Committee Member and Staff Biographies
Robert F. Sproull, Chair, vice president and fellow at Sun Microsystems, founded and led the Massachusetts branch of Sun Microsystems Laboratories for more than 10 years. Now he serves in a research role. Since undergraduate days, he has been building hardware and software for computer graphics: clipping hardware, an early, device-independent graphics package; page-description languages; laser printing software; and window systems. He has also been involved in very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuit design, especially of asynchronous circuits and systems. Prior to joining Sun, he was a principal with Sutherland, Sproull and Associates; an associate professor at Carnegie Mellon University; and a member of the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center. He is a coauthor with William Newman of the early text Principles of Interactive Computer Graphics. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and has served on several National Research Council (NRC) committees, including the CSTB committee that produced Making IT Better.
Howard Besser is an associate professor in the School of Education and Information Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he teaches courses and does research on digital longevity, multimedia, image databases, digital libraries, intellectual property, instructional technology, and the social and cultural impact of new information technologies. For the past decade, Dr. Besser has been involved in digital longevity issues for cultural heritage materials. He served on the 1995 Commission on Preservation and Access Task Force on Preservation of Digital Information, and wrote the background paper on digital longevity for the Getty Research Institute’s 1998 Time and Bits Digital Longevity Conference. In 2001 he served on the University of California’s Task Force on Digital Preservation and Archiving, and he ran a series of workshops on digital longevity for the San Francisco Museum of Modern
Art. In the past few years, Dr. Besser has authored three pieces on digital longevity. He recently joined the InterPARES Project (International Research on Permanent Authentic Records in Electronic Systems) and will be the founding director of New York University’s new master’s degree in moving image archiving. Dr. Besser served on a previous NRC/CSTB committee that examined intellectual property in the digital age and produced the report The Digital Dilemma. He received his B.A. (1976), M.L.S. (1977), and Ph.D. (1988) from the University of California, Berkeley.
Jamie Callan is an associate professor at Carnegie Mellon University. His background is in information retrieval and machine learning. His recent research on information retrieval addresses automatic database selection, high-speed adaptive information filtering, novelty detection, question answering, and information literacy in K-12 education. His earlier research studied architectures for large-scale information retrieval and filtering systems, first-generation Web-search systems, methods of improving search accuracy, and integration of text search with relational database systems.
Charles Dollar is a consultant in archiving and records management, currently addressing the archival preservation of Smithsonian Institution Web resources. He has 20 years’ experience working at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). While he was on the NARA staff, Dr. Dollar organized and directed the first electronic records program for the federal government and subsequently had a major role in research projects on digital technology standards, digital storage media, and digital imaging applications in electronic archiving. In 1994 Dr. Dollar joined the graduate faculty of the School of Library, Information, and Archival Studies at the University of British Columbia, where he taught in the Archival Studies Program. In 1999 he joined Cohasset Associates as a senior consultant. Dr. Dollar’s publications, reports, and consultant studies are noted for their clarity in explaining digital technology issues and for providing practical guidance on such matters as planning and implementing effective life-cycle electronic records management programs with an emphasis on electronic archiving. Dr. Dollar is a fellow of the Society of American Archivists. He has a Ph.D. in history from the University of Kentucky.
Stuart Haber is a researcher at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories. Along with Scott Stornetta, he was a co-founder of Surety, Inc., which was spun off by Bellcore in 1993 to commercialize the secure digital time-stamping technology that the two of them developed as researchers at Bellcore (now Telcordia Technologies). In addition to Bellcore and Surety, he has also worked as a researcher in STAR Laboratory, the research arm of InterTrust Technologies, which provides digital rights management systems. Dr. Haber received his B.A. from Harvard University and his M.S. from Stanford University, both in mathematics, and his Ph.D. in computer science from Columbia University in 1988. He has lectured and published scientific articles on several practical and theoretical aspects of cryptology, on the theory of computing, and in electrical engineering.
Margaret Hedstrom is an associate professor in the School of Information at the University of Michigan, where she teaches in the areas of archives, electronic records management, and digital preservation. Prior to joining the faculty at Michigan in 1995, she worked for 10 years at the New York State Archives and Records Administration, where she was chief of State Records
Advisory Services and director of the Center for Electronic Records. Dr. Hedstrom earned her master’s degrees in library science and history and a Ph.D. in history from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. She wrote a dissertation on the history of office automation in the 1950s and 1960s. She is a fellow of the Society of American Archivists and was the first recipient of the annual Award for Excellence in New York State Government Information Services. She served on the CSTB study committee that wrote LC21: A Digital Strategy for the Library of Congress. Dr. Hedstrom is widely published on various aspects of archival management, electronic records, and preservation in digital environments, and she has served as a consultant to many government archival programs. Her current research interests include digital preservation strategies, the impact of electronic communications on organizational memory and documentation, and remote access to archival materials.
Mark Kornbluh is an associate professor of history at Michigan State University and the director of MATRIX: The Center for Humane Arts, Letters, and Social Sciences On-line. Dr. Kornbluh also serves as executive director for H-Net: Humanities and Social Sciences OnLine, an international scholarly society composed of more than 140 online networks, edited by scholars in North America, Europe, Africa, and the Pacific. He is the principal investigator on research and education projects funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of State, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the Andrew Mellon and Ford Foundations. The impact of new communications technologies on scholarly research and education is the prime focus of Dr. Kornbluh’s research interests. In addition to awards for excellence in teaching, he has been the recipient of a number of grants to create multimedia teaching tools and resources. He has also authored a book on voter participation in the early part of the 20th century, Why America Stopped Voting: The Decline of Participatory Democracy and the Emergence of Modern Electoral Politics, 1880-1918 (New York University Press). He earned a B.A. in history and political science from the University of California, Berkeley (1977) and an M.A. (1979) and a Ph.D. (1988) in history from the Johns Hopkins University.
Raymond Lorie is a research staff member at the IBM Almaden Research Center in San Jose, California. He graduated as Ingénieur Civil Electricien-Mécanicien from the University of Brussels, Belgium, and joined IBM Belgium in 1960. On assignment in Cambridge, Massachusetts he developed one of the very first access methods for relational data. He joined IBM Research in San Jose in 1973 and did pioneering work in relational database systems. Dr. Lorie was a major contributor to the architecture and implementation of System R, the early research prototype that became the precursor of the relational products. In later years, he managed projects on the application of the relational technology to engineering and other nonbusiness areas and on the use of parallelism in database systems. At various points in his career, Dr. Lorie dealt with document processing, from the design of a typesetting system in the early days to the co-invention of the Geography Markup Language (GML), the application of contextual knowledge to improve automatic recognition of characters, and finally the development of a technology to preserve digital documents for the very long term. He is a fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). For several years, he taught a graduate class on database topics at the University of California, Santa Cruz. His work on System R brought him an IBM Corporate Award; he also shared with colleagues from IBM and the University of California, Berkeley, the 1988 ACM System Award for developing the relational technology.
Clifford Lynch has been the director of the Coalition for Networked Information (CNI) since July 1997. CNI, jointly sponsored by the Association of Research Libraries and Educause, includes about 200 member organizations concerned with the use of information technology and networked information to enhance scholarship and intellectual productivity. Prior to joining CNI, Dr. Lynch spent 18 years at the University of California Office of the President, the last 10 as Director of Library Automation. He is an adjunct professor at Berkeley’s School of Information Management and Systems. He is a past president of the American Society for Information Science and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the National Information Standards Organization. Dr. Lynch currently serves on the Internet 2 Applications Council and the National Digital Preservation Strategy Advisory Board of the Library of Congress. He was a member of the National Research Council/CSTB committee that published The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age, and he served on CSTB’s Committee on Broadband Last Mile Technology, which produced the report Broadband: Bringing Home the Bits. He holds a bachelor of arts in mathematics and computer science from Columbia College, a master of science in computer science from the Columbia University School of Engineering, and a Ph.D. in computer science from the University of California, Berkeley.
Jerome H. Saltzer is a professor of computer science, emeritus, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Since 1966, he has taught at MIT, where he helped formulate the undergraduate curriculum in computer science and developed the core subject on the engineering of computer systems. At the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science he developed RUNOFF, the ancestor of most typesetting formatters. It, together with the context editor TYPSET, constituted one of the first widely used word-processing systems. He participated in the refinement of the Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS) and was involved in all aspects of the design and implementation of the Multiplexed Information and Computing Service (Multics), including the design of the first kernel thread package, the first time-of-century clock and, in the early 1970s, a project to develop what would today be known as a microkernel. Together with David Clark and David Reed, Professor Saltzer articulated the end-to-end argument, a key organizing principle of the Internet. More recently, his research activities have involved the design of a token-passing ring local area network, networking of personal computers, and designing the electronic library of the future. From 1984 through 1988 he was technical director of MIT’s Project Athena, a system for undergraduate education comprising networked engineering workstations, and probably the first successful implementation of the network computer. Throughout this work, he has had a particular interest in the impact of computer systems on society, especially on privacy and the risks of depending on fragile technology. In September 1995, Professor Saltzer retired from the full-time faculty. He continues to write and teach about computer systems part-time from his MIT office. Professor Saltzer is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a former member of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board. He served on CSTB’s Committee on Information Technology Strategy for the Library of Congress. He is a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and the AAAS, a member of the Association for Computing Machinery, Sigma Xi, Eta Kappa Nu, and Tau Beta Pi; he is also a member of the Mayor’s Telecommunications Advisory Board for the City of Newton, Massachusetts. He received the degrees of S.B. in 1961, S.M. in 1963, and Sc.D. in 1966, from MIT, all in electrical engineering.
Margo Seltzer is the Herchel Smith Professor of Computer Science and the associate dean for computer science and engineering in the Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences at Harvard University. She is also the founder, chairman of the board, and chief technical officer for Sleepycat Software, which produces Berkeley DB, an embedded, transactional data store. Her research interests include file systems, databases, and transaction processing systems. She is the author of several widely used software packages, including database and transaction libraries and the 4.4BSD log-structured file system. Dr. Seltzer spent several years working at start-up companies designing and implementing file systems and transaction processing software and designing microprocessors. She is a Sloan Foundation Fellow in Computer Science, a Bunting Fellow, and was the recipient of the 1996 Radcliffe Junior Faculty Fellowship, and the University of California Microelectronics Scholarship. She is recognized as an outstanding teacher, winning the Phi Beta Kappa teaching award in 1996 and the Abrahmson Teaching Award in 1999. Dr. Seltzer received an A.B. degree in applied mathematics from Harvard/ Radcliffe College in 1983 and a Ph.D. in computer science from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1992.
Robert Wilensky is professor in the Computer Science Division and the School of Information Management and Systems at the University of California, Berkeley, where he has spent his entire professorial career. While at Berkeley, Dr. Wilensky has served as director of the University of California, Berkeley/Hewlett Packard Science Center, director of the Cognitive Science Program, director of the Artificial Intelligence Research Project, and as chair of the Computer Science Division from 1993 to 1997. Dr. Wilensky has published numerous articles and books in the area of artificial intelligence, planning, knowledge representation, natural language processing, and digital information systems. He is currently principal investigator of the University of California, Berkeley’s Digital Library Project. Dr. Wilensky is a fellow of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence and an ACM fellow.
Jon Eisenberg is a senior program officer with the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Research Council. At CSTB, he has been study director for a diverse body of work, including a series of studies exploring networking technologies and Internet and broadband policy. Current studies include an examination of emerging wireless technologies and spectrum policy and a review of the National Archives and Records Administration’s digital materials preservation strategy. From 1995 to 1997 he was a AAAS Science, Engineering, and Diplomacy Fellow at the U.S. Agency for International Development where he worked on environmental management, technology transfer, and telecommunications policy issues. He received his B.S. in physics with honors from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst in 1988 and his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Washington in 1996.
Jennifer M. Bishop, program associate, has been with the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Research Council since 2001. She provides research assistance for several studies, including Telecommunications Research and Development and Digital Archiving and the National Archives and Records Administration. She also maintains CSTB’s contact database; manages the content of the CSTB Web site; coordinates the layout and design
of Update, the CSTB newsletter; and designs book covers and promotional materials for out-reach purposes. Prior to her move to Washington, D.C., Ms. Bishop worked for the City of Ithaca, New York, coordinating the Police Department’s transition to an SQL-based time accrual and scheduling application. Her other work experience includes designing customized hospitality industry performance reports for a research firm, maintaining the police records database for the City of Ithaca, and freelance publication design. She is a visual artist working in oil and mixed media. She holds a B.F.A from Cornell University.