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125 Index A AASCU. See American Association of State Colleges and Universities AAUP. See American Association of University Professors ACE. See American Council on Education ACE Fellows Program, 105 ACE Network, 106 Action steps, 114â117 for deans and provosts, 47, 70, 85, 99, 108, 115â116 for department chairs, 47, 70, 85, 99, 108, 115 for faculty, 47, 70, 85, 99, 108, 114 for presidents, 47, 70, 85, 99, 108, 116â 117 Administrative positions, policies to advance women into, 3 Admissions process, revising, 36 Advanced placement (AP) examinees, 15â 17 in computer science, 33 Advice networks, 59. See also Student advising Adviser, Teacher, Role Model, Friend: On Being a Mentor to Students in Science and Engineering, 60 African American female students, 18â23, 37 Alienation within departments, a cultural barrier facing women faculty, 91â93 American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), 104â106 American Association of University Professors (AAUP), 6 American College President Study, 101 American Council on Education (ACE), 101, 106â107 AP. See Advanced placement examinees Asian American female students, 18â23, 37 ASPIRE (Alabama Supercomputing Program to Inspire Computational Research in Education) project, 33 Assessments, collecting statistics needed for, 82 Association of American Universities, 66 Audits. See Institutional audits B Bachelorâs degrees awarded by field and gender, 17â18 in science and engineering, number of women receiving, 28 Baylor University, 63 Benefits access to medical and dental, 45â46 lower for women faculty, 102
126 INDEX Big sister/little sister programs, 59 Black female students, 18â23, 37 Bridging programs, developing, 39 Bring Your Daughter to Work Day, 36 Bryn Mawr College, 105 C Candidates casting a broader net to identify, 81â82 improving the positions of, 83â84 Career Day for Girls, 36 Carnegie Corporation, 106 Carnegie Mellon University, 56 Celebration of women in computing, 59 Center for Policy Analysis, 107 Challenges, faced by female students and faculty, 5â8, 30, 55, 77, 93, 103, 111â 112 Chicana students, 18â23 Child care policies establishing, 45, 82â83 reinforcing, 95 Chronicle of Higher Education, 102 Committee on Graduate Education, 66 Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP), 11, 68 Committee on the Guide to Recruiting and Advancing Women Scientists and Engineers in Academia, 1 Committee on the Status of Women in Computing Research, 42 Committee on Women in Science and Engineering (CWSE), 1, 8â9, 100 Computer science and engineering (CSE) celebration of women in, 59 majors in, 42 Computing Research Association, 42 Constructive feedback, providing, 68 COSEPUP. See Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy CSE. See Computer science and engineering D Day-to-day policies, changing, 96 Deans and provosts, action steps for, 47, 70, 85, 99, 108, 115â116 Departmental issues action steps for chairs, 47, 70, 85, 99, 108, 115 cultural alienation women faculty face, 53â54, 91â93 funding, 54 Diversity. See also Inclusiveness advisory councils for, 32 setting targets for, 32 Doctoral degrees awarded by broad field and gender, 72 in science and engineering, number of women receiving, 28 DOE. See U.S. Department of Education Duke University, 48 Duties, allowing modification of, 96 E Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies, 30 EQUALS, 33â34 Equity of salaries and resources, instituting regular studies to determine, 45 Executive leadership training, to help women advance to executive positions, 105â106 Executive positions, recruiting and advancing women to, 108 F Faculty members, action steps for, 47, 70, 85, 99, 108, 114 Faculty recruitment programs casting a broader net to identify candidates, 81â82 collecting statistics on hiring processes and outcomes to aid in assessments, 82 engaging in focused faculty recruiting, 81 having institutional executives intervene, 82 modifying or expanding, 81â82 policies to enhance, 3 providing incentive grants, 81 taking steps to diversify search committees, 81
INDEX 127 Family-friendly policies, 27, 45â46 Feedback, providing constructive, 68 Freshmen intending to major in S&E, by race/ethnicity, gender, and field, 20â24 Funding for graduate students. See also Research assistantships providing secure, 67â68 G Gender disparities, in U.S. academia, 5â8 Gender inclusiveness, 2 Graduate S&E programs, enhancing and improving, 44â45 Graduate S&E students, 39â43, 47, 70 challenges of recruiting women, 25â29, 111 challenges of retaining women, 53â54 enhancing and improving undergraduate S&E programs, 42 identifying prospective students, 42 offering financial aid, 43 organizing on-campus orientations, 42â 43 signaling the importance of women, 40â 41 strategies for recruiting women, 39 strategies for retaining women, 65 women underrepresented among, 1 Grants, providing incentive, 81 H Harassment by gender, perception and experience of, 52, 89 Henry Luce Foundation, The, 88 High school graduates, percentage taking mathematics and science in high school, by gender, 16 Hiring processes and outcomes, collecting statistics to aid in assessments, 82 Housing subsidies, offering, 45â46 I Incentive grants, providing, 81 Inclusiveness, 2 âInspiredâ individuals, 77 Institutional audits, to help women advance to executive positions, 104 Institutional executives, intervention by, 82 Institutional policies and practices creating spousal hiring programs, 83 establishing parental leave policies and child care, 82â83 extending the tenure clock, 82 improving to recruit women faculty, 82â83 instituting sexual harassment sensitivity programs, 83 Institutional resources, fewer available to women faculty, 90â91 J Job satisfaction, among women faculty, 88 Johns Hopkins University, 88 Junior faculty, limiting service among, 95â 96 L Leadership positions. See also Executive leadership training strategies for advancing women into, 113â114 Low-income parents, 95 M Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 90â91 Masterâs degrees awarded, in science and engineering, number of women receiving, 28 Medical and dental benefits, offering access to, 45â46 Mentoring programs establishing, 58â60 to help âpresidents-in-training,â 104â 105 to help women faculty, 96â98 improving, 66â67 Methodology issues, 9â11 Mexican American female students, 18â23 Millennium Leadership Initiative (MLI), 105
128 INDEX MIT. See Massachusetts Institute of Technology MLI. See Millennium Leadership Initiative Modified duties, allowing for, 96 N National Academies, 1, 9, 11, 60, 66 National Center for Education Statistics, 49 National Council of Chief Academic Officers, 104 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 46 National Research Council, 30 National Research Service Awards (NRSA), 46 National Science Foundation (NSF), 6, 27, 33â35, 87 National Survey of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF), 89n National Survey of Recent College Graduates, 35n Networking. See also Advice networks to help women advance to executive positions, 106 NIH. See National Institutes of Health NRSA. See National Research Service Awards NSF. See National Science Foundation NSOPF. See National Survey of Postsecondary Faculty O Office of Women in Higher Education (OWHE), 106 On-campus orientations, organizing, 36â38, 42â43 Orientations, organizing on-campus, 36â38, 42â43 OWHE. See Office of Women in Higher Education P Parental leave policies establishing, 45, 82â83 reinforcing, 95 Pedagogical changes needed, 60â61 Policies and practices that advance women faculty, 3 allowing modified duties, 96 changing day-to-day policies, 96 equity of salaries and resources, 45 female- and family-friendly policies, 45â46 limiting service among junior faculty, 95â96 offering housing subsidies and access to medical and dental benefits, 45â46 parental leave policies and child care, 45, 82â83, 95 periodic reviews and adjustments of salaries, 96 sexual harassment sensitivity programs, 45, 95 Postdoctoral S&E students challenges of recruiting women, 29â30, 111 enhancing and improving the graduate experience, 44â45 establishing female- and family-friendly policies and practices, 45â46 by gender, 29 identifying prospective students, 45 increasing salaries of, 46 signaling the importance of women, 44 strategies for recruiting women, 43â47 strategies for retaining women, 70 women underrepresented among, 1 Presidents, action steps for, 47, 70, 85, 99, 108, 116â117 âPresidents-in-training,â 104â105 Princeton University, 38, 103 Professional socialization, increasing, 63â 65, 67 Program for Gender Equity, 34n Promotion rates, women faculty facing lower, 87 Prospective students, identifying, 42, 45 Provosts. See Deans and provosts Puerto Rican American female students, 18â23 R Recruiting women faculty, 1, 71â85 challenges of, 72â77 strategies for, 78â84
INDEX 129 Recruiting women students, 14â47 challenges of, 14â30 strategies for, 30â47 Research assistantships, 43 Research questions, 8â9 Research time, of women faculty, inadequate protection of, 89â90 Resources, determining equity of access to, 45 Retaining women graduate students, 65â68 improving mentoring, 66â67 increasing professional socialization, 67 providing constructive feedback, 68 providing secure funding for graduate students, 67â68 signaling the importance of women, 65â 66 Retaining women postdoctoral fellows, 68â 69 Retaining women students, 3, 48â70 challenges of, 49â55 strategies for, 55â69 Retaining women undergraduate students, 55â65 establishing mentoring programs, 58â60 increasing engagement with women students, 61â63 increasing professional socialization, 63â65 making pedagogical changes, 60â61 signaling the importance of women, 56â 57 strengthening student advising, 57â58 Retention rates, women faculty facing lower, 88 Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 62 S Salaries instituting regular studies to determine equity of, 45, 110 undertaking periodic reviews and adjustments of, 96 Science, 44 Science and engineering (S&E) enterprise, 1â3 doctoral degrees awarded to women, by field, 74â75 enhancing education and outreach efforts at the K-12 level, 33â35 female graduate students, by field, 26 national âtalentâ in finding talent for, 40 number of women receiving degrees in, 28 preparation for, 51â52 showing interest in high school, 48 Search process for applicants, broadening, 35â36 changing to help women advance to executive positions, 107 diversifying committees for, 81 Service, limiting among junior faculty, 95â 96 Sexual harassment instituting sensitivity programs for, 45, 83 reinforcing sensitivity programs for, 95 Smith College, 38 Social events, 36â38, 42â43, 59 Society of Women Engineers (SWE), 36, 63 Spousal hiring programs, creating, 83 Statistics needed for assessments, collecting, 82 Strategies for advancing women faculty, 94â98 creating and reinforcing policies and practices, 95â96 engaging women faculty more fully in the institution, 98 signaling the importance of women, 94â 95 strengthening mentoring, 96â98 Strategies for advancing women to executive positions, 103â107 changing the search process, 107 conducting an institutional audit, 104 developing executive leadership training, 105â106 engaging in networking, 106 mentoring âpresidents-in-training,â 104â105 Strategies for recruiting women faculty, 78â84 improving institutional policies and practices, 82â83 improving the positions of candidates, 83â84
130 INDEX modifying or expanding faculty recruitment programs, 81â82 signaling the importance of women faculty, 78â80 Strategies for recruiting women students, 30â47 graduate student recruitment, 39â43 policies to enhance, 2â3 postdoctoral recruiting, 43â46 undergraduate student recruitment, 30â 39 Students. See also Graduate S&E students; Postdoctoral S&E students; Undergraduate S&E students; Women students strengthening advising of, 57â58 Summer Institute for Women in Higher Education Administration, 105 T Team-oriented courses, 60n Tenure-track faculty issues, 72 extending the tenure clock for women, 82 males and females tenured at top 50 U.S. educational institutions, 76 women faculty facing lower tenure rates, 87 Tilghman, Shirley, 38, 103 Time to promotion, women faculty facing longer, 87 Training. See Executive leadership training U Undergraduate S&E programs, enhancing and improving, 42 Undergraduate S&E students broadening the search for applicants, 35â36 celebrating research work of, 64 challenges of recruiting women, 15â25, 111 challenges of retaining women, 49â53 developing bridging programs, 39 enhancing S&E education and outreach efforts at the K-12 level, 33â35 freshmen intending to major in S&E, 20â24 organizing on-campus orientations, 36â 38 residence halls for women in, 62 revising the admissions process, 36 signaling the importance of women, 32â 33 strategies for recruiting women, 30â39, 47 strategies for retaining women, 55, 70 University of Pennsylvania, 82 University of Southern California, 64 University of Southern Colorado, 37 U.S. Department of Education (DOE), 15, 25, 49 U.S. News and World Report, 13 W White female students, 18â23 Why So Slow, 77 WIE. See Women in Engineering WISE. See Women in Science and Engineering Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering, 6 Women advancing in four institutions, 11â13, 109â110 signaling the importance of, 32â33, 40â 41, 44, 56â57, 65â66, 94â95 Women advancing to executive positions, 100â108 challenges faced by, 101â103 strategies for, 103â107 Women faculty, challenges faced by, 86â99, 112 alienating departmental cultures, 91â93 fewer institutional resources, 90â91 isolation, 92â93 longer time to promotion, 87 lower benefits, 102 lower job satisfaction, 88 lower retention rates, 88 lower tenure and promotion rates, 87 marginalization, 92 research time inadequately protected, 89â90 work-family conflicts, 91
INDEX 131 Women faculty, strategies for advancing, 1, 86â99. See also Policies and practices that advance women faculty engaging more fully in the institution, 54, 98 recruitment strategies, 85, 113 retention and advancement strategies, 94â99, 113 signaling the importance of women, 78â 80 Women in Engineering (WIE), 63 Women in Science and Engineering (WISE), 63 Women Presidents Network, 104, 106 Women Professionals from Industry, 36 Women students, 3, 14â30, 49â55 challenges faced by, 111 increasing engagement with, 61â63 race and ethnicity of, 18â23 recruiting graduate students, 25â29 recruiting postdocs, 29â30 recruiting undergraduates, 15â25 retaining graduate students, 53â54 retaining undergraduates, 49â53 strategies to advance, 112â113 Work-family conflicts, women faculty facing, 91