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Chapter: Appendix E Characteristics of Doctorates

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Characteristics of Doctorates." National Research Council. 2005. Advancing the Nation's Health Needs: NIH Research Training Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11275.
×

Appendix E
Characteristics of Doctorates

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Characteristics of Doctorates." National Research Council. 2005. Advancing the Nation's Health Needs: NIH Research Training Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11275.
×

TABLE E-1 Characteristics of Doctorates in the Biomedical Sciences, 1973–2003

 

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

Total Doctorates

2,882

3,132

3,116

3,135

3,013

3,085

3,150

3,050

3,118

3,212

Males

2,420

2,572

2,530

2,474

2,340

2,347

2,424

2,351

2,311

2,351

Females

462

560

586

661

673

738

726

699

807

861

Citizens

2,385

2,591

2,573

2,582

2,381

2,556

2,610

2,528

2,628

2,738

Permanent residents

160

198

215

231

209

194

165

169

147

133

Temporary residents

312

266

256

253

283

256

277

261

259

253

Unknown

25

77

72

69

140

79

98

92

84

88

Minorities

2

1

3

80

84

86

80

78

108

79

Postdoctoral training

 

Postdoctoral fellowship

1,008

1,016

965

1,000

863

1,102

1,176

1,212

1,313

1,314

Postdoctoral research

317

389

402

435

505

536

503

528

535

500

Postdoctoral traineeship

64

84

83

46

39

54

56

69

75

100

Other training

78

89

148

160

173

199

202

157

163

213

Total postdoctorates

1,467

1,578

1,598

1,641

1,580

1,891

1,937

1,966

2,086

2,127

Percent planning

52.8%

54.0%

55.1%

55.9%

57.5%

65.0%

65.9%

68.5%

71.5%

70.4%

Employment

1,246

1,275

1,246

1,236

1,113

968

962

880

809

877

Other

63

70

59

61

54

49

42

25

24

17

Ph.D. with plans

2,776

2,923

2,903

2,938

2,747

2,908

2,941

2,871

2,919

3,021

Time to degree

5.92

6

6

6.17

6.17

6

6.17

6.25

6.33

6.41

Registered time to degree

5.41

5.42

5.67

5.75

5.67

5.59

5.75

5.75

5.91

5.91

Age at time of degree

28.92

29

29.42

29.58

29.42

29.25

29.25

29.34

29.38

29.41

 

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Total Doctorates

3,465

3,769

3,793

3,992

4,294

4,442

4,794

4,863

5,079

5,366

Males

2,214

2,377

2,348

2,477

2,655

2,740

2,864

2,887

2,955

3,102

Females

1,251

1,392

1,445

1,515

1,639

1,702

1,930

1,976

2,124

2,264

Citizens

2,670

2,858

2,850

2,899

3,050

3,072

3,264

3,203

3,278

3,291

Permanent residents

153

176

173

183

210

240

296

641

831

801

Temporary residents

455

515

570

814

987

1,078

1,165

980

918

1,173

Unknown

187

220

200

96

62

66

98

57

73

121

Minorities

128

123

135

135

159

162

190

223

243

246

Postdoctoral training

 

Postdoctoral fellowship

1,470

1,650

1,652

1,766

1,900

2,011

2,243

2,234

2,358

2,380

Postdoctoral research

657

704

679

811

879

894

940

968

994

1,031

Postdoctoral traineeship

75

81

65

76

87

81

99

111

107

115

Other training

217

216

260

233

294

307

332

313

346

406

Total postdoctorates

2,419

2,651

2,656

2,886

3,160

3,293

3,614

3,626

3,805

3,932

Percent planning

74.9%

75.8%

75.1%

77.0%

77.0%

77.2%

78.6%

78.1%

7.9%

77.7%

Employment

776

815

856

820

902

936

939

974

963

1,077

Other

36

32

27

43

40

35

45

40

48

52

Ph.D. with plans

3,231

3,498

3,539

3,749

4,102

4,264

4,598

4,640

4,816

5,061

Time to degree

7.33

7.42

7.42

7.58

7.5

7.59

7.67

7.75

7.83

7.67

Registered time to degree

6.5

6.58

6.5

6.59

6.58

6.75

6.75

6.75

6.83

6.83

Age at time of degree

30.5

30.83

30.92

31.17

31.08

31.17

31.17

31.17

31.25

31.25

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Characteristics of Doctorates." National Research Council. 2005. Advancing the Nation's Health Needs: NIH Research Training Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11275.
×

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

3,396

3,356

3,444

3,338

3,399

3,313

3,369

2,440

2,383

2,417

2,224

2,315

2,192

2,197

956

973

1,027

1,114

1,084

1,121

1,172

2,905

2,898

2,927

2,854

2,868

2,727

2,751

147

125

114

108

109

113

118

273

248

294

291

308

364

343

71

85

109

85

114

109

157

83

91

94

86

99

104

119

1,362

1,364

1,385

1,313

1,446

1,409

1,415

626

616

625

668

625

634

699

103

70

78

70

68

66

58

225

255

275

247

238

200

196

2,316

2,305

2,363

2,298

2,377

2,309

2,368

71.6%

72.3%

72.6%

72.1%

74.2%

73.8%

74.9%

891

865

860

851

791

790

759

29

20

31

37

34

28

36

3,236

3,190

3,254

3,186

3,202

3,127

3,163

6.5

6.5

6.67

7

7.09

7.17

7.25

6

6

6

6.17

6.33

6.42

6.41

29.25

29.33

29.59

29.83

30.25

30.42

30.59

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

5,459

5,465

5,340

5,547

5,397

5,375

5,412

3,110

3,113

3,074

3,060

2,984

3,015

2,960

2,349

2,352

2,266

2,478

2,403

2,358

2,439

3,451

3,492

3,438

3,620

3,623

3,563

3,534

562

533

477

364

341

315

266

1,233

1,213

1,224

1,336

1,202

1,222

1,341

243

241

218

227

231

275

366

261

277

308

315

364

367

358

2,293

2,312

2,223

2,340

2,170

2,269

2,343

979

1,027

977

931

882

884

932

87

69

75

148

102

109

172

193

250

476

362

387

273

311

3,552

3,658

3,751

3,781

3,541

3,535

3,758

71.1%

73.0%

75.8%

73.6%

71.0%

71.3%

75.0%

1,288

1,257

1,152

1,276

1,373

1,368

1,193

156

93

43

83

76

58

60

4,996

5,008

4,946

5,140

4,990

4,961

5,011

7.92

7.83

7.59

7.75

7.83

7.59

7.59

6.92

6.92

6.75

6.84

6.92

6.75

6.67

31

30.92

30.83

30.91

30.83

30.67

30.58

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Characteristics of Doctorates." National Research Council. 2005. Advancing the Nation's Health Needs: NIH Research Training Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11275.
×

TABLE E-2 Employment Characteristics of Biomedical Doctorates from U.S. Institutions, 1973–2001

 

1973

1975

1977

1979

1981

1983

1985

1987

Total employed in S&E

34,367

39,661

43,411

48,591

53,357

56,481

61,810

65,800

 

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

Minority

797

1,066

1,149

1,259

1,566

1,516

1,819

1,906

 

2.3%

2.7%

2.6%

2.6%

2.9%

2.7%

2.9%

2.9%

Citizens and permanent residents

32,610

37,958

41,421

46,131

52,492

55,898

61,128

65,120

 

94.9%

95.7%

95.4%

94.9%

98.4%

99.0%

98.9%

99.0%

Temporary residents

793

777

1,055

1,645

503

331

473

581

 

2.3%

2.0%

2.4%

3.4%

0.9%

0.6%

0.8%

0.9%

Total academics

23,423

27,219

29,889

33,188

36,165

36,797

39,307

41,027

 

68.2%

68.6%

68.9%

68.3%

67.8%

65.1%

63.6%

62.4%

Faculty with rank appointments

20,138

22,230

23,515

26,064

27,868

28,510

30,454

31,280

 

58.6%

56.1%

54.2%

53.6%

52.2%

50.5%

49.3%

47.5%

Tenured faculty

4,567

13,376

14,345

15,636

17,836

18,884

20,114

19,157

 

13.3%

33.7%

33.0%

32.2%

33.4%

33.4%

32.5%

29.1%

Tenure-track faculty (not tenured)

15,571

8,854

9,170

5,952

6,446

5,673

6,644

6,149

 

45.3%

22.3%

21.1%

12.2%

12.1%

10.0%

10.7%

9.3%

Academic postdoctorates

1,713

2,615

3,507

4,358

4,722

4,405

4,450

4,784

 

5.0%

6.6%

8.1%

9.0%

8.8%

7.8%

7.2%

7.3%

Other academic appointments

1,572

1,706

1,810

3,092

3,575

3,882

4,403

4,963

 

4.6%

4.3%

4.2%

6.4%

6.7%

6.9%

7.1%

7.5%

Industry (nonpostdoctorate)

4,470

5,273

5,543

6,286

7,881

9,589

11,841

13,366

 

1.3%

13.3%

12.8%

12.9%

14.8%

17.0%

19.2%

20.3%

Industrial postdoctorates

27

53

40

27

70

46

126

222

 

0.1%

0.1%

0.1%

0.1%

0.1%

0.1%

0.2%

0.3%

Government (nonpostdoctorate)

3,675

3,785

3,914

4,449

4,545

4,843

5,026

5,725

 

10.7%

9.5%

9.0%

9.2%

8.5%

8.6%

8.1%

8.7%

Government postdoctorates

156

245

336

327

286

444

373

529

 

0.5%

0.6%

0.8%

0.7%

0.5%

0.8%

0.6%

0.8%

Other sectors (nonpostdoctorate)

2,303

2,624

3,029

3,551

3,778

3,909

4,082

4,199

 

6.7%

6.6%

7.0%

7.3%

7.1%

6.9%

6.6%

6.4%

Other-sector postdoctorates

236

431

407

552

525

748

961

648

 

0.7%

1.1%

0.9%

1.1%

1.0%

1.3%

1.6%

1.0%

Doctorates with federal research support

19,841

22,152

23,884

26,183

26,640

29,439

27,377

38,171

 

57.7%

55.9%

55.0%

53.9%

49.9%

52.1%

44.3%

58.0%

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Characteristics of Doctorates." National Research Council. 2005. Advancing the Nation's Health Needs: NIH Research Training Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11275.
×

 

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

Total employed in S&E

70,593

71,962

76,449

79,077

88,481

95,780

100,224

 

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

Minority

2,217

2,727

2,840

3,150

3,758

4,385

5,345

 

3.1%

3.8%

3.7%

4.0%

4.2%

4.6%

5.3%

Citizens and permanent residents

69,709

70,834

75,023

77,826

87,105

93,100

97,126

 

98.7%

98.4%

98.1%

98.4%

98.4%

97.2%

96.9%

Temporary residents

884

945

1,410

1,251

1,376

2,680

3,098

 

1.3%

1.3%

1.8%

1.6%

1.6%

2.8%

3.1%

Total academics

43,572

40,581

45,258

48,622

53,026

55,682

57,227

 

61.7%

56.4%

59.2%

61.5%

59.9%

58.1%

57.1%

Faculty with rank appointments

31,862

28,672

32,180

33,496

36,122

36,987

38,299

 

45.1%

39.8%

42.1%

42.4%

40.8%

38.6%

38.2%

Tenured faculty

19,755

17,106

19,070

19,516

20,326

21,535

21,695

 

28.0%

23.8%

24.9%

24.7%

23.0%

22.5%

21.6%

Tenure-track faculty (not tenured)

5,872

7,556

7,722

8,259

8,974

8,909

8,784

 

8.3%

10.5%

10.1%

10.4%

10.1%

9.3%

8.8%

Academic postdoctorates

5,993

4,819

6,431

7,701

9,620

10,145

9,692

 

8.5%

6.7%

8.4%

9.7%

10.9%

10.6%

9.7%

Other academic appointments

5,717

7,090

6,647

7,436

7,296

8,550

9,236

 

8.1%

9.9%

8.7%

9.4%

8.2%

8.9%

9.2%

Industry (nonpostdoctorate)

15,376

18,309

19,538

18,949

21,643

26,216

28,935

 

21.8%

25.4%

25.6%

24.0%

24.5%

27.4%

28.9%

Industrial postdoctorates

206

204

376

531

561

591

293

 

0.3%

0.3%

0.5%

0.7%

0.6%

0.6%

0.3%

Government (nonpostdoctorate)

5,776

6,157

6,143

6,074

7,212

7,240

7,886

 

8.2%

8.6%

8.0%

7.7%

8.2%

7.6%

7.9%

Government postdoctorates

514

432

1057

1111

1437

1180

1050

 

0.7%

0.6%

1.4%

1.4%

1.6%

1.2%

1.1%

Other sectors (nonpostdoctorate)

4,363

5,303

3,356

3,028

3,728

4,005

4,213

 

6.2%

7.4%

4.4%

3.8%

4.2%

4.2%

4.2%

Other-sector postdoctorates

671

681

721

762

874

866

620

 

1.0%

0.9%

0.9%

1.0%

1.0%

0.9%

0.6%

Doctorates with federal research support

40,655

38,490

29,261

31,513

34,678

41,707

42,012

 

57.6%

53.5%

38.3%

39.9%

39.2%

43.5%

41.9%

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Characteristics of Doctorates." National Research Council. 2005. Advancing the Nation's Health Needs: NIH Research Training Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11275.
×

TABLE E-3 Characteristics of Doctorates in the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 1973–2003

 

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

Total doctorates

2,683

3,094

3,220

3,433

3,661

3,835

4,047

4,098

4,082

4,120

Males

2,079

2,352

2,391

2,452

2,549

2,611

2,733

2,634

2,554

2,445

Females

604

742

829

981

1,112

1,224

1,314

1,464

1,528

1,675

Citizens

2,458

2,812

2,928

3,128

3,231

3,461

3,722

3,724

3,676

3,728

Permanent residents

78

88

96

89

85

92

85

92

95

92

Temporary residents

121

150

140

157

165

214

183

167

152

161

Unknown

26

44

56

59

180

68

57

115

159

139

Minorities

0

3

11

84

115

172

202

234

235

266

Postdoctoral training

 

Postdoctoral fellowship

194

188

189

196

193

227

298

322

349

336

Postdoctoral research

59

67

67

84

84

106

100

114

120

127

Postdoctoral traineeship

22

43

36

35

49

58

51

75

98

78

Other training

21

40

37

52

64

61

85

74

72

63

Total postdoctorates

296

338

329

367

390

452

534

585

639

604

Percent planning

11%

11%

10%

11%

11%

12%

13%

14%

16%

15%

Employment

2,242

2,526

2,590

2,809

2,882

3,095

3,209

3,147

3,014

3,179

Other

49

70

87

68

80

68

83

66

75

53

Ph.D. with plans

2,587

2,934

3,006

3,244

3,352

3,615

3,826

3,798

3,728

3,836

Time to degree

6

6

6

6.17

6.25

6.25

6.33

6.59

6.83

7

Registered time to degree

5.59

5.5

5.58

5.67

5.67

5.75

5.92

5.96

6

6.25

Age at time of degree

29.66

29.58

29.75

30.08

30.08

30.25

30.25

30.58

30.59

31.16

 

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Total doctorates

3,988

3,844

3,975

4,064

4,087

4,080

4,289

4,185

4,162

4,224

Males

1,912

1,749

1,796

1,745

1,624

1,745

1,720

1,671

1,606

1,555

Females

2,076

2,095

2,179

2,319

2,463

2,335

2,569

2,514

2,556

2,669

Citizens

3,352

3,232

3,221

3,497

3,560

3,490

3,702

3,623

3,587

3,644

Permanent residents

111

107

95

107

124

132

146

155

177

170

Temporary residents

180

194

244

267

296

334

329

311

303

307

Unknown

345

312

415

193

112

133

123

104

101

111

Minorities

255

266

267

320

339

321

349

340

394

419

Postdoctoral training

 

Postdoctoral fellowship

413

414

432

480

568

585

684

676

725

700

Postdoctoral research

174

173

124

149

155

150

170

187

195

193

Postdoctoral traineeship

65

75

88

104

75

92

77

87

91

86

Other training

64

53

59

51

51

53

75

58

55

84

Total postdoctorates

716

715

703

784

849

880

1,006

1,008

1,066

1,063

Percent planning

18%

19%

18%

19%

21%

22%

24%

24%

26%

25%

Employment

2,785

2,688

2,720

2,842

2,834

2,784

2,888

2,780

2,646

2,675

Other

54

50

55

65

49

62

69

62

77

83

Ph.D. with plans

3,555

3,453

3,478

3,691

3,732

3,726

3,963

3,850

3,789

3,821

Time to degree

8.67

8.92

9.00

9.00

9.00

9.09

9.00

8.91

8.92

8.75

Registered time to degree

7.33

7.58

7.59

7.75

7.67

7.59

7.50

7.50

7.50

7.50

Age at time of degree

33.75

34.33

34.33

34.42

34.66

34.67

34.58

34.17

34.25

33.83

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Characteristics of Doctorates." National Research Council. 2005. Advancing the Nation's Health Needs: NIH Research Training Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11275.
×

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

4,015

4,339

4,023

4,263

4,141

3,964

3,979

2,315

2,461

2,240

2,265

2,087

1,993

1,962

1,700

1,878

1,783

1,998

2,054

1,971

2,017

3,630

3,935

3,600

3,799

3,662

3,487

3,426

98

85

82

90

75

91

108

152

173

151

182

190

179

185

135

146

190

192

214

207

260

244

256

269

271

272

261

278

380

389

339

403

396

427

438

118

146

134

132

135

133

139

91

104

95

104

109

97

101

61

76

56

69

59

49

63

650

715

624

708

699

706

741

16%

17%

16%

17%

17%

18%

19%

3,068

3,311

3,063

3,191

3,096

2,910

2,837

55

65

60

60

42

55

54

3,773

4,091

3,747

3,959

3,837

3,671

3,632

7.25

7.5

7.92

8

8.17

8.5

8.59

6.42

6.59

6.91

7

7.16

7.25

7.25

31.33

31.92

32.08

32.5

32.75

33.08

33.58

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

4,371

4,481

4,466

4,507

4,230

4,064

4,139

1,565

1,595

1,596

1,595

1,475

1,411

1,411

2,806

2,886

2,870

2,908

2,751

2,649

2,724

3,608

3,757

3,797

3,821

3,548

3,400

3,426

151

142

119

135

114

113

97

292

315

265

310

276

265

323

360

285

301

241

292

286

293

428

494

534

545

537

544

553

713

860

912

919

903

895

942

192

211

197

203

234

199

228

61

74

56

81

71

71

70

22

30

97

57

61

53

72

988

1,175

1,262

1,260

1,269

1,218

1,312

23%

26%

28%

28%

30%

30%

37%

2,564

2,488

2,511

2,632

2,408

2,334

2,212

112

114

75

115

93

80

71

3,664

3,777

3,848

4,007

3,770

3,632

3,595

8.96

8.92

8.91

8.75

8.91

9.00

9.00

7.50

7.50

7.41

7.50

7.59

7.59

7.59

33.42

33.24

33

32.84

32.75

32.75

32.82

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Characteristics of Doctorates." National Research Council. 2005. Advancing the Nation's Health Needs: NIH Research Training Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11275.
×

TABLE E-4 Employment Characteristics of Behavioral and Social Sciences Doctorates from U.S. Institutions, 1973–2001

 

1973

1975

1977

1979

1981

1983

1985

1987

Total employed in S&E

74,570

34,360

39,237

45,532

51,743

58,458

64,616

68852

 

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

Minority

520

842

1,066

1,517

2,059

2,546

2,897

3166

 

0.7%

2.5%

2.7%

3.3%

4.0%

4.4%

4.5%

4.6%

Citizens and permanent residents

26,998

33,978

38,912

44,863

51,490

58,129

64,400

68761

 

36.2%

98.9%

99.2%

98.5%

99.5%

99.4%

99.7%

99.9%

Temporary residents

107

172

122

369

168

247

156

59

 

0.1%

0.5%

0.3%

0.8%

0.3%

0.4%

0.2%

0.1%

Total academics

18178

22333

24287

26972

29995

32267

34985

34911

 

24.4%

65.0%

61.9%

59.2%

58.0%

55.2%

54.1%

50.7%

Faculty with rank appointments

17,095

19,917

21,383

23,888

25,364

27,442

29,079

28678

 

22.9%

58.0%

54.5%

52.5%

49.0%

46.9%

4.5%

41.7%

Tenured faculty

3,560

11,606

13,139

14,812

16,982

19,302

19,833

18761

 

4.8%

33.8%

33.5%

32.5%

32.8%

33.0%

30.7%

27.2%

Tenure-track faculty (not tenured)

13,535

8,311

8,244

5,336

5,204

4,963

5,623

4989

 

18.2%

24.2%

21.0%

11.7%

10.1%

8.5%

8.7%

7.2%

Academic postdoctorates

205

481

594

836

775

798

901

664

 

0.3%

1.4%

1.5%

1.8%

1.5%

1.4%

1.4%

1.0%

Other academic appointments

878

915

1,070

3,141

3,856

4,027

5,005

5569

 

1.2%

2.7%

2.7%

6.9%

7.5%

6.9%

7.7%

8.1%

Industry (nonpostdoctorate)

2,682

3,666

4,883

6,695

9,357

12,891

15,469

17621

 

3.6%

10.7%

12.4%

14.7%

18.1%

22.1%

23.9%

25.6%

Industrial postdoctorates

0

0

4

0

0

4

80

14

 

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

0.1%

0.0%

Government (nonpostdoctorate)

2,680

2,603

3,216

3,718

3,938

4,627

4,632

5390

 

3.6%

7.6%

8.2%

8.2%

7.6%

7.9%

7.2%

7.8%

Government postdoctorates

22

15

53

49

88

85

22

51

 

0.0%

0.0%

0.1%

0.1%

0.2%

0.1%

0.0%

0.1%

Other sectors (nonpostdoctorate)

3,647

5,609

6,431

7,600

8,134

8,299

9,205

10561

 

4.9%

16.3%

16.4%

16.7%

15.7%

14.2%

14.2%

15.3%

Other-sector postdoctorates

113

91

151

180

125

201

177

158

 

0.2%

0.3%

0.4%

0.4%

0.2%

0.3%

0.3%

0.2%

Doctorates with federal research support

10,881

12,965

13,790

15,213

15,689

16,648

13,651

21864

 

14.6%

37.7%

35.1%

33.4%

30.3%

28.5%

21.1%

31.8%

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Characteristics of Doctorates." National Research Council. 2005. Advancing the Nation's Health Needs: NIH Research Training Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11275.
×

 

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

Total employed in S&E

74,570

75,420

81,126

84,408

91,662

95,909

99,154

 

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

Minority

3,713

4,542

4,943

5,609

6,482

7,045

8,534

 

5.0%

6.0%

6.1%

6.6%

7.1%

7.3%

8.6%

Citizens and permanent residents

74,348

75,178

80,894

84,200

91,333

95,531

98,725

 

99.7%

99.7%

99.7%

99.8%

99.6%

99.6%

99.6%

Temporary residents

194

164

190

195

329

378

429

 

0.3%

0.2%

0.2%

0.2%

0.4%

0.4%

0.4%

Total academics

36961

33280

37617

39905

43736

45402

47206

 

49.6%

44.1%

46.4%

47.3%

47.7%

47.3%

47.6%

Faculty with rank appointments

30,239

26,852

29,402

30,787

32,941

33,837

34,491

 

40.6%

35.6%

36.2%

36.5%

35.9%

35.3%

34.8%

Tenured faculty

20,041

18,201

19,858

20,720

22,266

22,032

22,196

 

26.9%

24.1%

24.5%

24.5%

24.3%

23.0%

22.4%

Tenure-track faculty (not tenured)

5,379

5,400

5,956

5,991

6,032

6,364

6,510

 

7.2%

7.2%

7.3%

7.1%

6.6%

6.6%

6.6%

Academic postdoctorates

993

416

534

1,329

1,641

1,458

1,543

 

1.3%

0.6%

0.7%

1.6%

1.8%

1.5%

1.6%

Other academic appointments

5,729

6,012

7,681

7,789

9,154

10,136

11,194

 

7.7%

8.0%

9.5%

9.2%

10.0%

10.6%

11.3%

Industry (nonpostdoctorate)

19,998

23,995

27,236

27,348

28,735

31,318

32,561

 

26.8%

31.8%

33.6%

32.4%

31.3%

32.7%

32.8%

Industrial postdoctorates

5

20

50

151

462

211

201

 

0.0%

0.0%

0.1%

0.2%

0.5%

0.2%

0.2%

Government (nonpostdoctorate)

5,557

5,565

8,867

9,310

9,692

9,696

9,877

 

7.5%

7.4%

10.9%

11.0%

10.6%

10.1%

10.0%

Government postdoctorates

11

84

147

176

267

210

165

 

0.0%

0.1%

0.2%

0.2%

0.3%

0.2%

0.2%

Other sectors (nonpostdoctorate)

11,697

11,865

7,129

7,423

8,557

8,804

8,960

 

15.7%

15.7%

8.8%

8.8%

9.3%

9.2%

9.0%

Other-sector postdoctorates

166

66

80

95

213

268

184

 

0.2%

0.1%

0.1%

0.1%

0.2%

0.3%

0.2%

Doctorates with federal research support

23,831

20,902

12,686

15,385

16,308

20,487

22,549

 

32.0%

27.7%

15.6%

18.2%

17.8%

21.4%

22.7%

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Characteristics of Doctorates." National Research Council. 2005. Advancing the Nation's Health Needs: NIH Research Training Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11275.
×

TABLE E-5 Characteristics of Doctorates in the Clinical Sciences, 1973–2003

 

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

Total doctorates

273

329

306

323

339

340

357

385

387

432

Males

218

271

245

249

252

233

248

266

256

271

Females

55

58

61

74

87

107

109

119

131

161

Citizens

210

263

219

250

239

258

273

296

305

339

Permanent residents

19

20

40

34

37

35

32

41

26

39

Temporary residents

37

30

29

31

33

35

40

42

38

37

Unknown

7

16

18

8

30

12

12

6

18

17

Minorities

0

3

0

8

11

12

14

22

15

22

Postdoctoral training

 

Postdoctoral fellowship

22

21

37

27

16

29

39

44

31

50

Postdoctoral research

7

7

17

19

26

13

16

24

21

24

Postdoctoral traineeship

2

3

3

.

1

1

2

3

3

3

Other training

7

5

9

12

7

6

7

7

7

14

Total postdoctoral

38

36

66

58

50

49

64

78

62

91

Percent planning

14%

11%

22%

18%

15%

14%

18%

20%

16%

21%

Employment

201

247

200

225

224

255

264

269

285

297

Other

6

9

8

10

10

7

8

7

4

12

Ph.D. with plans

245

292

274

293

284

311

336

354

351

400

Time to degree

6.59

6.21

6.42

6.34

6.75

7

6.63

6.5

7.09

6.92

Registered time to degree

5.25

5.75

5.42

5.59

5.83

5.92

5.75

5.8

6

6.08

Age at time of degree

31.21

29.96

30.33

30.59

30.67

31.83

31.58

30.75

31.67

31.75

 

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Total doctorates

699

788

881

840

950

1022

1100

1208

1225

1237

Males

290

302

313

322

333

363

396

420

456

435

Females

409

486

568

518

617

659

704

788

769

802

Citizens

527

573

656

630

706

739

803

897

857

865

Permanent residents

33

38

29

34

58

48

63

91

102

87

Temporary residents

84

108

118

145

161

213

202

214

236

253

Unknown

55

69

78

31

29

30

44

15

41

41

Minorities

38

50

38

41

56

49

79

70

90

83

Postdoctoral training

 

Postdoctoral fellowship

64

71

60

85

79

111

107

156

138

136

Postdoctoral research

27

39

38

51

40

44

50

43

70

70

Postdoctoral traineeship

4

9

6

12

5

12

9

11

11

7

Other training

14

14

12

17

17

25

19

16

17

26

Total postdoctoral

109

133

116

165

141

192

185

226

236

239

Percent planning

16%

17%

13%

20%

15%

19%

17%

19%

19%

19%

Employment

506

561

659

589

725

746

820

840

850

855

Other

16

14

11

14

16

12

14

15

23

30

Ph.D. with plans

631

708

786

768

882

950

1019

1081

1109

1124

Time to degree

9.00

9.00

9.08

9.59

9.17

9.92

9.63

9.50

9.91

9.75

Registered time to degree

7.00

7.00

7.17

7.25

7.25

7.33

7.75

7.42

7.50

7.63

Age at time of degree

35.92

36.42

36.75

37.17

37.83

37.75

38.42

37.79

38.08

38.46

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Characteristics of Doctorates." National Research Council. 2005. Advancing the Nation's Health Needs: NIH Research Training Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11275.
×

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

464

524

575

526

621

619

677

273

303

319

249

262

244

259

191

221

256

277

359

375

418

370

429

457

401

492

458

489

32

33

33

30

36

32

30

53

48

64

70

66

85

93

9

14

21

25

27

44

65

14

19

30

23

34

31

32

58

45

54

37

64

55

48

27

30

29

21

22

29

38

4

5

6

3

6

2

7

16

19

7

8

12

3

16

105

99

96

69

104

89

109

23%

19%

17%

13%

17%

14%

16%

332

388

435

398

465

461

478

6

10

14

15

10

6

9

443

497

545

482

579

556

596

7.17

7.67

7.5

7.92

8.17

8.83

8.91

6

6.29

6.17

6.59

6.75

6.87

7.00

32

32.37

32.87

34.08

34.33

35.58

35.92

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

1354

1425

1338

1527

1558

1579

1574

469

474

480

518

566

510

528

885

951

858

1007

981

1069

1039

911

1003

925

1070

1036

1058

1115

77

85

81

74

76

63

60

256

266

250

275

293

300

299

126

77

92

108

153

158

100

85

97

105

116

112

106

137

131

145

137

139

190

201

219

75

66

70

65

85

74

90

10

10

18

14

11

12

24

9

9

38

26

21

16

36

225

230

263

244

307

303

369

17%

16%

20%

16%

20%

19%

26%

910

943

906

1095

1017

1024

1019

30

48

24

37

26

49

38

1165

1221

1193

1376

1350

1376

1426

10.09

10.50

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.75

10.00

7.92

8.00

7.75

7.92

7.59

8.00

7.92

38.58

38.25

37.24

38.33

36.92

38.17

37.08

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Characteristics of Doctorates." National Research Council. 2005. Advancing the Nation's Health Needs: NIH Research Training Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11275.
×

TABLE E-6 Employment Characteristics of Clinical Sciences Doctorates from U.S. Institutions, 1973–2001

 

1973

1975

1977

1979

1981

1983

1985

1987

Total employed in S&E

2,682

3,475

3,748

4,489

5,312

6,003

7,188

7,669

 

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

Minority

95

132

146

183

198

250

273

342

 

3.5%

3.8%

3.9%

4.1%

3.7%

4.2%

3.8%

4.5%

Citizens and permanent residents

2,522

3,320

3,585

4,266

5,261

5,986

7,106

7,614

 

94.0%

95.5%

95.7%

95.0%

99.0%

99.7%

98.9%

99.3%

Temporary residents

69

83

86

133

44

8

79

55

 

2.6%

2.4%

2.3%

3.0%

0.8%

0.1%

1.1%

0.7%

Total academics

1,478

1,856

2,064

2,564

2,963

3,225

3,938

4,164

 

55.1%

53.4%

55.1%

57.1%

55.8%

53.7%

54.8%

54.3%

Faculty with rank appointments

1,359

1,615

1,774

2,259

2,642

2,922

3,413

3,675

 

50.7%

46.5%

47.3%

50.3%

49.7%

48.7%

47.5%

47.9%

Tenured faculty

276

931

1,031

1,271

1,424

1,516

1,968

1,960

 

10.3%

26.8%

27.5%

28.3%

26.8%

25.3%

27.4%

25.6%

Tenure-track faculty (not tenured)

1,083

684

743

565

780

921

1,002

931

 

40.4%

19.7%

19.8%

12.6%

14.7%

15.3%

13.9%

12.1%

Academic postdoctorates

40

107

108

105

139

100

177

90

 

1.5%

3.1%

2.9%

2.3%

2.6%

1.7%

2.5%

1.2%

Other academic appointments

79

78

104

231

182

203

348

399

 

2.9%

2.2%

2.8%

5.1%

3.4%

3.4%

4.8%

5.2%

Industry (nonpostdoctorate)

536

739

733

992

1,259

1,485

1,793

1,940

 

20.0%

21.3%

19.6%

22.1%

23.7%

24.7%

24.9%

25.3%

Industrial postdoctorates

0

0

0

0

0

8

5

14

 

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

0.1%

0.1%

0.2%

Government (nonpostdoctorate)

383

491

462

446

527

585

689

745

 

14.3%

14.1%

12.3%

9.9%

9.9%

9.7%

9.6%

9.7%

Government postdoctorates

5

9

8

11

35

34

14

8

 

0.2%

0.3%

0.2%

0.2%

0.7%

0.6%

0.2%

0.1%

Other sectors (nonpostdoctorate)

257

358

437

422

489

585

724

747

 

9.6%

10.3%

11.7%

9.4%

9.2%

9.7%

10.1%

9.7%

Other-sector postdoctorates

23

22

18

14

12

60

25

13

 

0.9%

0.6%

0.5%

0.3%

0.2%

1.0%

0.3%

0.2%

Doctorates with federal research support

1,416

1,804

1,836

2,041

2,179

2,416

2,307

3,272

 

52.8%

51.9%

49.0%

45.5%

41.0%

40.2%

32.1%

42.7%

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Characteristics of Doctorates." National Research Council. 2005. Advancing the Nation's Health Needs: NIH Research Training Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11275.
×

 

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

Total employed in S&E

8,736

9,506

10,748

11,996

14,069

15,268

17,180

 

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

Minority

533

574

760

899

1,092

1,347

1,497

 

6.1%

6.0%

7.1%

7.5%

7.8%

8.8%

8.7%

Citizens and permanent residents

8,669

9,422

10,573

11,938

13,875

14,933

16,822

 

99.2%

99.1%

98.4%

99.5%

98.6%

97.8%

97.9%

Temporary residents

53

84

175

58

194

335

358

 

0.6%

0.9%

1.6%

0.5%

1.4%

2.2%

2.1%

Total academics

4,600

5,065

5,827

6,684

7,609

8,855

9,730

 

52.7%

53.3%

54.2%

55.7%

54.1%

58.0%

56.6%

Faculty with rank appointments

4,046

4,402

5,084

5,705

6,325

7,374

8,124

 

46.3%

46.3%

47.3%

47.6%

45.0%

48.3%

47.3%

Tenured faculty

1,925

2,156

2,341

2,770

3,081

3,507

3,647

 

22.0%

22.7%

21.8%

23.1%

21.9%

23.0%

21.2%

Tenure-track faculty (not tenured)

1,424

1,339

1,784

1,988

1,878

2,138

2,384

 

16.3%

14.1%

16.6%

16.6%

13.3%

1.4%

13.9%

Academic postdoctorates

99

169

144

342

416

324

321

 

1.1%

1.8%

1.3%

2.9%

3.0%

2.1%

1.9%

Other academic appointments

455

494

599

637

868

1,157

1,285

 

5.2%

5.2%

5.6%

5.3%

6.2%

7.6%

7.5%

Industry (nonpostdoctorate)

2,341

2,530

2,869

2,923

3,568

3,731

4,413

 

26.8%

26.6%

26.7%

24.4%

25.4%

24.4%

25.7%

Industrial postdoctorates

3

4

4

17

49

10

21

 

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

0.1%

0.3%

0.1%

0.1%

Government (nonpostdoctorate)

1,034

946

1,144

1,309

1,467

1,250

1,604

 

11.8%

10.0%

10.6%

10.9%

10.4%

8.2%

9.3%

Government postdoctorates

18

0

67

101

47

50

30

 

0.2%

0.0%

0.6%

0.8%

0.3%

0.3%

0.2%

Other sectors (nonpostdoctorate)

717

890

816

936

1,311

1,349

1,339

 

8.2%

9.4%

7.6%

7.8%

9.3%

8.8%

7.8%

Other-sector postdoctorates

8

10

21

26

18

23

43

 

0.1%

0.1%

0.2%

0.2%

0.1%

0.2%

0.3%

Doctorates with federal research support

3,896

4,125

3,016

3,323

3,849

5,172

5,822

 

44.6%

43.4%

28.1%

27.7%

27.4%

33.9%

33.9%

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E Characteristics of Doctorates." National Research Council. 2005. Advancing the Nation's Health Needs: NIH Research Training Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11275.
×

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The National Institutes of Health’s role in supporting research has long been recognized as a major factor in advancing the health needs in the nation and the world. The National Research Council was charged with the responsibility of periodically assessing the National Institutes of Health’s National Research Service Awards program, thus this book is the twelfth edition in the series. While the National Research Service Awards program now supports only a fraction of the training in the biomedical, clinical, behavioral, and social sciences, it sets a high standard for the training in all doctoral programs in these fields. Also included are the training needs of oral health, nursing, and health services research. This book has been broadly constructed to take into account the rapidly evolving national and international health care needs. The past and present are analyzed and predictions with regard to future needs are presented.

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