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G Glossary Acceptable Macronutrient A range of intakes (represented as percent of Distribution Range energy intake) for a particular energy source that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients. Adequate Intake, AI The recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate--used when an RDA cannot be determined (IOM, 2004). basal metabolic rate The rate at which energy is used by the body to maintain basal metabolism when a person is awake but inactive and has fasted for 14 to 18 hours. The BMR typically accounts for 60 to 70 percent of daily energy use, but its value depends on body weight and other factors. body mass index A key index for relating a person's body weight to their height. The body mass index is a person's weight in kilograms (kg) divided by their height in meters (m) squared and is associated with body fat and health risk. 493
494 MINERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR MILITARY PERSONNEL Chvostek sign Tap over the facial nerve about 2 cm anterior to the tragus of the ear. Depending on the calcium level, a graded response will occur: twitching first at the angle of the mouth, then by the nose, the eye, and the facial muscles. delayed type skin Test used as an indicator of the immune system hypersensitivity function and that shows skin tissue injury due to phagocytic cell activation and inflammation induced by cell-mediated immunity. In experi- mental animal models, the injury is characterized by a granulomatous response consisting of mac- rophages, monocytes, and T lymphocytes. Dietary Reference Quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes that Intake can be used for planning and assessing diets for apparently healthy people. Estimated Average The average daily nutrient intake level estimated Requirement to meet the requirement of half the healthy indi- viduals in a particular life stage and gender group (IOM, 2004). garrison feeding Food consumption by military personnel who are under a variety of scenarios that range from administrative duties to support tasks performed by personnel to soldiers training for or perform- ing missions while living on a military base. generally recognized Status of a food ingredient based on common as safe knowledge about the safety of the ingredient through the scientific community that is know- ledgeable in food toxicology and related disci- plines specific to the safety and intended use of the ingredient under consideration. military dietary Nutritional standards, based on the Food and reference intake Nutrition Board's Dietary Reference Intakes, and intended for use by professional personnel in- volved in menu development, menu evaluation, nutrition education, nutrition research, and food research and development.
APPENDIX G 495 niacin equivalent Because, 60 mg of the amino acid tryptophan is equivalent to 1 mg of preformed dietary niacin, niacin equivalents are estimated by adding pre- formed niacin intake plus 1/60th of tryptophan intake. operational feeding Consumption of either full- or restricted-calorie rations while engaged in military operations or training. Profile of Mood States A 65-item, adjective rating subjective scale that measures moods and was used in the National Hospice Study and The Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes, and Risks of Treatments. Recommended Dietary The average daily dietary nutrient intake level Allowance sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group (IOM, 2004). retinol equivalent The specific biological activity of 1.0 microgram of all-trans retinol, 6.0 micrograms of b-carotene, or 12.0 micrograms of other provitamin A caro- tenoids; it is equivalent to 3.3 international units of vitamin A activity from retinol (10 from b-carotene). Tolerable Upper Intake The highest average daily nutrient intake level Level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects may increase (IOM, 2004). Trousseau sign Inflation of a blood pressure cuff above the systolic pressure causes local ulnar and median nerve ischemia, resulting in carpal spasm. VO2max The maximum amount (usually expressed as a volume, liter) of oxygen that an individual can consume in a defined period of time (usually 1
496 MINERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR MILITARY PERSONNEL minute). It may be expressed per kilogram of body weight (ml/kg/min). It reflects the upper limit of aerobic metabolism and limited by the amount of oxygen that can be delivered into the working muscle cells. Basically a product of the maximal cardiac output and maximal arterial- venous oxygen difference at the capillary-cell interface. REFERENCE IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2004. Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.