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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×

Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH

Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Committee to Review the NIOSH Mining Safety and Health Research Program

Committee on Earth Resources

Board on Earth Sciences and Resources

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was requested by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and supported by Contract Nos. 200-2000-00629 (Task Order #0033) and 200-2005-10881 (Task Order #0004). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations contained in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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Suggested citation: National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH. Committee to Review the NIOSH Mining Safety and Health Research Program. Rpt. No. 2, Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine


The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.


The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.


The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.


The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.


www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×

COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE NIOSH MINING SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH PROGRAM

RAJA V. RAMANI, Chair,

The Pennsylvania State University, University Park

DAVID BEERBOWER,

Peabody Energy Corporation, St. Louis, Missouri

JEFFEREY L. BURGESS,

University of Arizona, Tucson

JAMES W. DEARING,

Kaiser Permanente, Denver, Colorado

FRANCIS S. KENDORSKI,

Agapito Associates, Inc., Lombard, Illinois

MICHAEL K. MCCARTER,

University of Utah, Salt Lake City

DAVID ORTLIEB,

United Steel, Paper and Forestry, Rubber, Manufacturing, Energy, Allied Industrial and Service Workers International Union, Nashville, Tennessee

SUSAN B. PATTON,

Montana Tech of the University of Montana (retired), Butte

ROBERT G. PELUSO, Independent Consultant,

Moon Township, Pennsylvania

PRAMOD THAKUR,

CONSOL Energy, Inc., Morgantown, West Virginia

JEFFREY S. VIPPERMAN,

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

JAMES L. WEEKS,

Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc., Germantown, Maryland

National Research Council Staff

SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Study Director

PEGGY TSAI, Research Associate

JARED P. ENO, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×

Independent Report Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Elizabeth Chamberlin, CONSOL Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Susan E. Cozzens, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

William Ford, National Stone, Sand, and Gravel Association, Alexandria, Virginia

Joseph Main, United Mine Workers of America, Spotsylvania, Virginia

Richard McKinley, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

John N. Murphy, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Thomas Novak, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia

Lynn Elinson, WESTAT, Inc., Rockville, Maryland

Gavriel Salvendy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×

Lee W. Saperstein, University of Missouri, Rolla

Paul D. Stolley, University of Maryland, Baltimore

Stanley C. Suboleski, Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission (retired), Midlothian, Virginia

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Jonathan G. Price, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Reno, and M. Donald Whorton, WorkCare, Inc., Alameda, California. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×

Preface

The single most valuable asset in any organization, including organizations within the mining industry, is its human resources. The ingenuity of employees leads to effective and efficient utilization of all other resources and to achievement of the economic and social goals of the organization. Protection of employees from hazards in the occupational environment is important both from the humanitarian point of view and for the overall welfare of the organization. It is fundamental for sound management, for the health and safety of the miners, and for the survival of the company in a competitive world. An often-quoted saying states: “The safest mine is the most profitable mine.”

The enhancement of mining workplace health and safety requires the recognition that mining remains hazardous and that vigilance in addressing the hazards can never be relaxed. Miner health and safety are major concerns for mine management, labor organizations, and government. This concern has manifested itself in four control mechanisms: (1) regulatory control through the passage of laws and regulations; (2) legal and social control through compensation laws for occupation-related injuries and health deterioration; (3) medical control through periodic examinations; and (4) engineering control through the design and operation of mines according to the best recommended practices. An important aspect of all these approaches is the search for new tools and techniques that will further enhance hazard control. Ultimately, to create safe mining environments, improved tools and techniques must be successfully integrated and applied in the industry.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×

The evaluation of research contributions by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Mining Research Program is the focus of this report. The National Academies was asked to evaluate the research activities of the NIOSH Mining Program in terms of relevance, the impact of the program on the health and safety of workers, and the significance of research to emerging issues in mining. In response to this request, the Committee to Review the NIOSH Mining Safety and Health Research Program was formed, composed of experts from industry, academia, and labor organizations. The committee comprises recognized experts in surface and underground mining, coal mining, metal and nonmetal mining, mining health and safety, mining research, industrial hygiene, technology transfer, rock mechanics, and acoustical engineering. The committee reviewed extensive documentation provided by NIOSH on Mining Program research; held both open- and closed-session meetings; visited multiple NIOSH research facilities; heard from representatives of industry, government, labor, manufacturers, and consultants; and requested and reviewed written input from stakeholders.

This report finds that good progress has been made in the improvement of mine worker health and safety, with continuous decreases in the incidence and severity of diseases, disasters, and fatal and non-fatal accidents. The NIOSH Mining Program has identified and conducts research in seven areas of greatest need: respiratory disease prevention; noise-induced hearing loss prevention; cumulative musculoskeletal injury prevention; traumatic injury prevention; mine disaster prevention and control; ground failure prevention; and surveillance, training, and intervention effectiveness.

Despite a sharp decrease in available funds between 1998 and 2005, the NIOSH Mining Program has made major contributions to the engineering control of hazards in the workplace and the development and transfer of new knowledge to the mining industry. Yet miners continue to experience diseases, disasters, fatalities, and injuries. As recent coal mine disasters have shown, safety concerns of mine operations require constant monitoring and control.

Mine safety and health research by the federal government should continue to be an important component of efforts to make mines safer in the future. The development of an appropriate balance between addressing currently known problems and preparing for emerging problems is essential for a research agency. The more challenging mining environments expected in the future (e.g., deeper deposits, multiple seams, mining seams beneath previously mined-out seams) will require enhanced health and safety research. The changing workforce demographics and the changing nature of the work itself require adequate resources for the technology transfer and training program development necessary to create a more knowledgeable workforce in which evidence-based innovations are implemented

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×

and sustained. Given the impending critical shortage of trained manpower at all levels in the mining industry, there is an immediate need to find and train replacement personnel.


Raja V. Ramani

Commitee Chair

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×
   

 Health Research Needs,

 

49

   

 Safety Research Needs,

 

52

   

 Comparison of the NIOSH Mining Program to the Ideal,

 

56

4

 

EVALUATION OF RELEVANCE AND IMPACT OF THE NIOSH MINING PROGRAM

 

58

   

 Evaluation of Relevance,

 

60

   

 Evaluation of Impact,

 

62

5

 

PROGRESS IN TARGETING NEW RESEARCH AREAS

 

68

   

 Strategic Goals,

 

70

   

 Project Selection,

 

70

   

 Technology Transfer,

 

71

   

 Findings,

 

71

6

 

EMERGING ISSUES IN MINING SAFETY AND HEALTH

 

73

   

 Emerging Areas in Respiratory Disease Prevention,

 

74

   

 Emerging Areas in Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Prevention,

 

74

   

 Emerging Areas in Cumulative Musculoskeletal Injury Prevention,

 

75

   

 Emerging Areas in Traumatic Injury Prevention,

 

75

   

 Emerging Areas in Mine Disaster Prevention and Control,

 

76

   

 Emerging Areas in Ground Failure Prevention Research,

 

76

   

 Emerging Areas in Surveillance, Training, and Intervention Effectiveness Research,

 

77

7

 

SYNTHESIS OF RECOMMENDATIONS

 

79

   

 Program Planning and Strategic Goals,

 

79

   

 Effective Interactions,

 

80

   

 Outputs,

 

81

   

 Surveillance and Monitoring,

 

82

   

 Training Programs and Technology Transfer,

 

82

   

 Emerging Issues for the Mining Workplace,

 

83

PART II —EVALUATION OF STRATEGIC RESEARCH AREAS

 

 

8

 

REVIEW OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE PREVENTION RESEARCH

 

89

   

 Research in Mining Respiratory Disease Reduction,

 

89

   

 Strategic Goals and Objectives,

 

90

   

 Review of Inputs,

 

91

   

 Review of Activities,

 

94

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×
   

 Review of Research Outputs,

 

102

   

 Review of Transfer Activities,

 

102

   

 Review of Intermediate Outcomes and Causal Impact,

 

103

   

 Review of End Outcomes,

 

104

   

 Assessment of Relevance and Impact,

 

105

   

 Progress in Targeting New Research,

 

105

9

 

REVIEW OF NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS PREVENTION RESEARCH

 

108

   

 Strategic Goals and Objectives,

 

109

   

 Review of Inputs,

 

111

   

 Review of Activities,

 

112

   

 Review of Research Outputs,

 

112

   

 Review of Transfer Activities,

 

113

   

 Review of Intermediate Outcomes and Causal Impact,

 

116

   

 Review of End Outcomes,

 

117

   

 Assessment of Relevance and Impact,

 

118

   

 Progress in Targeting New Research,

 

118

10

 

REVIEW OF RESEARCH ON THE REDUCTION OF CUMULATIVE MUSCULOSKELETAL INJURIES

 

120

   

 Strategic Goals and Objectives,

 

121

   

 Review of Inputs,

 

122

   

 Review of Activities,

 

124

   

 Review of Research Outputs,

 

125

   

 Review of Transfer Activities,

 

125

   

 Review of Intermediate Outcomes and Causal Impact,

 

128

   

 Review of End Outcomes,

 

129

   

 Assessment of Relevance and Impact,

 

129

   

 Progress in Targeting New Research,

 

130

11

 

REVIEW OF TRAUMATIC INJURY PREVENTION RESEARCH

 

131

   

 Strategic Goals and Objectives,

 

131

   

 Review of Inputs,

 

132

   

 Review of Activities,

 

134

   

 Review of Research Outputs,

 

134

   

 Review of Transfer Activities,

 

135

   

 Review of Intermediate Outcomes and Causal Impact,

 

135

   

 Review of End Outcomes,

 

139

   

 Assessment of Relevance and Impact,

 

140

   

 Progress in Targeting New Research,

 

140

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×
Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×

Tables, Figures, and Boxes

TABLES

1-1

 

Distribution of Mining Workforce by Commodity and Number of Contractors Employed in 2005,

 

19

1-2

 

Number of Mines by Commodity and Employment, 1996 and 2005,

 

20

2-1

 

Causes of Mining Fatalities (2000-2004),

 

28

2-2

 

Distribution of NIOSH Mining Program Funding and FTEs Among the Strategic Goals,

 

31

2-3

 

Changes in Funding and FTEs in 2005 in Relation to 1998 Levels,

 

32

3-1

 

Elements of the Ideal Mining Safety and Health Research Program,

 

50

3-2

 

Committee Assessment of the Level of Importance of Mining Health Research Issues by Commodity Group, Location, and Type of Activity,

 

53

3-3

 

Committee Assessment of the Level of Importance of Injury Prevention Research Issues by Commodity Group, Location, and Type of Activity,

 

54

3-4

 

Committee Assessment of the Level of Importance of Disaster Control Research Issues by Commodity Group, Location, and Type of Activity,

 

55

3-5

 

Committee Assessment of the Level of Importance of Ground Failure Prevention Research Issues by Commodity Group, Location, and Type of Activity,

 

56

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×

8-1

 

Intermediate Goals and Performance Measures of the Respiratory Disease Prevention Program and Committee Comments,

 

92

8-2

 

Respiratory Disease Prevention Projects and Committee Assessment of Relevance and Impact,

 

95

9-1

 

Intermediate Goals and Performance Measures of NIHL Prevention Research and Committee Comments,

 

110

9-2

 

Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Prevention Projects and Committee Assessment of Relevance and Impact,

 

114

10-1

 

Illness and Non-Fatal Days Lost Data for Mine Operators from 1993 to 2002,

 

121

10-2

 

Intermediate Goals and Performance Measures of the Reduction of Repetitive and Cumulative Musculoskeletal Injuries and Committee Comments,

 

122

10-3

 

Comparison of Total Reported Illness and NFDL Injury Data for 1996 and 2005,

 

123

10-4

 

Cumulative Musculoskeletal Disorder Prevention Projects and Committee Assessment of Relevance and Impact,

 

126

11-1

 

Intermediate Goals and Performance Measures of Traumatic Injury Prevention Research and Committee Comments,

 

133

11-2

 

Traumatic Injury Prevention Projects and Committee Assessment of Relevance and Impact,

 

136

11-3

 

Research Outputs Related to the Traumatic Injury Prevention Research Compared to the NIOSH Mining Program (1996-2005),

 

138

12-1

 

Intermediate Goals and Performance Measures of Mine Disaster Prevention and Control Research and Committee Comments,

 

144

12-2

 

Mine Disaster Prevention Projects and Committee Assessment of Relevance and Impact,

 

150

13-1

 

Intermediate Goals and Performance Measures of Ground Failure Prevention Research and Committee Comments,

 

158

13-2

 

Coal and Metal or Nonmetal Mining Fatalities Related to Ground Failure,

 

160

13-3

 

Ground Failure Prevention Projects and Committee Assessment of Relevance and Impact,

 

162

13-4

 

Summary of Ground Failure Prevention Outputs (1998-2005),

 

165

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×

13-5

 

Outputs and Intermediate Outcomes Related to Ground Failure Prevention Research Outcomes,

 

166

14-1

 

Intermediate Goals and Performance Measures of Surveillance, Training, and Intervention Effectiveness Research and Committee Comments,

 

174

14-2

 

Surveillance, Training, and Intervention Effectiveness Research Projects and Committee Assessment of Relevance and Impact,

 

178

FIGURES

1-1

 

Flow chart for evaluation of NIOSH research programs,

 

17

1-2

 

Chart showing distribution of U.S. mining establishments by worker population, and distribution of mining workforce by size of mining establishment as of March 2004,

 

19

1-3

 

Mining deaths in the United States, 1910-2004,

 

21

1-4

 

Numbers of deaths, crude mortality rates, and age-adjusted mortality rates for U.S. residents aged 15 or older, with coal worker’s pneumoconiosis recorded as an underlying or contributing cause on the death certificate, 1968-1999,

 

22

2-1

 

Number of hours worked by operators and contract workers in the mining industry from 1984 to 2004,

 

45

8-1

 

Trends in prevalence of CWP (≥ Category 1/0) over time (1987-2001), 105 C-1 Components of a work system,

 

245

BOXES

S-1

 

Five-Point Scales Used for the Rating of Relevance and Impact,

 

4

S-2

 

Overarching Recommendations,

 

13

4-1

 

Five-Point Scales Used for the Rating of Relevance and Impact as Defined by the Framework Committee,

 

59

Page xxii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×

Abbreviations and Acronyms

AHSEM Analysis of Horizontal Stress Effects in Mines (software)

AIHA American Industrial Hygiene Association

ALPS Analysis of Longwall Computer Stability (software)

ANFO Ammonium nitrate fuel oil (blasting agent)

ANSI American National Standards Institute

ARMPS Analysis of Retreat Mining Pillar Stability (software)

ARTBA American Road and Transportation Builders Association

ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers

ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials

BCOA Bituminous Coal Operators of America

BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics

CAP Crewstation Analysis Programs

CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CFR Code of Federal Regulations

CMR Construction, maintenance, and repair

CMRR Coal mine roof rating

CO Carbon monoxide

COLD Chronic obstructive lung disease

CWP Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis

Page xxiv Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×

dBA Decibels (the sound level in decibels after applying the A-weighting filter)

DHHS Department of Health and Human Services

DO Designated operation

DPM Diesel particulate matter

DRDS Division of Respiratory Disease Studies (NIOSH)

DSHEFS Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies (NIOSH)

EC Elemental carbon

EFSI Electrical Safety Foundation International

FACE Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (NIOSH)

FTE Full-time equivalent

HASARD Hazardous Areas Signaling and Ranging Device

HHE Health Hazard Evaluation

HLP Hearing loss prevention

HLPU Hearing Loss Prevention Unit

HPD Hearing protection device

ICP Inductively coupled plasma

ISMSP International Society of Mine Safety Professionals

ISO International Organization for Standardization

LHD Load-haul-dump

LLL Lake Lynn Laboratory (NIOSH Mining Program)

MESA Mine Enforcement and Safety Administration

MHRAC Mine Health Research Advisory Committee

MIS Mining-induced seismicity

MRS Mobile Roof Support

MSD Musculoskeletal disorder

MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration

MSHRAC Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory Committee

MTS Missile Test Site

MVSSA Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa

NDL No days lost

NFDL Non-fatal days lost

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×

NFPA National Fire Protection Association

NIHL Noise-induced hearing loss

NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

NMA National Mining Association

NO2 Nitrogen dioxide gas

NORA National Occupational Research Agenda

NORA-2 National Occupational Research Agenda (second decade)

NPPTL National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory

NRR Noise reduction rating

NSPE National Society of Professional Engineers

NVLAP National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration

OSH Act Occupational Safety and Health Act

PART Performance Assessment Rating Tool

PBS Personal bolter screen

PDM Personal dust monitor

PEL Permissible exposure limit

PIB Public Information Bulletin (MSHA)

PMF Progressive massive fibrosis

PPE Personal protective equipment

PRL Pittsburgh Research Laboratory

psf Pounds per square foot

r2p Research to practice

REL Recommended Exposure Limit

SAE Society of Automotive Engineers

SCSR Self-contained self rescuer

SME Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration

SRL Spokane Research Laboratory

STE Statement of Test and Evaluations (MSHA)

STOP Support Technology Optimization Program (software)

SX-EW Solvent extraction-electrowinning

TC Total carbon

TRAM Training Resources Applied to Mining Conference

TTG Technology Transfer Group (USBM)

Page xxvi Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
×

UMWA United Mine Workers of America

USBM U.S. Bureau of Mines

USPHS U.S. Public Health Service

WMA Wyoming Mining Association

WMSD Work-related musculoskeletal disorder

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Page xxii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Page xxiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Page xxiv Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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Page xxvi Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11850.
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