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Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects (2005)

Chapter: Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations

« Previous: Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations." National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11283.
×

B
Dispersant Authorizations

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations." National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11283.
×

Caribbean

Pre-authorization

Case-by-Case Authorization

Restricted/Exclusion Areas

Special Considerations

Puerto Rico

1) Waters at least 1/2 nautical mile (nm) seaward of any shoreline extending to the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ);

2) Water depth at least 60 feet.

1) Waters within 1/2 nm of the shoreline;

2) Water depth less than 60 feet;

3) Waters designated as marine reserves, National Marine Sanctuaries, National or State Wildlife Refuges, or proposed or designated Critical Habitats;

4) Waters in mangroves or coastal wetland ecosystems (including submerged algal beds and submerged sea grass beds), or directly over coral communities which are in less than 60 feet of water.

N/A

N/A

U.S. Virgin Islands

1) Waters at least 1 nm seaward of any shoreline extending to the EEZ;

2) Water depth at least 60 feet.

1) Waters within 1 nm of the shoreline;

2) Water depth less than 60 feet;

3) Waters designated as marine reserves, National Marine Sanctuaries, National or State Wildlife Refuges, or proposed or designated Critical Habitats;

4) Waters in mangroves or coastal wetland ecosystems (including submerged algal beds and submerged sea grass beds), or directly over coral communities which are in less than 60 feet of water.

1) Waters of the Virgin Islands National Park including waters 1 nm seaward of the park boundary;**

2) Waters of the Buck Island Reef National Monument including waters 1 nm seaward from the park boundary.**

**Dispersants may be applied to a Restricted Area in the event that:

1) Dispersant application is necessary to prevent or substantially reduce a hazard to human life; and/or

2) An emergency modification of this Agreement is made on an incident-specific basis.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations." National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11283.
×

Region 1

Pre-authorization

Expedited Authorization

Trial Application Zones

Restricted/Exclusion Areas

Special Considerations

Maine & New Hampshire

1) Waters at least 1/2 nm seaward of shoreline extending to the EEZ.

1) Waters within 1/2 nm seaward of shoreline;

2) Concurrence of Federal On-Scene Coordinator (FOSC) and State OSC(s).

N/A

N/A

1) Isle of Shoals (New Hampshire Fish & Game)

2) 1/2 nm to 2 nm (Dept. of the Interior 1-hour consultation)

3) 1/2 to 2 nm from DOI-owned or-managed islands between January 1st and March 1st & May 1st & August 1st (DOI concurrence);

4) Jeffrey’s Ledge between April 1st & September 30th (NMFS).

Massachusetts & Rhode Island

1) Waters under the jurisdiction of the COTP-Boston and COTP-Providence seaward of 2 nm of the mainland or of designated islands extending to the EEZ;

2) Water depth is greater than 40 feet.

N/A

N/A

N/A

1) Jeffrey’s Ledge between May 1st and September 30th (NMFS);

2) Stellwagen Bank between May 1st and November 15th (SBNMS Sanctuary Manager);

3) Great South

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations." National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11283.
×

Region 1

Pre-authorization

Expedited Authorization

Trial Application Zones

Restricted/Exclusion Areas

Special Considerations

Massachusetts & Rhode Island

 

Channel between May 1st and June 30th and October 1st and November 15th (NFMS);

4) Cape Cod Bay between February 1st and May 15th.

Long Island Sound, CT

1) Waters under the jurisdiction of the COTP-NY and/or COTP-Long Island Sound at least 3 nm seaward of the Territorial Sea Baseline;1

2) Waters along the coastline of NJ and/or the south shore of Long Island Sound, NY (north of the demarcation of the jurisdiction of COTP Philadelphia), west of a line from Montauk Point Light bearing 132° True to the outermost extent of the EEZ.

N/A

1) Waters as defined in the Pre-authorization zone between 1/2 and 3 nm from the Territorial Sea Baseline;1

2) Trial application may also be conducted in the following water bodies: Hudson River south of the George Washington Bridge; Upper New York Bay; The Narrows; Lower New York Bay; Raritan Bay, excluding Spermaceti Cove and not within 1/2 nm of Sandy Hook, NJ;

1) Waters under jurisdiction of COTP-NY and COTP-Long Island Sound that lie within 1/2 nm of the Territorial Sea Baseline, including all bays and coves.

2) Also includes the Hudson River north of the Tappan Zee Bridge and Long Island Sound, with the exception of the COTP-NY AOR falling into the Trial Application Zone.

N/A

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations." National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11283.
×

 

Arthur Kill; Newark Bay up to mouths of the Passaic and Hackensack Rivers; Kill Van Kull; East River south of Throgs Neck Bridge; Long Island Sound within COTP-NY AOR only, excluding Little Bay, Little Neck Bay, Manhasset Bay, Hempstead Harbor, Eastchester Bay, Pelham Bay and not within 1/2 nm of the northern shore of Long Island.

 

Region 2

Pre-authorization

Trial Application

New York & New Jersey

1) Waters under the jurisdiction of COTP-NY and COTP-Long Island Sound at least 3 nm of the Territorial Sea Baseline1 along the coast of New Jersey (north of the demarcation of the jurisdiction of COTP-Philadelphia) and along the south shore of Long Island, NY west of a line from Montauk Point Light bearing 132° True to the outermost extent of the EEZ.

1) Waters under the jurisdiction of COTP-NY and COTP-Long Island Sound that lie between 1/2 and 3 nm from the Territorial Sea Baseline. In addition, specific water bodies are also included in Zone 2, and are as follows: Hudson River south of George Washington Bridge Upper New York Bay The Narrows Lower New York Bay Raritan Bay excluding Spermaceti Cove and not within 1/2 nautical miles of Sandy Hook, New Jersey Arthur Kill Newark Bay up to mouths of Passaic and Hackensack Rivers Kill Van Kull East River south of Throgs Neck Bridge Long Island Sound within COTP-NY area of

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations." National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11283.
×

Region 2

Pre-authorization

Trial Application

New York & New Jersey (cont’d.)

2) Including Ambrose Channel south of a line drawn between East Rockaway Inlet Breakwater Light and Sandy Hook Light and seaward of a line connecting the 10-meter soundings off the coasts of NJ and NY.

responsibility only, excluding Little Bay, Little Neck Bay, Manhasset Bay, Hempstead Harbor, Eastchester Bay, Pelham Bay and not within 1/2 nm of the northern shore of Long Island.

Region 3

Pre-authorization

Trial Application Zones

Restricted/Exclusion Areas

Coastal Delaware, Maryland, Virginia

1) Waters greater than 3 nm seaward of shoreline to the outermost extent of the EEZ.

1) Trial application may be conducted at distances 1/2 to 3 nm seaward of the shoreline or in depths greater than 40 feet, excluding bays and coves;

2) Without concurrence, the FOSC may authorize trial application on spills of only 50 bbls or less, or on portions 50 bbls or less of larger spills;

3) Concurrence/non-concurrence decision is limited to within 4 hours after agency communication has been established.

1) Limited pre-authorization granted for trial use only on spills 50 bbls or less, or on portions 50 bbls or less of larger spills, on waters within Big Stone Beach Anchorage in the Delaware Bay area;

2) Waters within 1/2 nm of shoreline;

3) Water depth less than 40 feet;

4) Limited to concurrence obtained within 4 hours after agency communication has been established.

Region 4

Pre-authorization

Case-by-Case Authorization

Special Considerations

North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi

1) Waters at least 3 nm seaward of shoreline extending to the EEZ;

2) Water depth is at least 10 meters.

1) Waters within 3 nm of shoreline;

2) Water depth less than 10 meters;

3) Waters that are under State or federal special management jurisdiction, which includes anywaters designated as marine reserves, National Marine Sanctuaries, National or State Wildlife Refuges, units of

**Special Case for West Coast of FL:

1) State waters extend 9 nm seaward into the Gulf of Mexico;

2) No case-by-case authorization will be required or considered necessary from EPA, DOI, DOC, or the State of Florida for waters greater than 10 meters in depth that extend

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations." National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11283.
×

 

the National Park Service, or proposed or designated Critical Habitats; 4) Waters are in mangrove and coastal wetland ecosystems (which includes submerged algal beds and submerged sea grass beds), or directly over living coral communities, which are in less than 10 meters deep.

more than 3 nm seaward on FL’s West Coast unless designated as meeting case-by-case criteria.

Region 6

Pre-authorization

Special Considerations

Texas & Louisiana

1) Waters farther. than 3 nm seaward of shoreline; or

2) Water depth greater than 10 meters, whichever is farthest from shore extending to the EEZ

1) All dispersant spray operations are conducted during daylight hours only;

2) Flower Gardens National Marine Sanctuary:

A. Decision to apply dispersants must be based upon the weather, sea state, water temperature, oil characteristics, history of spill, and risk of spill contact for particular life forms;

B. All efforts must be made to apply them in water as deep as possible and as far from the Sanctuary as possible.

Region 9

Pre-authorization

Case-by-Case Authorization/RRT Approval Required

Special Considerations

California (North Coast Region: From the California-Oregon border to the southern edge of Sonoma County)

1) All federal waters off the north coast region 3–200 nm seaward.

N/A

N/A

San Diego Area

1) All federal waters 3–200 nm seaward

1) Federal waters of the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary (CINMS), including those waters 3 nm seaward of the baseline to the

1) Pre-authorization criteria do not

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations." National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11283.
×

Region 9

Pre-authorization

Case-by-Case Authorization/RRT Approval Required

Special Considerations

San Diego Area

within the COTP-San Diego AOR excluding an area 3 nm from the U.S./Mexico border.

Sanctuary’s outer boundary at 6 nm from the islands;

2) All remaining federal waters within COTP-San Diego area of responsibility not covered by the above zones remain under the current “Quick Approval Process” and are designated, “RRT Approval Required” zones.

apply to Group I oils (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels).

San Francisco, Central Coast (Santa Cruz & Monterey counties), and San Francisco Bay & Delta

1) All federal waters 3–200 nm with the Central Coast region, the San Francisco Bay, and Delta AOR.

2) All federal waters 6–200 nm seaward of the Monterrey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS).

1) Federal waters of the Gulf of the Farallones, Cordell Bank, and the portion of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary within the San Francisco Bay and Delta AOR are designated as “RRT Approval Required.”

2) All remaining waters within the San Francisco Bay and Delta AOR not covered by the above zones, remain under the current “Quick Approval Process” and are designated, “RRT Approval Required” zones.

N/A

Los Angeles-Long Beach

1) All federal waters 3–200 nm with the COTP LA/LB.

1) The Federal waters of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS) within the Los Angeles-Long Beach region, and up to 3 nautical miles beyond the MBNMS as “RRT Approval Required;”

2) The Federal waters of the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary (CINMS) as “RRT Approval Required.” This include those waters from 3 nautical miles seaward of the baseline to the Sanctuary’s outer boundary at 6 nautical miles from the islands.

3) All remaining waters within our area of responsibility not covered by the above zones remain under the current “Quick Approval Process” and are designated “RRT Approval Required.”

N/A

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations." National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11283.
×

Region 10

Pre-authorization

Case-by-Case Authorization

Restricted/Exclusion Areas

Special Considerations

Pacific Northwest

N/A

1) All requests for dispersant application in the States of Washington and Oregon are subject to review on a case-by-case basis.

N/A

N/A

Alaska

Please refer to Alaska Dispersant link for detailed information.

Please refer to Alaska Dispersant link for detailed information.

Dispersant use is not recommended in the following zones:

1) Upper Cook Inlet: Inshore of the 5-fathom isobath, during the first 3 hours of an ebb tide, and for all periods outside of that, an area north of a line extending from Point Possession to the North Forelands;

2) Middle Cook Inlet: Inshore of the 5-fathom isobath near the northeast shoreline and inshore of the 10-fathom isobath along the southeast and west shorelines;

3) Lower Cook Inlet: Inshore of the 10-fathom isobath along the east and west shorelines, inshore of the 5-fathom isobath around Kalgin Island, and inshore of a 1-mile buffer along the extreme southern portions of Cook Inlet, where the 10-fathom isobath drops off rapidly near the shore;

4) Port of Valdez and Valdez Arm: Tatitlek Narrows and Columbia Bay;

5) Main Body of Prince William Sound: The

1) Cook Inlet: Due to the large numbers of commercially valuable adult salmon, the section of Cook Inlet north of a line drawn along the latitude at Anchor Point north of Kachemak Bay is considered to be “Case-by-Case” during the period from July 1st–August 15th

2) Prince William Sound: The tanker lanes have a pre-authorization designation, while most of the

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations." National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11283.
×

Region 10

Pre-authorization

Case-by-Case Authorization

Restricted/Exclusion Areas

Special Considerations

Alaska

 

majority of the waters within this section, with the exception of tanker lanes and an appropriate buffer zone to either side of these lanes;

6) Hinchinbrook Entrance: The area around Seal Rocks;

7) Copper River Delta: Inshore of the 3-mile territorial limit along the coast from Cape Hinchinbrook to Kayak Island;

8) Montague Island: Inshore of a line drawn approximately 1 nm off the outside coasts of Montague and Elrington Islands and extending east to Cape Junken.

remaining area is “Case-by-Case”

3) Please refer to Alaska’s Dispersant Use Policy for more in-depth guidelines concerning Cook Inlet and Prince William Sound.

Oceania

Pre-authorization

Case-by-Case Authorization

Guam

N/A

N/A

Hawaii

1) Water depths greater than 10 fathoms, with the exception of the Maui County four-island area bounded by La’au Point, Molokai to Kaena Point, Lanai; Kamaiki Point, Lanai to Cape Kuikui, Kahoolawe; Cape Kuikui, Kahoolawe to Cape Hanamanioa, Maui; and Lipoa Point, Maui to Cape Halawa, Molokai.

1) In any case where circumstances do not meet the guidelines, use of dispersants is subject to case-by-case authorization.

American Samoa

N/A

1) Any applications of dispersants within the American Samoa AOR must be authorized by the Oceania Regional Response Team.

1Reference 33 CFR 2.05-10 for the definition of Territorial Sea Baseline.

SOURCE: Categorized by National Response Team Region; U.S. Coast Guard, http://www.uscg.mil/vrp/maps/popups/Dispersant%20Table%20Aug%2026.doc.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations." National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11283.
×
Page 339
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations." National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11283.
×
Page 340
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations." National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11283.
×
Page 341
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations." National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11283.
×
Page 342
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations." National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11283.
×
Page 343
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations." National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11283.
×
Page 344
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations." National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11283.
×
Page 345
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations." National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11283.
×
Page 346
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations." National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11283.
×
Page 347
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Dispersant Authorizations." National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11283.
×
Page 348
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Approximately 3 million gallons of oil or refined petroleum products are spilled into U.S. waters every year. Oil dispersants (chemical agents such as surfactants, solvents, and other compounds) are used to reduce the effect of oil spills by changing the chemical and physical properties of the oil. By enhancing the amount of oil that physically mixes into the water, dispersants can reduce the potential that a surface slick will contaminate shoreline habitats. Although called for in the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 as a tool for minimizing the impact of oil spills, the use of chemical dispersants has long been controversial. This book reviews the adequacy of existing information and ongoing research regarding the effectiveness of dispersants as an oil spill response technique, as well as the effect of dispersed oil on marine and coastal ecosystems. Oil Spill Dispersants also includes recommended steps for policy makers faced with making hard choices regarding the use of dispersants as part of spill contingency planning efforts or during actual spills.

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