Acronyms and Glossary
ORGANIZATIONS, PROGRAMS, STUDIES
AAP American Academy of Pediatrics
ABA American Beverage Association
AHA American Heart Association
AMA American Medical Association
ASFSA American School Food Service Association
CACFP Child and Adult Care Food Program
CDC Center for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
CFR Code of Federal Regulations
CFSAN Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration
CNP Child Nutrition Programs, U.S. Department of Agriculture
CSFII Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals
CSHP Coordinated School Health Program
CSPI Center for Science in the Public Interest
DASH Division of Adolescent and School Health, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
DGA (or DG) Dietary Guidelines for Americans
DHHS Department of Health and Human Services
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
FDA Food and Drug Administration
FNB Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine
FNS Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture
GAO Government Accountability Office
HPTS Health Policy Tracking Service
IDFA International Dairy Foods Association
IOM Institute of Medicine, The National Academies
LEAF Linking Education, Activity, and Food Evaluation Report
NANA National Alliance for Nutrition and Activity
NAS National Academy of Sciences, The National Academies
NASBE National Association of State Boards of Education
NASPE National Association for Sport and Physical Education
NCI National Cancer Institute
NCLB No Child Left Behind
NDL Nutrient Data Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture
NDS-R Nutrient Data System for Research
NFCS Nationwide Food Consumption Survey
NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NIH National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
NSBA National School Boards Association
NSDA National Soft Drink Association
NSLP National School Lunch Program
PCRM Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine
RWJ Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
SBP School Breakfast Program
SFA School Food Authority
SHHPS School Health Policies and Programs
SNA School Nutrition Association
SNDA-1 School Nutrition Dietary Assessment
SNE Society for Nutrition Education
SR-17 Standard Reference 17, Nutrient Data Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture
SR-18 Standard Reference 18, Nutrient Data Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
WHO World Health Organization
WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children
AI Adequate intake
BMI Body mass index
c Cup or cups
CVD Cardiovascular disease
d Day or days
DRI Dietary Reference Intakes
EAR Estimated Average Requirement
EER Estimated Energy Requirement
fl oz Fluid ounce or fluid ounces
FMNV Foods of Minimal Nutritional Value
FY Fiscal year
g Gram or grams
hr Hour or hours
kcal Kilocalorie or kilocalories
kg Kilogram or kilograms
L Liter or liters
lb Pound or pounds
LD Licensed Dietitian
LDL Low-density lipoprotein or lipoproteins
mg Milligram or milligrams
mL Milliliter or milliliters
mo Month or months
n Sample size
N/A Not applicable
ND Not determined
oz Ounce or ounces
oz equiv Ounce-equivalent
PA Physical activity
PAL Physical activity level
qt Quart or quarts
RD Registered Dietitian
RDA Recommended Dietary Allowances
SFA School Food Authority
T2D Type 2 Diabetes
tsp Teaspoon or teaspoons
Alkaloid compounds—Naturally occurring nitrogenous compound, usually of plant origin. Insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents and can precipitate proteins.
Aspartame—A low calorie nonnutritive sweetener made of aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It should not be consumed by individuals with phenylketonuria, and is unsuitable for cooking because its flavor is changed when heated.
Atherosclerosis—A form of arteriosclerosis in which atheromas (a mass or plaque of degenerated thickened arterial intima) containing cholesterol, lipid material, and lipophages are formed within the intima and inner media of large and medium-sized arteries.
Beta-carotene—A yellow-orange pigment found in fruits and vegetables; it is the most common precursor of vitamin A. The daily human requirement for vitamin A can be met by dietary intake of beta carotene.
Body mass index—BMI is an indirect measure of body fat calculated as the ratio of a person’s body weight in kilograms to the square of a person’s height in meters.
Caffeine—A plant-derived alkaloid compound (methylxanthine) that has central nervous system stimulating activity. The primary food and beverage sources are coffee, tea, kola nuts, and chocolate.
California LEAF Study—A pilot study on the effects of competitive food and beverage restriction implementation in California school districts conducted by the Center for Weight and Health at the University of California at Berkeley.
Calorie—A kilocalorie is defined as the amount of heat required to change the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5 degrees Celsius to 15.5 degrees Celsius. In this report, calorie is used synonymously with kilocalorie as a unit of measure for energy obtained from food and beverages.
Child Nutrition Programs (CNP)—U.S. Department of Agriculture. Includes the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), School Breakfast Program (SBP), Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) School Food Service Program (SFSP), and Special Milk Program (SMP).
Cholesterol—A monatomic alcohol found in animal fats and oils, bile, blood, brain tissue, milk, egg yolk, myelin sheaths of nerve fibers, liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands.
Competitive Foods—Foods and beverages offered at schools other than meals and snacks served through the federally reimbursed school lunch, breakfast, and after-school snack programs. Competitive food and beverage items may be sold or offered through à la carte lines, snack
bars, student stores, vending machines, or school activities such as special fund-raisers, achievement rewards, classroom parties, school celebrations, classroom snacks, and school meetings, but do not include brown bag lunches.
Cyclamate—A salt of cyclamic acid that is used as a nonnutritive sweetener. It is about 30 times as sweet as sugar.
Dental caries—A destructive process causing decalcification of the tooth enamel and leading to continued destruction of enamel and dentin, and cavitation of the tooth.
Dietary Guidelines for Americans—A federal summary of the latest dietary guidance for the public, based on current scientific evidence and medical knowledge, issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture, and revised every 5 years.
Dietary Reference Intakes—A set of four, distinct nutrient-based reference values that replace the former Recommended Dietary Allowances in the United States. They include Estimated Average Requirements, Recommended Dietary Allowances, Adequate Intakes, and Tolerable Upper Level Intakes.
Diuresis—The secretion and passage of large amounts of urine. Diuresis occurs as a complication of metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and hypercalcemia, among others.
Epinephrine—A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla, and released predominant in response to hypoglycemia. It is a potent stimulator of the sympathetic nervous system, being a powerful vasopressor, increasing blood pressure, and stimulating the heart muscle.
Federally Reimbursable School Nutrition Programs—The National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs, as well as summer and after-school programs.
Foods of minimal nutritional value—Foods prohibited by federal regulation for sale in school food service areas during meal periods.
Healthy weight—In children and youth, a level of body fat where comorbidities are not observed. In adults, a BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m2.
Hydrogenated oils—Oils in which molecular hydrogen has been added to double bonds in the unsaturated fatty acids of the glycerides. Oils are changed to solid fats.
Hypercholesterolemia—An excess of cholesterol in the blood.
Hypertension—Persistently high arterial blood pressure.
Methylxanthine—A group of naturally occurring agents present in caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. They act on the central nervous system, stimulate the myocardium, relax smooth muscle, and promote diuresis.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG)—Chemical used to enhance flavor in foods, can cause headaches, a burning sensation, facial pressure, and chest pain when consumed in large quantities.
Nonnutritive sweetener—Nonnutritive sweeteners include aspartame, sucralose, acesulfame-K, neotame, sugar alcohols, and saccharin. These sweeteners provide a sweet taste without providing additional calories (or an insignificant amount of calories, as is the case for aspartame and sugar alcohols).
Norepinephrine—Secreted by neurons, acts as a transmitter substance of the peripheral sympathetic nerve endings and probably of certain synapses in the central nervous system.
Obesity—In this report, obesity in children and adolescents refers to the age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) that is equal to or greater than the 95th percentile of the BMI charts of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). “At risk for obesity” in children and adolescents is defined as a BMI for age and sex that is between the 85th and 95th percentiles of the CDC BMI curves. In most children, a BMI level at or above the 95th percentile indicates elevated body fat and reflects the presence or risk of related chronic disease.
Osteoporosis—Bone disorder characterized by abnormal porosity as a result of diminution in the absolute amount of bone.
Phenylalanine—An essential amino acid; it is one of the two linked amino acids in the sugar substitute Aspartame. The genetically determined inability to dispose of excess phenylalanine is known as phenylketonuria or PKU.
Phenylketonuria (PKU)—A congenital, autosomal recessive disease marked by failure to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine. It results in severe neurological deficits in infancy if it is unrecognized or left untreated.
Phytochemical—Any of the hundreds of natural chemicals present in plants. Many have nutritional value; others are protective (e.g., antioxidants) or cause cell damage (e.g., free radicals).
Saccharin—a sweet, white, powdered, synthetic product derived from coal tar, 300 to 500 times sweeter than sugar, used as a nonnutritive sweetener.
Sodium benzoate—A white, odorless, granular or crystalline powder, used as an antifungal agent.
Sodium bicarbonate—Used as a gastric and systemic antacid.
Sodium phosphate—A chemical that is used as a cathartic.
Stroke—A condition with sudden onset due to acute vascular lesions of the brain.
Theobromine—A white powder obtained from Theobroma cacao, the plant from which chocolate is obtained. It dilates blood vessels in the heart and peripherally. It is used as a mild stimulant and as a diuretic.
Theophylline—An alkaloid caffeine-related substance found in tea or produced synthetically, used as a smooth muscle relaxant, myocardial stimulant, and diuretic.