust scientists and journals to screen their papers for security risks, a task some journals have already taken up. With biological information and tools widely distributed, regulating only U.S. researchers would have little effect. A new International Forum on Biosecurity should encourage the adoption of similar measures around the world. Seven types of risky studies would require approval by the Institutional Biosafety Committees that already oversee recombinant DNA research at some 400 U.S. institutions. These “experiments of concern” include making an infectious agent more lethal and rendering vaccines powerless.

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